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The Info List - Stephen Foster

Athens Academy, Towanda, Pennsylvania Athens Academy

Occupation Composer, lyricist, poet[1]

Years active 1844–1864

Agent Various sheet music publishers and brother, Morrison Foster

Known for America's first fully professional songwriter.[2][3]

Notable work "Angelina Baker", "Beautiful Dreamer", "Camptown Races", "Gentle Annie", "The Glendy Burk", "Hard Times Come Again No More", "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair", "My Old Kentucky
Kentucky
Home", "Oh! Susanna", "Old Black Joe", "Old Folks at Home" ("Swanee River"), "Open Thy Lattice Love"

Style Period music, minstrel

Home town Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania United States

Salary royalties obtained from published music

Spouse(s) Jane McDowell Foster Wiley
Jane McDowell Foster Wiley
(1829–1903) (other sources use Jane Denny Foster Wiley)[1]

Children Marion Foster Welch
Marion Foster Welch
(1851–1935)

Parent(s) William Barclay Foster
William Barclay Foster
(1779–1855), Eliza Clayland Tomlinson Foster (1788–1855)

Relatives Evelyn Foster Morneweck (niece and biographer), James Foster (grandfather) Siblings:Charlotte Susanna Foster (1809–1829), Anne Eliza Foster Buchanan (1812–1891), Henry Baldwin Foster (1816–1870), Henrietta Angelica Foster Thornton (1819–1879), Dunning McNair Foster (1821–1856), Morrison Foster
Morrison Foster
(1823–1904)*

Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known as "the father of American music", was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music. Foster wrote over 200 songs; among his best-known are "Oh! Susanna", "Hard Times Come Again No More", "Camptown Races", "Old Folks at Home" ("Swanee River"), "My Old Kentucky
Kentucky
Home", "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair", "Old Black Joe", and "Beautiful Dreamer". Many of his compositions remain popular more than 150 years after he wrote them. His compositions are thought to be autobiographical. He has been identified as "the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century" and may be the most recognizable American composer in other countries. His compositions are sometimes referred to as "childhood songs" because they have been included in the music curriculum of early education. Most of his handwritten music manuscripts are lost, but copies printed by publishers of his day can be found in various collections.[4]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Early years 3 Career 4 Death 5 Music

5.1 Popular songs

6 Critics and controversies

6.1 Greenfield Village
Greenfield Village
and the Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Museum

7 Legacy

7.1 Musical influence 7.2 Television 7.3 Film 7.4 Other events 7.5 Art

8 Memorials 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Biography[edit]

Eliza Tomlinson Foster and William Barclay Foster

There are many biographers who have published works on the life of Stephen Collins Foster, but details can differ widely. In addition, Foster wrote very little biographical information himself. His brother Morrison Foster
Morrison Foster
destroyed much of the information about Stephen that he judged to reflect negatively upon the family.[5] Early years[edit] Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
was born on July 4, 1826.[6] His parents were William Barclay Foster and Eliza Clayland Tomlinson. He was the youngest of three sisters and six brothers. Foster attended private academies in Allegheny, Athens, and Towanda, Pennsylvania. He received an education in English grammar, diction, the classics, penmanship, Latin, Greek, and mathematics. Though they lived in a northern city, his family did not support the abolition of slavery.[6] His older brother Morrison was a notable influence throughout Stephen's life.[5] Foster was able to teach himself to play the clarinet, violin, guitar, flute and piano. He did not have formal instruction in composition but he was helped by Henry Kleber (1816–97), a German-born music dealer in Pittsburgh. Kleber was a songwriter, impresario, accompanist, and conductor.[7] In 1839, his elder brother William was serving his apprenticeship as an engineer at Towanda and thought Stephen would benefit from being under his supervision. The site of the Camptown Races
Camptown Races
is 30 miles (48 km) from Athens, PA, and 15 miles from Towanda. Stephen attended Athens Academy from 1839 to 1841. He wrote his first composition, "Tioga Waltz" while attending Athens Academy and performed it during the 1841 commencement exercises; he was 14. It was not published during the composer's lifetime, but it is included in the collection of published works by Morrison Foster.[citation needed] Foster's education included a brief period at Jefferson College in Washington, Pennsylvania, (now Washington & Jefferson College).[8][nb 1] His tuition was paid, but he had little spending money.[8] He left Canonsburg to visit Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
with another student and did not return.[8] During his teenage years, Foster was influenced by two men. Henry Kleber (1816–1897), one of Foster's few formal music instructors, was a classically trained musician who emigrated from Darmstadt, Germany, to Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
and opened a music store. Dan Rice
Dan Rice
was an entertainer, a clown, and blackface singer, making his living in traveling circuses. Career[edit] In 1846, Foster moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, and became a bookkeeper with his brother's steamship company. While he was in Cincinnati, Foster penned his first successful songs in 1848–1849, among them "Oh! Susanna", which became an anthem of the California Gold Rush. In 1849, he published Foster's Ethiopian Melodies, which included the successful song "Nelly Was a Lady" as made famous by the Christy Minstrels. A plaque marks the site of Foster's residence in Cincinnati, where the Guilford School building is now located.

House in Hoboken, New Jersey
Hoboken, New Jersey
where Foster is believed to have written "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair" in 1854[10]

Then he returned to Pennsylvania and signed a contract with the Christy Minstrels. It was during this period that Foster would write most of his best-known songs: "Camptown Races" (1850), "Nelly Bly" (1850), "Ring de Banjo" (1851), "Old Folks at Home" (known also as "Swanee River", 1851), "My Old Kentucky
Kentucky
Home" (1853), "Old Dog Tray" (1853), and "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair" (1854), written for his wife Jane Denny McDowell.

A Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Press illustration of the original headstone on Stephen Foster's grave

Many of Foster's songs were of the blackface minstrel show tradition popular at the time. Foster sought, in his own words, to "build up taste ... among refined people by making words suitable to their taste, instead of the trashy and really offensive words which belong to some songs of that order". Many of his songs had Southern themes, yet Foster never lived in the South and visited it only once in 1852, by riverboat voyage on his honeymoon on his brother Dunning's steamboat the Millinger, which took him down the Mississippi River to New Orleans. In 1862 during the Civil War in a response to Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers, Foster among other composers set the poem "We Are Coming, Father Abra'am" to music. Foster's last four years were spent in New York City. Biographical information during this period of his life has not been located or remains lost, though correspondence to, from, and between other family members has been preserved.[4] Death[edit] Foster became ill with a fever in January 1864. Weakened, he fell in his hotel in the Bowery, cutting his neck. His writing partner George Cooper found him still alive, naked, lying in a pool of blood. He died in Bellevue Hospital three days later, at age 37.[11] Other versions exist concerning Foster's death described by other biographers.[12]

Telegram that communicated Stephen Foster's death addressed to his brother Morrison Foster

When Foster died, his leather wallet contained a scrap of paper that simply said, "Dear friends and gentle hearts", along with 38 cents in Civil War scrip and three U.S. pennies. The note is said to have inspired Bob Hilliard's lyric for "Dear Hearts and Gentle People" (1949). Foster was buried in the Allegheny Cemetery
Allegheny Cemetery
in Pittsburgh. After his death, Morrison Foster
Morrison Foster
became his "literary executor". As such, he answered requests for copies of manuscripts, autographs, and biographical information.[4] One of the best-loved of his works, "Beautiful Dreamer" was published shortly after his death.[13] Music[edit] See also: List of songs by Stephen Foster

"Oh! Susanna" (1848)

Stephen Foster's "Oh! Susanna" performed by the United States Navy Concert Band

"Old Folks at Home"

"Old Folks at Home" performed by Ernestine Schumann-Heink
Ernestine Schumann-Heink
(1918)

Problems playing these files? See media help.

Growing up in a section of the city where many European immigrants had settled, Foster was accustomed to hearing the music and musical styles of the Italian, Scots-Irish, and German residents in the neighborhood. He composed his first song when he was 14 and entitled it the "Tioga Waltz". The first song he had published was "Open thy Lattice Love" (1844).[7][14] In addition to his well-known and familiar songs which are still widely performed, Foster wrote songs in support of both drinking (such as "My Wife Is a Most Knowing Woman" or "Mr. and Mrs. Brown" or "When the Bowl Goes Round") and temperance, such as "Comrades Fill No Glass for Me" or "The Wife".[6] Foster also authored many church hymns. The inclusion of his hymns in hymnals ended by 1910. Some titles of the hymns are: "Seek and ye shall find",[15] "All around is bright and fair, While we work for Jesus",[16] and "Blame not those who weep and sigh".[17] Several rare Civil War-era hymns by Foster were performed by The Old Stoughton Musical Society Chorus: "The Pure, The Bright, The Beautiful"; "Over The River"; "Give Us This Day" and "What Shall The Harvest Be?"; on a disc compiled and edited by Roger Lee Hall and titled, "Glory, Hallelujah: Songs and Hymns
Hymns
of the Civil War Era." Foster usually sent his handwritten scores directly to his publishers. The publishers kept the sheet music manuscripts and did not give them to libraries nor return them to his heirs. Some of his original, hand-written scores were bought and put into private collections and the Library of Congress.[4] Popular songs[edit] Generally speaking, Foster's songs lyrics and melodies have often been changed and altered both by publishers, and performers.[18] "My Old Kentucky
Kentucky
Home" is the official state song of Kentucky, adopted by the General Assembly on March 19, 1928. "Old Folks at Home" became the official state song of Florida, designated in 1935.[19] Because of the song lyrics which are perceived in modern times to be derogatory, "Old Folks at Home" was modified with approval from the Stephen Foster Memorial; after a lengthy debate, the modified song was kept as the official state song, while " Florida
Florida
(Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky)" was added as the state anthem. American baritone Nelson Eddy
Nelson Eddy
recorded 35 Foster songs over three recording sessions in July, August, and September 1947 on Columbia Records, in 78 format, 2 songs per record. Columbia issued these recordings in 1948 as Nelson Eddy
Nelson Eddy
in Songs of Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
(Volume 1: A-745 and Volume 2: A-795). In 2005, Jasmine Records compiled all 35 Foster songs in one CD, Nelson Eddy
Nelson Eddy
Sings the Stephen Foster Songbook, JASCD 421. "In these performances, arranger/conductor Robert Armbruster made every attempt to frame Nelson Eddy's voice with a simple, yet colorful, orchestral and choral background—the norm of Stephen Foster's time." (Liner notes by Robert Nickora July 2005). American classical composer Charles Ives
Charles Ives
freely quoted a wide variety of Foster's songs in many of his own works.[citation needed] Douglas Jimerson, a tenor from Baltimore who has released CDs of music from the Civil War era, released Stephen Foster's America in 1998. Just before his death in 2004, singer-songwriter Randy Vanwarmer completed an entire album of Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
songs; it was released posthumously as Sings Stephen Foster. Ray Charles
Ray Charles
released a version of "Old Folks at Home" entitled "Swanee River Rock (Talkin' 'Bout That River)" which became his first pop hit in November 1957 (#34, R&B #14).[20] The tribute album, Beautiful Dreamer: The Songs of Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
won the Grammy for Best Traditional Folk album in 2005. Among the artists who are featured on the album are John Prine, Ron Sexsmith, Alison Krauss, Yo Yo Ma, Roger McGuinn, Mavis Staples, and Suzy Bogguss. Singer/songwriter Syd Straw
Syd Straw
covered "Hard Times Come Again No More" on her 1989 album, Surprise. The same song (as "Hard Times") appears on Bob Dylan's 1992 album, Good as I Been to You. Jennifer Warnes did another version of this song on her 1979 album, Shot Through the Heart. The Byrds
The Byrds
did a rock 'n roll version of "Oh Susanna" on their 1965 album, Turn Turn Turn., while James Taylor offered a traditional folk version of "Oh! Susanna" on his 1970 album, Sweet Baby James. In 2012, performer and educator Jonathan Guyot Smith taught a college course devoted exclusively to the study of Foster's music and released a CD of Foster songs, Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Melodies and Serenades for the American Parlor, which contains several seldom-heard Foster songs. The performances are in the style of a 19th-century parlor performance rather than in the manner of a formal concert. Critics and controversies[edit] Historians speculate that Foster may have been "a drunkard". Thirty years after his death, one reporter described him as paying "the penalty of an irregular life", being "weak-willed" and writing songs about people of "a pathetic character".[21] Superficial interpretation of Foster's compositions in modern times could be considered disparaging to African Americans in current cultural contexts. However, Foster unveiled the realities of slavery in his work while also imparting dignity to African-Americans in his compositions, especially as he grew as an artist.[22] Foster was the first to refer to an African-American woman as "a lady" in his composition "Nelly Was a Lady."[23] Foster composed many songs that were used in minstrel shows. This form of public entertainment lampooned African Americans as buffoonish, superstitious, without-a-care, musical, lazy, and dim-witted.[24][25] In the early 1830s, these minstrel shows gained popularity. The shows evolved, and by 1848 blackface minstrel shows were a separate musical art form accessible to the general public (contrasted with opera, which was more upper-class at the time.)[26] Greenfield Village
Greenfield Village
and the Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Museum[edit] In 1935, Henry Ford
Henry Ford
ceremonially presented a new addition to his historical collection of early American memorabilia – the "Home of Stephen Foster". The structure was identified by notable historians of the time as being authentic and was then deconstructed and moved "piece by piece" from Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania (now Pittsburgh) to Greenfield Village, Michigan. Foster's niece insisted that it was not his birthplace, and in 1953 the claim was withdrawn. Greenfield Village still displays a structure that is identified as the birthplace of Stephen Foster.[27] The Foster family stated that the original Foster birthplace structure was torn down in 1865.[28][29] Legacy[edit] Musical influence[edit]

Early filmmakers selected Foster's songs for their work because his copyrights had expired and cost them nothing.[30] Professor of Folklore and musician John Minton wrote a song titled "Stephen C. Foster's Blues".[31] Erika M. Anderson, of the band EMA, refers to Foster's "Camptown Races" in the song "California", from past Life Martyred Saints (2011): "I bet my money on the bobtail nag/somebody bet on the bay."[32] The Firesign Theatre makes many references to Foster's compositions in their CD, Boom Dot Bust (1999, Rhino Records) Larry Kirwan of Black 47 mixes the music of Foster with his own in the musical Hard Times, which earned a New York Times
New York Times
accolade in its original run: "a knockout entertainment". Kirwan gives a contemporary interpretation of Foster's troubled later years and sets it in the tumultuous time of the New York draft riots and the Irish–Negro relations of the period. A revival ran at the Cell Theater in New York in early 2014. Spike Jones recorded a comedy send-up "I Dream of Brownie in the Light Blue Jeans." The swing revival band Squirrel Nut Zippers
Squirrel Nut Zippers
released a song entitled "The Ghost of Stephen Foster." Humorist Stan Freberg imagined a 1950s style version of Foster's music in "Rock Around Stephen Foster" and, with Harry Shearer, had a sketch about Foster having writer's block in a bit from his "United States of America" project. The song "Saint Stephen" by the Grateful Dead was a tribute to Stephen Foster, whom they regarded as their "patron saint". Songwriter Tom Shaner mentions Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
meeting up with Eminem's alter ego "Slim Shady" on the Bowery in Shaner's song "Rock & Roll is A Natural Thing." The music of Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
was an early influence on the Australian composer Percy Grainger, who stated that hearing "Camptown Races" sung by his mother was one of his earliest musical recollections. He went on to write a piece entitled "Tribute to Foster," a composition for mixed choir, orchestra, and pitched wine glasses based on the melody of "Camptown Races."[33]

Foster commemorative stamp in the Famous American Composers series, 1940[34]

Television[edit]

Two television shows about the life of Foster and his childhood friend (and later wife) Jeanie MacDowell were produced in Japan, the first in 1979 with 13 episodes, and the second from 1992 to 1993 with 52 episodes; both were titled Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
after the song of the same name. In the Honeymooners episode, "The $99,000 Answer," Ed Norton warms up on the piano by playing the opening to "Swanee River." Later, when Ralph returns to the game show, the first question asked is "Who is the composer of 'Swanee River'?" Ralph nervously responds, "Ed Norton," and loses the game. In a "Fractured Fairy Tales" segment of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, Aladdin finds a lamp with a female genie with light brown hair, who immediately asks, "Are you Stephen Foster?"

Film[edit]

Three Hollywood films have been made of Foster's life: Harmony Lane (1935) with Douglass Montgomery, Swanee River (1939) with Don Ameche, and I Dream of Jeanie (1952), with Bill Shirley. The 1939 production was one of Twentieth Century Fox's more ambitious efforts, filmed in Technicolor; the other two were low-budget affairs made by B-movie studios.[35] In the film Tombstone, Billy Clanton
Billy Clanton
(played by Thomas Haden Church) tries to bait Doc Holliday
Doc Holliday
(Val Kilmer), who is playing a Chopin nocturne on the piano, by saying, "Is that 'Old Dog Tray'? That sounds like 'Old Dog Tray' to me." When the goad fails, Clanton asks whether Doc knows any other songs, like "'Camptown Races?', 'Oh Susanna', "You know, Stephen stinkin' Foster?!?" In the film A Million Ways to Die in the West, Seth MacFarlane's character Albert can't get a song out of his head. Charlize Theron's character suggests singing a different song, to which he replies, "There are only like 3 songs," and she adds, "And they're all by Stephen Foster." The song in question, "If You've Only Got a Mustache," was actually composed by Foster.

Other events[edit]

"Stephen Foster! Super Saturday" is a day of thoroughbred racing during the Spring/Summer meet at Churchill Downs
Churchill Downs
in Louisville, Kentucky. During the call to the post, selections of Stephen Foster songs are played by the track bugler, Steve Buttleman. The day is headlined by the Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Handicap, a Grade I dirt race for older horses at 9 furlongs. 36 U.S.C.
36 U.S.C.
§140 designates January 13 as Stephen Foster Memorial
Stephen Foster Memorial
Day, a United States National Observance. In 1936, Congress authorized the minting of a silver half dollar in honor of the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Musical Center. Foster was featured on the obverse of the coin. " Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Music Camp" is a summer music camp held on EKU's campus of Richmond, Kentucky. The camp offers piano courses, choir, band, and orchestra ensembles.

Art[edit]

Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
by Giuseppe Moretti
Giuseppe Moretti
(1900)

A public sculpture by Giuseppe Moretti
Giuseppe Moretti
honoring Foster and commemorating his song "Uncle Ned" sits in close proximity to the Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Memorial. In Alms Park in Cincinnati, overlooking the Ohio River, there is a seated statue of him. The Hall of Fame for Great Americans
The Hall of Fame for Great Americans
in the Bronx, overlooking the Harlem River, has a bronze bust of him by artist Walter Hancock. Added in 1940, he is among only 98 honorees from 15 classes of distinguished men and women. In My Old Kentucky Home
My Old Kentucky Home
State Park in Bardstown, Kentucky, a musical, called The Stephen Foster Story
The Stephen Foster Story
has been performed since 1958. There is also a statue of him next to the Federal Hill mansion, where he visited relatives and which is the inspiration for My Old Kentucky Home. A painting by Howard Chandler Christy
Howard Chandler Christy
entitled, "Stephen Foster and the Angel of Genius" is on display in the park's art collection. The painting inspired Florence Foster Jenkins
Florence Foster Jenkins
to author a tableau in which she personally plays the role of the angel depicted in Christy's painting. The scene was featured in the film Florence Foster Jenkins in 2016.

Memorials[edit]

The Stephen Collins Foster sketchbook kept in a safe in the research library in the memorial

Pitt's Stephen Foster Memorial
Stephen Foster Memorial
contains two theaters

Foster is honored on the University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
campus with the Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Memorial, a landmark building that houses the Stephen Foster Memorial Museum, the Center for American Music, as well as two theaters: the Charity Randall Theatre and Henry Heymann Theatre, both performance spaces for Pitt's Department of Theater Arts. It is the largest repository for original Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
compositions, recordings, and other memorabilia his songs have inspired worldwide. Two state parks are named in Foster's honor: the Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs, Florida
Florida
and Stephen C. Foster State Park in Georgia. Both parks are on the Suwannee River. Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Lake at Mount Pisgah State Park
Mount Pisgah State Park
in Pennsylvania is also named in his honor. One state park is named in honor of Foster's songs, My Old Kentucky Home, an historic mansion formerly named Federal Hill, located in Bardstown, Kentucky
Kentucky
where Stephen is said to have been an occasional visitor according to his brother, Morrison Foster. The park dedicated a bronze statue in honor of Stephen's work. The Lawrenceville (Pittsburgh)
Lawrenceville (Pittsburgh)
Historical Society, together with the Allegheny Cemetery
Allegheny Cemetery
Historical Association, hosts the annual Stephen Foster Music and Heritage Festival (Doo Dah Days!). Held the first weekend of July, Doo Dah Days! celebrates the life and music of one of the most influential songwriters in America's history. His home in the Lawrenceville Section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, still remains on Penn Avenue nearby the Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Community Center. See also[edit]

The Stephen Foster Collection and archive
The Stephen Foster Collection and archive
– Most primary sources related to his life, family and music have been retained by the University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Library System as the Foster Hall Collection housed in the Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Memorial. These materials where obtained from philanthropists, donated by collectors or his heirs.

Notes[edit] One of Stephen Foster's best-known songs, "Camptown Races", is actually titled "Gwine to Run All Night", though "Camptown Races" is the name that gained popularity.

^ His grandfather, James Foster, was an associate of John McMillan and a founding trustee of Canonsburg Academy, a predecessor institution to Jefferson College; his father, William Barclay Foster, attended Canonsburg Academy until the age of 16.[9]

References[edit]

^ a b c "Stephen C. Foster As Man and Musician, The Life Story of the Sweet Singer of Pittsburg Told by His Contemporaries and Comrades". The Pittsburg Press. September 12, 1900 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ Marks, Rusty (April 22, 2001), "ON TELEVISION: Stephen Foster: Quintessential songwriter lived in music, died in ruin", Sunday Gazette-Mail, Gazette Daily Inc. via HighBeam Research, retrieved April 25, 2012, The song, written in 1847, soon spread throughout the country. Foster decided to become a full-time songwriter, a vocation no one had bothered to pursue until then. (subscription required) ^ Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Native Son and Songwriter Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
to be Inducted into Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame Oct. 17., US Fed News Service, Including US State News. The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd. via HighBeam Research, October 16, 2010, retrieved April 25, 2012 (subscription required) ^ a b c d Root, Deane L. (March 12, 1990). "The "Mythtory" of Stephen C. Foster or Why His True Story Remains Untold" (lecture transcript at the American Music Center Research Conference). American Music Research Center Journal: 20–36. Retrieved October 4, 2015: Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Library System  ^ a b Howard, John Tasker (March 1944). "The Literature on Stephen Foster". Notes – Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association. 1 (2): 10. doi:10.2307/891301. ISSN 0027-4380.  ^ a b c Sanders, Paul (Fall 2008). "Comrades, Fill No Glass For Me: Stephen Foster's Medlodies As Borrowed by the American Temperance Movement" (PDF). Social History of Alcohol and Drugs. 23 (1): 24–40. Retrieved October 13, 2015.  ^ a b "Foster Hall Collection, Collection Number: CAM.FHC.2011.01, Guide to Archives and Manuscript Collections at the University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Library System". University of Pittsburgh, Center for American Music. Retrieved October 13, 2015; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh  ^ a b c Emerson, Ken (1998). Doo-dah! Steven Foster and the Rise of American Popular Culture. Da Capo Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-306-80852-4.  ^ Vincent Milligan, Harold (1920). Stephen Collins Foster: a biography of America's folk-song composer. G. Schirmer. pp. 3–4.  ^ Sisario, Ben (September 20, 1998). "ON THE MAP; Stephen Foster's Old Hoboken Home". The New York Times. Retrieved July 4, 2016.  ^ "More about the film Stephen Foster". American Experience. PBS. Retrieved October 2, 2015.  ^ O'Conell, Joanne H. (2007). Understanding Stephen Collins Foster, His World and Music (PDF) (Thesis). University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved June 25, 2016.  ^ W. Tomaschewski. "The Last Chapter". Stephen Collins Foster. W. Tomaschewski. Retrieved August 4, 2012.  ^ Barcousky, Len (February 14, 2016). "Eyewitness 1916: Living link to Foster passes on". Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Post Gazette. Retrieved April 27, 2016.  ^ "Waters' Choral Harp: a new and superior collection of choice hymns and tunes, mostly new, written and composed for Sunday schools, missionary, revival, and social meetings, and for church worship 106. Who has our Redeemer heard". Hymnary.org. Retrieved August 23, 2016.  ^ "All around is bright and fair, While we work for Jesus". Hymnary.org. Retrieved August 23, 2016.  ^ "Blame not those who weep and sigh". Hymnary.org. Retrieved August 23, 2016.  ^ Steel, David Warren (2008). The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture; Volume 12: Music; Foster, Stephen (1826–1864) COMPOSER AND SONGWRITER. University of North Carolina Press. JSTOR 10.5149/9781469616667_malone.86: Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh  ^ "The State Anthem: " Florida
Florida
(Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky)"". State of Florida. Retrieved April 29, 2011.  ^ Whitburn, Joel, Top R&B Singles, 1942–1999, p. 74. ^ "Stephen G. Foster." The Musical Visitor, a Magazine of Musical Literature and Music (1883–1897) 12 1888: 319. Accessed October 10, 2015. ^ Burns, Ken. "Stephen Foster". American Experience. PBS. Retrieved August 23, 2016.  ^ Gross (host), Terry; Emerson (guest), Ken (April 16, 2010). "The Lyrics And Legacy Of Stephen Foster". Fresh Air. transcript. NPR. Retrieved October 18, 2015.  ^ "The Coon Character". Jim Crow
Jim Crow
Museum of Racist Memorabilia, Ferris State University. Retrieved November 9, 2011. ^ John Kenrick. "A History of the Musical: Minstrel Shows". musicals101.com. 1996, revised 2003. Retrieved October 2, 2015. ^ Behind the Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface
Blackface
Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular Culture by William J. Mahar. University of Illinois Press (1998). p. 9. ISBN 0-252-06696-0. ^ Schwallie, Karen. " Greenfield Village
Greenfield Village
Memories – Stephen Foster Home". Retrieved October 3, 2015.  ^ Wilkinson, Clint. " Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
House in Museum Wrong One". The Detroit Free Press. January 30, 1953. Access date October 2, 2015 Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Library System ^ Lowry, Patricia (March 30, 2003). "Theater: A dramatic makeover for the Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Memorial". Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Lerner, Neil (September 2006). "Review: Tunes for 'Toons': Music and the Hollywood Cartoon by Daniel Goldmark". Notes – Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association. 63 (1): 121–124. JSTOR 4487739.  ^ "Stephen C. Foster's Blues". The Possum Trot Orchestra. Retrieved May 10, 2015.  ^ "E.M.A. – California Lyrics". SongLyrics. Retrieved August 4, 2012.  ^ A Source guide to the music of Percy Grainger. Lewis, Thomas P., (1st ed ed.). White Plains, N.Y.: Pro/Am Music Resources. 1991. ISBN 9780912483566. OCLC 24019532. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ "1-cent Foster". Arago: people, postage & the post, Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved May 10, 2015.  ^ York, Steven (2006). Book reviews: Biography: Composers in the Movies: Studies in Musical Biography, by John C. Tibbetts. Notes – Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association, 62(4), 979–981. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1109557

Further reading[edit]

Emerson, Ken, ed. (2010). Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
& Co.: Lyrics of the First Great American Songwriters. New York: The Library of America. ISBN 1-59853-070-4. OCLC 426803667.  Hamm, Charles (1983). Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York City: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0393300628.  Hodges, Fletcher, Jr. (1939). A Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Composer
Composer
and His Memorial. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania. ASIN B01A8YVHHM.  Hodges, Fletcher, Jr. (1948). The Research Work of the Foster Hall Collection. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.  Hodges, Fletcher, Jr. (1958). The Swanee River and a Biographical Sketch of Stephen Collins Foster. Whitefish, Montana: Literary Licensing, LLC. ISBN 978-1258193980.  Howard, John Tasker (March 1944). "The Literature on Stephen Foster". Notes – Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association. 1 (2): 10–15. doi:10.2307/891301. JSTOR 891301.  Howard, John Tasker (1945). Stephen Foster: America's Troubadour. New York City: Tudor Publishing Company. ASIN B0007ELPPI.  Milligan, Harold Vincent (1920). Stephen Collins Foster: A Biography Of America's Folk-Song Composer. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-0548971864.  Momeweck, Evelyn (1973). Chronicles of Stephen Foster's Family. Associated Faculty Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0804617420.  "Foster Hall Collection". Center for American Music; University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved March 24, 2017.  "Pictorial Biography of Stephen Collins Foster" (PDF). Musical Courier. 1930. Retrieved March 24, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutStephen Fosterat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource

Free scores by Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) Works by or about Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
at Internet Archive Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
on IMDb Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
at Find a Grave Archives of Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
at the University of Kentucky Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
discography at Discogs Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Music History Hymns
Hymns
and songs by Stephen Foster

Music scores

Sheet music for "I see her still in my dreams", Macon, GA: John C. Schreiner & Son, from the Confederate Imprints Sheet Music Collection Sheet music for "Parthenia to Incomar", Macon, GA: John C. Schreiner & Son, from the Confederate Imprints Sheet Music Collection "The Melodies of Stephen C. Foster" (online version) Pittsburgh, PA: T.M. Walker, Full sheet music book, 307 pages

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Stephen Foster

List of songs written by Stephen Foster

Songs

Minstrel songs Angelina Baker (1850) Camptown Races
Camptown Races
(1850) The Glendy Burk (1860) My Old Kentucky Home
My Old Kentucky Home
(1853) Oh! Susanna
Oh! Susanna
(1848) Old Folks at Home
Old Folks at Home
(Swanee River) (1851)

Parlor songs Ah! May the Red Rose Live Alway Open Thy Lattice Love Beautiful Dreamer
Beautiful Dreamer
(1864) Hard Times Come Again No More
Hard Times Come Again No More
(1854) Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
(1854) Old Black Joe
Old Black Joe
(1853) Willie Has Gone To War
Willie Has Gone To War
(1862)

History and biographers

History and biographies The Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Collection and archive William Barclay Foster Eliza Clayland Tomlinson Foster Morrison Foster Horace Waters Harold Vincent Milligan Jane McDowell Foster Wiley Henrietta Crosman Evelyn Foster Morneweck

Films, musicals, recordings

Films Harmony Lane I Dream of Jeanie Swanee River Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
(anime)

Musicals Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
- The Musical Hard Times

Recordings Beautiful Dreamer: The Songs of Stephen Foster

State Parks

My Old Kentucky Home
My Old Kentucky Home
State Park Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Folk Culture Center State Park Stephen C. Foster State Park

Other

Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Handicap Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
Memorial Stephen Foster Memorial
Stephen Foster Memorial
Day Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster
(sculpture)

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Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Barack Obama Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

Authority control

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