Stephen Gary Wozniak (/ˈwɒzniæk/; born on August 11,
1950),:18 often referred to by the nickname Woz, is an
American inventor, electronics engineer, programmer, philanthropist,
and technology entrepreneur who co-founded Apple Computer, Inc.. He is
known as a pioneer of the personal computer revolution of the 1970s
and 1980s, along with Apple co-founder Steve Jobs.
Wozniak single-handedly built and developed the 1976 Apple I,
which was the computer that launched Apple. He primarily designed the
1977 Apple II, known as one of the first highly successful
mass-produced microcomputers, while Jobs oversaw the development
of its foam-molded plastic case and
Rod Holt developed the switching
power supply. After stepping away from Apple in 1985, Wozniak
CL 9 and created the first universal remote. He then became
involved in several other business and philanthropic ventures,
focusing primarily on tech in K–12 schools. Wozniak is currently
Chief Scientist at the data virtualization company, Primary Data, and
remains an employee of Apple in a ceremonial capacity.
1 Early life
2.1 Origins of Apple
2.2 Apple formation and success
2.3 Airplane crash
2.4 US Festivals
2.5 Departure from Apple
2.6 Post Apple career
5 Honors and awards
5.1 Honorary degrees
6.2 Feature films
7 Artificial superintelligence views
8 Personal life
9 See also
11 External links
Steve Wozniak was born in San Jose, California, the son of Francis
Jacob "Jerry" Wozniak (1925–1994) from Michigan:18 and Margaret
Louise Wozniak (née Kern) (1923–2014) from Washington
State.:18 He graduated from Homestead High School in 1968.
The name on Wozniak's birth certificate is "Stephan Gary Wozniak", but
Steve's mother said that she intended it to be spelled "Stephen",
which is what he uses.:18 Wozniak has mentioned his surname being
Polish and Ukrainian and spoken of his Polish descent, but
stated that he does not know the origin of some other people with the
Wozniak surname because he is "no heritage expert".
In the early 1970s, Wozniak was known as "Berkeley Blue" in the phone
phreak community, after he made a blue box.
Wozniak has credited watching
Star Trek and attending Star Trek
conventions while in his youth as a source of inspiration for him
starting Apple Inc.
Origins of Apple
In 1969, Wozniak returned to the Bay Area after being expelled from
University of Colorado Boulder
University of Colorado Boulder in his first year for sending prank
messages on the university's computer system. During this
time, as a self-taught project, Wozniak designed and built a "Cream
Soda" computer with his friend Bill Fernandez. He later
De Anza College
De Anza College and transferred to University of
California, Berkeley in 1971. Before focusing his attention on Apple,
he was employed at
Hewlett-Packard (HP) where he designed
calculators. It was during this time that he befriended Steve
Wozniak was introduced to Jobs by Fernandez, who attended Homestead
High School with Jobs in 1971. Jobs and Wozniak became friends when
Jobs worked for the summer at HP, where Wozniak too was employed,
working on a mainframe computer. This was recounted by Wozniak in
a 2007 interview with ABC News, of how and when he first met Jobs:
"We first met in 1971 during my college years, while he was in high
school. A friend said, 'you should meet Steve Jobs, because he likes
electronics and he also plays pranks.' So he introduced us."
In 1973, Jobs was working for arcade game company
Atari, Inc. in Los
Gatos, California. He was assigned to create a circuit board for
the arcade video game Breakout. According to
Atari co-founder Nolan
Atari offered $100 (equivalent to $551 in 2017) for each
chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little knowledge of
circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee
evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips.
Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, by using RAM for the brick
representation. Too complex to be fully comprehended at the time, the
fact that this prototype also had no scoring or coin mechanisms meant
Woz's prototype could not be used. Jobs was paid the full bonus
regardless. Jobs told Wozniak that
Atari gave them only $700 and that
Wozniak's share was thus $350 (equivalent to $1,929 in 2017).
Wozniak did not learn about the actual $5,000 bonus (equivalent to
$27,564 in 2017) until ten years later, but said that if Jobs had told
him about it and had said he needed the money, Wozniak would have
given it to him.
On June 29, 1975 Wozniak tested his first working prototype,
displaying a few letters and running sample programs. It was the first
time in history that a character displayed on a TV screen was
generated by a home computer. With the
Apple I design, he and Jobs
were largely working to impress other members of the Palo Alto-based
Homebrew Computer Club, a local group of electronics hobbyists
interested in computing. The Club was one of several key centers which
established the home hobbyist era, essentially creating the
microcomputer industry over the next few decades. Unlike other
Homebrew designs, the Apple had an easy-to-achieve video capability
that drew a crowd when it was unveiled.
Apple formation and success
See also: History of Apple § 1975–1985: Jobs and Wozniak
Apple 1 Computer in a briefcase. From the Sydney
Powerhouse Museum collection
In 1976, Wozniak developed the computer that eventually made him
famous. He alone designed the hardware, circuit board designs, and
operating system for the Apple I. Wozniak originally offered the
design to HP while working there, but was denied by the company on
five different occasions. Jobs instead had the idea to sell the
Apple I with Wozniak as a fully assembled printed circuit board.
Wozniak, at first skeptical, was later convinced by Jobs that even if
they were not successful they could at least say to their grandkids
they had had their own company. Together they sold some of their
possessions (such as Wozniak's HP scientific calculator and Jobs'
Volkswagen van), raised $1,300, and assembled the first boards in
Jobs' bedroom and later (when there was no space left) in Jobs'
garage. Wozniak's apartment in San Jose was filled with monitors,
electronic devices, and some computer games Wozniak had developed. The
Apple I sold for $666.66. (Wozniak later said he had no idea about the
relation between the number and the mark of the beast, and "I came up
with [it] because I like repeating digits.") Jobs and Wozniak sold
their first 50 system boards to Paul Terrell, who was starting a new
computer shop, called the
Byte Shop, in Mountain View, California.
On April 1, 1976, Jobs and Wozniak formed
Apple Computer (now called
Apple Inc.) along with administrative supervisor Ronald Wayne, whose
participation in the new venture was short lived. Wozniak resigned
from his job at
Hewlett-Packard and became the vice president in
charge of research and development at Apple. He and Jobs decided on
the name "Apple" shortly after Jobs returned from an apple orchard in
Apple I was similar to the Altair 8800, the
first commercially available microcomputer, except the
Apple I had no
provision for internal expansion cards. With expansion cards the
Altair could attach to a computer terminal and be programmed in BASIC.
In contrast, the
Apple I was a hobbyist machine. Wozniak's design
included a $25 microprocessor (MOS 6502) on a single circuit board
with 256 bytes of ROM, 4K or 8K bytes of RAM, and a 40-character by
24-row display controller. Apple's first computer lacked a case, power
supply, keyboard, and display, all components the user had to provide.
Apple II computer with an external modem
After the success of the Apple I, Wozniak designed the Apple II, the
first personal computer that had the ability to display color
BASIC programming language built-in. Inspired by "the
Atari used to simulate colors on its first arcade games",
Wozniak found a way of putting colors into the
NTSC system by using a
$1 chip, while colors in the
PAL system were achieved by
"accident" when a dot occurred on a line, and to this day he has no
idea how it works. During the design stage,
Steve Jobs argued that
Apple II should have two expansion slots, while Wozniak wanted
eight. After a heated argument, during which Wozniak had
threatened for Jobs to 'go get himself another computer', they decided
to go with eight slots. The
Apple II became one of the first highly
successful mass-produced personal computers in the world.
In 1980, Apple went public to instant and significant financial
profitability, making Jobs and Wozniak both millionaires. The Apple
II's eventual successor, the Apple III, released the same year, was
not nearly as successful as the Apple II. According to Wozniak, the
Apple III "had 100 percent hardware failures", and that the primary
reason for these failures was that the system was designed by Apple's
marketing department, unlike Apple's previous engineering-driven
During the early design and development phase of the
Wozniak had heavy influence over the project until 1981. In a 2013
interview, Wozniak said that "Steve [Jobs] really took over the
project when I had a plane crash and wasn't there."
On February 7, 1981, the
Beechcraft Bonanza A36TC Wozniak was piloting
crashed soon after takeoff from the Sky Park Airport in Scotts Valley,
California. The plane stalled while climbing, then bounced down
the runway, went through two fences, and crashed into an embankment.
Wozniak and his three passengers—then-fiancée Candice Clark, his
brother, and his girlfriend—were injured. Wozniak sustained severe
face and head injuries, including losing a tooth, and also suffered
for five weeks after the crash from anterograde amnesia, the inability
to create new memories. He had no memory of the crash, and did not
remember his name in the hospital or the things he did after he was
released. He would later state that
Apple II computer games
are what helped him regain his memory. The National Transportation
Safety Board investigation report cited premature liftoff and pilot
inexperience as probable causes of the crash.
Wozniak did not immediately return to Apple after recovering from the
airplane crash, seeing it as a good reason to leave.
Wozniak in 1983
In May 1982 and 1983, Wozniak, with help from professional concert
promotor Bill Graham, founded and sponsored two US Festivals to
celebrate evolving technologies; they ended up as a technology
exposition and a rock festival as a combination of music, computers,
television and people. After losing several million dollars on the
1982 festival, he stated that unless the 1983 event turned a profit,
he would end his involvement with rock festivals and get back to
designing computers. Later that year, Wozniak returned to Apple
product development, desiring no more of a role than that of an
engineer and a motivational factor for the Apple workforce.
Departure from Apple
Andy Hertzfeld at an
Apple Computer Users Group meeting in
In the mid-1980s he designed the Apple Desktop Bus, a proprietary
bit-serial peripheral bus introduced on many later
Macintosh and NeXT
computer models. However, even with the success he helped create at
Apple, Wozniak felt that the company was hindering him from being who
he wanted to be, and that it was "the bane of his existence". He
enjoyed engineering, not management, and said that he missed "the fun
of the early days". Although its products provided about 85% of
Apple's sales in early 1985, the company's January 1985 annual meeting
did not mention the
Apple II division or employees, a move that
frustrated Wozniak. As other engineers joined the growing company,
he no longer felt needed there and by early 1985, Wozniak left Apple
again, stating that the company had "been going in the wrong direction
for the last five years". He then sold most of his stock.
Post Apple career
After his career at Apple, Wozniak enrolled at UC Berkeley to complete
his degree. Because his name was well known at this point, he enrolled
under the name Rocky Raccoon Clark, which is the name listed on his
One thing Wozniak wanted to do was teach elementary school because of
the important role teachers play in students' lives. Eventually, he
did teach computer classes to children from the fifth through ninth
grades and teachers as well.
CL 9 in 1985, which developed and brought the first
programmable universal remote control to market in 1987.
In 2001, Wozniak founded
Wheels of Zeus
Wheels of Zeus (WOZ), to create wireless
GPS technology to "help everyday people find everyday things much more
easily." In 2002, he joined the board of directors of Ripcord
Networks, Inc., joining Ellen Hancock, Gil Amelio, Mike Connor, and
Wheels of Zeus
Wheels of Zeus co-founder Alex Fielding, all Apple alumni, in a new
telecommunications venture. Later the same year he joined the board of
directors of Danger, Inc., the maker of the Hip Top.
Wheels of Zeus
Wheels of Zeus was closed, and Wozniak founded Acquicor
Technology, a holding company for acquiring technology companies and
developing them, with Apple alumni Hancock and Amelio. From 2009
through 2014 he was chief scientist at Fusion-io. In 2014 he
became chief scientist at Primary Data, which was founded by some
Despite leaving Apple as a day-to-day employee in 1985, Wozniak chose
to never remove himself from the official employee list, and continues
to represent the company at events or in interviews. Today he
receives a stipend from Apple for this role, estimated to be $120,000
per year. He is also an Apple shareholder. He
maintained a friendly acquaintance with
Steve Jobs until Jobs' death
in October 2011. However, in 2006, Wozniak stated that he and Jobs
were not as close as they used to be. In a 2013 interview, Wozniak
said that the original
Macintosh "failed" under Steve Jobs, and that
it was not until Jobs left that it became a success. He called the
Apple Lisa group the team that had kicked Jobs out, and that Jobs
liked to call the Lisa group "idiots for making [the Lisa computer]
too expensive". To compete with the Lisa, Jobs and his new team
produced a cheaper computer, one that, according to Wozniak, was
"weak", "lousy" and "still at a fairly high price". "He made it by
cutting the RAM down, by forcing you to swap disks here and there",
says Wozniak. He attributed the eventual success of the
John Sculley "who worked to build a
Macintosh market when
Apple II went away".
Silicon Valley Comic Con
Silicon Valley Comic Con (abbreviated SVCC) is an annual pop culture
and technology convention, at the San Jose McEnery Convention Center
in San Jose, California. The convention was co-founded by Wozniak and
Rick White with Trip Hunter as CEO, the inaugural event was held March
Wozniak at Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre, Australia, 2012
Wozniak is listed as the sole inventor on the following Apple patents:
US Patent No. 4,136,359: "
Microcomputer for use with video
display"—for which he was inducted into the National Inventors
Hall of Fame.
US Patent No. 4,210,959: "Controller for magnetic disc, recorder, or
US Patent No. 4,217,604: "Apparatus for digitally controlling PAL
US Patent No. 4,278,972: "Digitally-controlled color signal generation
means for use with display"
In 1990, Wozniak helped found the Electronic Frontier Foundation,
providing some of the organization's initial funding and
serving on its founding Board of Directors. He was the founding
sponsor of the Tech Museum,
Silicon Valley Ballet and Children's
Discovery Museum of San Jose. Also since leaving Apple, Wozniak has
provided all the money, as well as a good amount of on-site technical
support, for the technology program in his local school district in
Los Gatos. Un.U.Son. (Unite Us In Song), an organization Wozniak
formed to organize the two US festivals, is now primarily tasked with
supporting his educational and philanthropic projects. In 1986,
Wozniak lent his name to the Stephen G. Wozniak Achievement Awards
(popularly known as "Wozzie Awards"), which he presented to six Bay
Area high school and college students for their innovative use of
computers in the fields of business, art and music. More recently,
Wozniak was the subject of a student-made film production of his
friend's (Joe Patane) nonprofit Dream Camp Foundation for high-level
need youth titled Camp Woz: The Admirable Lunacy of Philanthropy.
Honors and awards
In 1979, Wozniak was awarded the ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award. In
1985, he received the National Medal of
Technology (with Steve Jobs)
from US President Ronald Reagan. In December 1989, he received an
Doctor of Engineering degree from the University of Colorado
at Boulder. Later he donated funds to create the "Woz Lab" at the
University of Colorado at Boulder. In 1998, he was named a Fellow of
Computer History Museum
Computer History Museum "for co-founding
Apple Computer and
Apple I personal computer." The city of San Jose
named a street "Woz Way" in his honour.
In September 2000, Wozniak was inducted into the National Inventors
Hall of Fame, and in 2001 he was awarded the 7th Annual Heinz
Award for Technology, the Economy and Employment. The American
Humanist Association awarded him the Isaac Asimov Science Award in
Wozniak at a conference in October 2017
In December 2005, Wozniak was awarded an honorary Doctor of
Engineering degree from Kettering University. He also received
honorary degrees from North Carolina State University and Nova
Southeastern University, and the Telluride Tech Festival Award of
Technology. In May 2011, Wozniak received an honorary Doctor of
Engineering degree from Michigan State University. In June 2012,
Wozniak was awarded an honorary
Doctor of Engineering degree from
Santa Clara University.
He was awarded the Global Award of the President of Armenia for
Outstanding Contribution to Humanity Through IT in 2011.
On February 17, 2014, in Los Angeles, Wozniak was awarded the 66th
Hoover Medal from IEEE President & CEO J. Roberto de Marca. The
award is presented to an engineer whose professional achievements and
personal endeavors have advanced the well-being of humankind and is
administered by a board representing five engineering organizations:
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers; the American Society of
Civil Engineers; the American Institute of Chemical Engineers; the
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers;
and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
The New York City Chapter of Young Presidents' Organization presented
their 2014 Lifetime Achievement Award to Wozniak on October 16, 2014
at the American Museum of Natural History.
In November 2014,
Industry Week added Wozniak to the Manufacturing
Hall of Fame.
On June 19, 2015, Wozniak received the Legacy for Children Award from
the Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose. The Legacy for Children
Award honors an individual whose legacy has significantly benefited
the learning and lives of children. The purpose of the Award is to
focus Silicon Valley's attention on the needs of our children,
encouraging us all to take responsibility for their well-being.
Candidates are nominated by a committee of notable community members
involved in children's education, health care, human and social
services, and the arts. The Children's Discovery Museum of San
Jose is at 180 Woz Way.
On June 20, 2015, The Cal Alumni Association (UC Berkeley's Alumni
Association) presented Wozniak with the 2015 Alumnus of the Year
Award. "We are honored to recognize
Steve Wozniak with CAA’s most
esteemed award," said CAA President Cynthia So Schroeder '91. "His
invaluable contributions to education and to UC Berkeley place him
among Cal's most accomplished and respected alumni."
In March 2016,
High Point University
High Point University announced that Wozniak will serve
as their Innovator in Residence. Wozniak was High Point University’s
commencement speaker in 2013. Through this ongoing partnership,
Wozniak will connect with
High Point University
High Point University students on a variety
of topics and make campus-visits periodically.
In March 2017, Wozniak was listed by UK-based company Richtopia at
number 18 in the list of 200 Most Influential Philanthropists and
For his contributions to technology, Wozniak has been awarded a number
Doctor of Engineering degrees, which include the
University of Colorado at Boulder: 1989
North Carolina State University: 2004
Kettering University: 2005
Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale: 2005
ESPOL University in Ecuador: 2008
Michigan State University, in East Lansing 2011
Concordia University in Montreal Canada: June 22, 2011
State Engineering University of Armenia: November 11, 2011
Santa Clara University: June 16, 2012
University Camilo José Cela in Madrid, Spain: November 8, 2013
Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería in Lima, Peru: November 22,
Universidad San Juan Bautista in Lima, Peru: June 9, 2015[citation
Wozniak has been mentioned, represented or interviewed many times in
media, including the following programs:
Steve Jobs: The Man in the Machine (2015)
Camp Woz: The Admirable Lunacy of Philanthropy – a 2009
"Geeks On Board" a 2007 documentary
The Secret History of Hacking – a 2001 documentary film
Triumph of the Nerds – a 1996 PBS documentary series about the
rise of the personal computer.
Steve Wozniak's Formative Moment – a March 15, 2016, original
short feature film from
Reddit Formative Moment
1999: Pirates of Silicon Valley – a TNT film directed by
Martyn Burke. Wozniak is portrayed by
Joey Slotnick while Jobs is
played by Noah Wyle.
2013: Jobs – a film directed by Joshua Michael Stern. Wozniak
is portrayed by Josh Gad, while Jobs is portrayed by Ashton Kutcher.
Steve Jobs – a feature film by Danny Boyle, with a
screenplay written by Aaron Sorkin. Wozniak is portrayed by Seth
Rogen, while Jobs is portrayed by Michael Fassbender.
Steve Jobs vs. Bill Gates: The Competition to Control the
Personal Computer, 1974–1999: Original film from the National
Geographic Channel for the American Genius series.
Wozniak during filming of Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List
After seeing her stand-up performance in Saratoga, California, Wozniak
began dating comedian Kathy Griffin. Together, they attended the
2007 Emmy Awards, and subsequently made many appearances on the
fourth season of her show Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List.
Wozniak is on the show as her date for the Producers Guild of America
award show. However, on a June 19, 2008 appearance on The Howard Stern
Show, Griffin confirmed that they were no longer dating and decided to
Wozniak portrays a parody of himself in the first episode of the
television series Code Monkeys; he plays the owner of Gameavision
before selling it to help fund Apple. He later appears again in the
twelfth episode when he is in Las Vegas at the annual Video Game
Convention and sees Dave and Jerry. He also appears in a parody of the
"Get a Mac" ads featured in the final episode of
Code Monkeys second
season. Wozniak is also interviewed and featured in the documentary
Hackers Wanted and on BBC.
Wozniak competed on Season 8 of Dancing with the Stars in 2009
where he danced with Karina Smirnoff. Despite Wozniak and Smirnoff
receiving 10 combined points from the three judges out of 30, the
lowest score of the evening, he remained in the competition. He later
posted on a social networking site that he felt that the vote count
was not legitimate and suggested that the Dancing with the Stars
judges had lied about the vote count to keep him on the show.
After being briefed on the method of judging and vote counting, he
retracted and apologized for his statements. Despite suffering a
pulled hamstring and a fracture in his foot, Wozniak continued to
compete, but was eliminated from the competition on March 31, with
a score of 12 out of 30 for an Argentine Tango.
On September 30, 2010, he appeared as himself on The Big Bang Theory
season 4 episode "The Cruciferous Vegetable Amplification". While
The Cheesecake Factory
The Cheesecake Factory where Penny works, he is approached
by Sheldon via telepresence on a Texai robot. Leonard tries to explain
to Penny who Wozniak is, but she says she already knows him from
Dancing with the Stars.
On September 30, 2013, he appeared along with early Apple employees
Daniel Kottke and
Andy Hertzfeld on the television show John Wants
Answers to discuss the movie Jobs.
Artificial superintelligence views
In March 2015, Wozniak stated that while he had originally dismissed
the writings of
Ray Kurzweil who stated machine intelligence will
outpace human intelligence within several decades, Wozniak had come to
change his mind: "I agree that the future is scary and very bad for
people. If we build these devices to take care of everything for us,
eventually they'll think faster than us and they'll get rid of the
slow humans to run companies more efficiently." Wozniak stated that he
had started to feel a contradictory sense of foreboding about
artificial intelligence, while still supporting the advance of
By June 2015, Wozniak changed his mind, stating that a
superintelligence takeover would be good for humans: "They're going to
be smarter than us and if they're smarter than us then they'll realise
they need us... We want to be the family pet and be taken care of all
the time... I got this idea a few years ago and so I started feeding
my dog filet steak and chicken every night because 'do unto
In 2016, Wozniak changed his mind again, stating that he no longer
worried about the possibility of superintelligence emerging because he
is skeptical that computers will be able to compete with human
"intuition": "A computer could figure out a logical endpoint decision,
but that’s not the way intelligence works in humans". Wozniak added
that if computers do become superintelligent, "they're going to be
partners of humans over all other species just forever".
Wozniak and then-girlfriend
Kathy Griffin in 2008
Wozniak lives in Los Gatos, California. He applied for Australian
citizenship in 2012, and has stated that he would like to live in
Melbourne, Australia in the future. Wozniak has been referred to
frequently by the nickname "Woz", or "The Woz"; he has also been
called "The Wonderful Wizard of Woz" and "The Second Steve".
"WoZ" (short for "Wheels of Zeus") is the name of a company Wozniak
founded in 2002.
He is a Freemason, despite not having faith in a supreme being (which
is required by Masonic rules except in "Liberal" or Continental
Freemasonry). Wozniak describes his impetus for joining the Freemasons
as being able to spend more time with his then-wife, Alice Robertson,
who belonged to the Order of the Eastern Star, associated with the
Masons. Wozniak has said that he quickly rose to a third degree
Freemason because, whatever he does, he tries to do well. He was
initiated in 1979 at Charity Lodge No. 362 in Campbell, California,
now part of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 292 in Los Gatos.
Wozniak was married to slalom canoe gold-medalist
Candice Clark from
June 1981 to 1987. They have three children together, the youngest
being born after their divorce was finalized. After a high-profile
relationship with actress Kathy Griffin, who described him on Tom
Green's House Tonight in 2008 as "the biggest techno-nerd in the
Universe", Wozniak married Janet Hill, his current spouse.
Wozniak signs a Modbook at 2009 Macworld Expo
On his religious views, Wozniak called himself an "atheist or
He is a member of a
Segway Polo team, the
Silicon Valley Aftershocks.
In 2006, he co-authored with Gina Smith his autobiography, iWoz. The
The New York Times
The New York Times Best Seller list.
Wozniak's favorite video game is Tetris, and he had a high score
for Sabotage. In the 1990s he submitted so many high scores for
Nintendo Power that they would no longer print his scores,
so he started sending them in under the alphabetically reversed name
Wozniak has the condition prosopagnosia, or face-blindness.
Apple IIGS (with limited edition case signed by Woz)
Group coded recording
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Wozniak, Steve; Smith, Gina (2006).
iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I Invented the Personal
Computer, Co-Founded Apple, and Had Fun Doing It.
W. W. Norton
W. W. Norton &
Company. ISBN 0-393-06143-4.
^ a b Dayal, Geeta (February 1, 2013). "Phreaks and Geeks". Slate.
Retrieved November 22, 2017.
^ Stix, Harriet (May 14, 1986). "A UC Berkeley Degree Is Now the Apple
of Steve Wozniak's Eye". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 22,
Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak". MIT. Lemelson Foundation.
Retrieved November 22, 2017.
^ a b c d e "About
Steve Wozniak aka 'The Woz'". Woz.org. Retrieved
March 19, 2017.
^ Martin, Emmie (April 21, 2017). "Why Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak
doesn't trust money".
^ a b "This Week in Apple History – June 7–13: The Woz Marries,
Switcher Campaign Starts, IE Ended". The Mac Observer. Retrieved
November 28, 2012.
^ "Steve Wozniak". biography. biography.com. Retrieved July 4,
^ Rebecca Gold (1994). Steve Wozniak: A Wizard Called Woz.
^ Owen W. Linzmayer (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive
History of the World's Most Colorful Company. No Starch Press.
^ Reimer, Jeremy (December 14, 2005). "Total share: 30 years of
personal computer market share figures". Ars Technica. Retrieved May
Nolan Bushnell Appointed to
Atari Board — AtariAge Forums —
Page 30". Atariage.com. April 29, 2010. Retrieved November 11,
^ a b c d "I Never Left Apple", Woz.org
^ Dowling Family Genealogy[unreliable source?]
^ a b Wozniak, Steve. "About your last name". Woz.org. Retrieved
November 22, 2017.
^ "Завжди знав, що маю українське
прізвище: співзасновник Apple Возняк
відвідав Київ" (video). TSN 19:30. Kiev: 1+1. 2017-09-30.
Retrieved 2017-12-12. This is a very special visit for us. I was
always aware that my name was Ukrainian. Report in Ukrainian,
but part of Wozniak speaking in English can be heard behind the
^ Wozniak, Steve (August 17, 2007). iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon.
W. W. Norton
W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 129–130.
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atheist or agnostic (I don't even know the difference). I've never
been to church and prefer to think for myself. I do believe that
religions stand for good things, and that if you make irrational
sacrifices for a religion, then everyone can tell that your religion
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faiths are strong.
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and over, reflecting inside my mind the way shy people do, and I was
very shy, and coming up with my own little keys and rules for life,
and they stayed with me…
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"Twiggy Lives! At the Computer Museum: Happiness is a good friend –
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