The Info List - Statue Of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island
Liberty Island
in New York Harbor
New York Harbor
in New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
and built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
is a figure of a robed woman representing Libertas, a Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals
Roman numerals
with "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" (July 4, 1776), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, and was a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving from abroad. Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U.S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and U.S. peoples. Because of the post-war instability in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U.S. provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions. The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition
Centennial Exposition
in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park
Madison Square Park
in Manhattan
from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland. The statue was administered by the United States
United States
Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred for safety since 1916.


1 Design and construction process

1.1 Origin 1.2 Design, style, and symbolism 1.3 Announcement and early work 1.4 Construction in France

1.4.1 Design 1.4.2 Fundraising 1.4.3 Construction

1.5 Dedication

2 After dedication

2.1 Lighthouse
Board and War Department (1886–1933) 2.2 Early National Park Service
National Park Service
years (1933–1982) 2.3 Renovation and rededication (1982–2000) 2.4 Closures and reopenings (2001–present)

3 Access and attributes

3.1 Location and tourism 3.2 Inscriptions, plaques, and dedications

World Heritage Site

4.1 Physical characteristics

5 Depictions 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Design and construction process Origin

As well as the Roman Libertas, Sol Invictus
Sol Invictus
("Unconquered Sun") also influenced the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(3rd century disc found at Pessinus
- British Museum).

According to the National Park Service, the idea for the Statue of Liberty was first proposed by Édouard René de Laboulaye
Édouard René de Laboulaye
the president of the French Anti-Slavery Society and a prominent and important political thinker of his time. The project is traced to a mid-1865 conversation between de Laboulaye, a staunch abolitionist and Frédéric Bartholdi, a sculptor. In after-dinner conversation at his home near Versailles, Laboulaye, an ardent supporter of the Union in the American Civil War, is supposed to have said: "If a monument should rise in the United States, as a memorial to their independence, I should think it only natural if it were built by united effort—a common work of both our nations."[7] The National Park Service, in a 2000 report, however, deemed this a legend traced to an 1885 fundraising pamphlet, and that the statue was most likely conceived in 1870.[8] In another essay on their website, the Park Service suggested that Laboulaye was minded to honor the Union victory and its consequences, "With the abolition of slavery and the Union's victory in the Civil War in 1865, Laboulaye's wishes of freedom and democracy were turning into a reality in the United States. In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States
United States
on behalf of France. Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention to the recent achievements of the United States, the French people would be inspired to call for their own democracy in the face of a repressive monarchy."[9]

Bartholdi's design patent

According to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who later recounted the story, Laboulaye's comment was not intended as a proposal, but it inspired Bartholdi.[7] Given the repressive nature of the regime of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no immediate action on the idea except to discuss it with Laboulaye. Bartholdi was in any event busy with other possible projects; in the late 1860s, he approached Isma'il Pasha, Khedive
of Egypt, with a plan to build Progress or Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia,[10] a huge lighthouse in the form of an ancient Egyptian female fellah or peasant, robed and holding a torch aloft, at the northern entrance to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
in Port Said. Sketches and models were made of the proposed work, though it was never erected. There was a classical precedent for the Suez proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes: an ancient bronze statue of the Greek god of the sun, Helios. This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet (30 m) high, and it similarly stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to guide ships.[11] Any large project was further delayed by the Franco-Prussian War, in which Bartholdi served as a major of militia. In the war, Napoleon III was captured and deposed. Bartholdi's home province of Alsace
was lost to the Prussians, and a more liberal republic was installed in France.[7] As Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential Americans.[12] In June 1871, Bartholdi crossed the Atlantic, with letters of introduction signed by Laboulaye.[13] Arriving at New York Harbor, Bartholdi focused on Bedloe's Island (now named Liberty Island) as a site for the statue, struck by the fact that vessels arriving in New York had to sail past it. He was delighted to learn that the island was owned by the United States government—it had been ceded by the New York State Legislature
New York State Legislature
in 1800 for harbor defense. It was thus, as he put it in a letter to Laboulaye: "land common to all the states."[14] As well as meeting many influential New Yorkers, Bartholdi visited President Ulysses S. Grant, who assured him that it would not be difficult to obtain the site for the statue.[15] Bartholdi crossed the United States
United States
twice by rail, and met many Americans who he thought would be sympathetic to the project.[13] But he remained concerned that popular opinion on both sides of the Atlantic was insufficiently supportive of the proposal, and he and Laboulaye decided to wait before mounting a public campaign.[16]

Bartholdi's Lion of Belfort

Bartholdi had made a first model of his concept in 1870.[17] The son of a friend of Bartholdi's, U.S. artist John LaFarge, later maintained that Bartholdi made the first sketches for the statue during his U.S. visit at La Farge's Rhode Island
Rhode Island
studio. Bartholdi continued to develop the concept following his return to France.[17] He also worked on a number of sculptures designed to bolster French patriotism after the defeat by the Prussians. One of these was the Lion of Belfort, a monumental sculpture carved in sandstone below the fortress of Belfort, which during the war had resisted a Prussian siege for over three months. The defiant lion, 73 feet (22 m) long and half that in height, displays an emotional quality characteristic of Romanticism, which Bartholdi would later bring to the Statue of Liberty.[18] Design, style, and symbolism

Detail from a fresco by Constantino Brumidi
Constantino Brumidi
in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., showing two early symbols of America: Columbia (left) and the Indian princess

Bartholdi and Laboulaye considered how best to express the idea of American liberty.[19] In early American history, two female figures were frequently used as cultural symbols of the nation.[20] One of these symbols, the personified Columbia, was seen as an embodiment of the United States
United States
in the manner that Britannia
was identified with the United Kingdom and Marianne
came to represent France. Columbia had supplanted the earlier figure of an Indian princess, which had come to be regarded as uncivilized and derogatory toward Americans.[20] The other significant female icon in American culture was a representation of Liberty, derived from Libertas, the goddess of freedom widely worshipped in ancient Rome, especially among emancipated slaves. A Liberty figure adorned most American coins of the time,[19] and representations of Liberty appeared in popular and civic art, including Thomas Crawford's Statue of Freedom
Statue of Freedom
(1863) atop the dome of the United States
United States
Capitol Building.[19] Artists of the 18th and 19th centuries striving to evoke republican ideals commonly used representations of Libertas
as an allegorical symbol.[19] A figure of Liberty was also depicted on the Great Seal of France.[19] However, Bartholdi and Laboulaye avoided an image of revolutionary liberty such as that depicted in Eugène Delacroix's famed Liberty Leading the People
Liberty Leading the People
(1830). In this painting, which commemorates France's Revolution of 1830, a half-clothed Liberty leads an armed mob over the bodies of the fallen.[20] Laboulaye had no sympathy for revolution, and so Bartholdi's figure would be fully dressed in flowing robes.[20] Instead of the impression of violence in the Delacroix work, Bartholdi wished to give the statue a peaceful appearance and chose a torch, representing progress, for the figure to hold.[21] Crawford's statue was designed in the early 1850s. It was originally to be crowned with a pileus, the cap given to emancipated slaves in ancient Rome. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, a Southerner who would later serve as President of the Confederate States of America, was concerned that the pileus would be taken as an abolitionist symbol. He ordered that it be changed to a helmet.[22] Delacroix's figure wears a pileus,[20] and Bartholdi at first considered placing one on his figure as well. Instead, he used a diadem, or crown, to top its head.[23] In so doing, he avoided a reference to Marianne, who invariably wears a pileus.[24] The seven rays form a halo or aureole.[25] They evoke the sun, the seven seas, and the seven continents,[26] and represent another means, besides the torch, whereby Liberty enlightens the world.[21] Bartholdi's early models were all similar in concept: a female figure in neoclassical style representing liberty, wearing a stola and pella (gown and cloak, common in depictions of Roman goddesses) and holding a torch aloft. According to popular accounts, the face was modeled after that of Charlotte Beysser Bartholdi, the sculptor's mother,[27] but Regis Huber, the curator of the Bartholdi Museum is on record as saying that this, as well as other similar speculations, have no basis in fact.[28] He designed the figure with a strong, uncomplicated silhouette, which would be set off well by its dramatic harbor placement and allow passengers on vessels entering New York Bay to experience a changing perspective on the statue as they proceeded toward Manhattan. He gave it bold classical contours and applied simplified modeling, reflecting the huge scale of the project and its solemn purpose.[21] Bartholdi wrote of his technique:

Thomas Crawford's Statue of Freedom

The surfaces should be broad and simple, defined by a bold and clear design, accentuated in the important places. The enlargement of the details or their multiplicity is to be feared. By exaggerating the forms, in order to render them more clearly visible, or by enriching them with details, we would destroy the proportion of the work. Finally, the model, like the design, should have a summarized character, such as one would give to a rapid sketch. Only it is necessary that this character should be the product of volition and study, and that the artist, concentrating his knowledge, should find the form and the line in its greatest simplicity.[29]

Bartholdi made alterations in the design as the project evolved. Bartholdi considered having Liberty hold a broken chain, but decided this would be too divisive in the days after the Civil War. The erected statue does rise over a broken chain, half-hidden by her robes and difficult to see from the ground.[23] Bartholdi was initially uncertain of what to place in Liberty's left hand; he settled on a tabula ansata,[30] used to evoke the concept of law.[31] Though Bartholdi greatly admired the United States
United States
Constitution, he chose to inscribe "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" on the tablet, thus associating the date of the country's Declaration of Independence with the concept of liberty.[30] Bartholdi interested his friend and mentor, architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, in the project.[28] As chief engineer,[28] Viollet-le-Duc designed a brick pier within the statue, to which the skin would be anchored.[32] After consultations with the metalwork foundry Gaget, Gauthier & Co., Viollet-le-Duc chose the metal which would be used for the skin, copper sheets, and the method used to shape it, repoussé, in which the sheets were heated and then struck with wooden hammers.[28][33] An advantage of this choice was that the entire statue would be light for its volume, as the copper need be only 0.094 inches (2.4 mm) thick. Bartholdi had decided on a height of just over 151 feet (46 m) for the statue, double that of Italy's Sancarlone
and the German statue of Arminius, both made with the same method.[34] Announcement and early work By 1875, France was enjoying improved political stability and a recovering postwar economy. Growing interest in the upcoming Centennial Exposition
Centennial Exposition
in Philadelphia led Laboulaye to decide it was time to seek public support.[35] In September 1875, he announced the project and the formation of the Franco-American Union as its fundraising arm. With the announcement, the statue was given a name, Liberty Enlightening the World.[36] The French would finance the statue; Americans would be expected to pay for the pedestal.[37] The announcement provoked a generally favorable reaction in France, though many Frenchmen resented the United States
United States
for not coming to their aid during the war with Prussia.[36] French monarchists opposed the statue, if for no other reason than it was proposed by the liberal Laboulaye, who had recently been elected a senator for life.[37] Laboulaye arranged events designed to appeal to the rich and powerful, including a special performance at the Paris Opera
Paris Opera
on April 25, 1876, that featured a new cantata by composer Charles Gounod. The piece was titled La Liberté éclairant le monde, the French version of the statue's announced name.[36]

Stereoscopic image of right arm and torch of the Statue of Liberty, 1876 Centennial Exposition

Despite its initial focus on the elites, the Union was successful in raising funds from across French society. Schoolchildren and ordinary citizens gave, as did 181 French municipalities. Laboulaye's political allies supported the call, as did descendants of the French contingent in the American Revolutionary War. Less idealistically, contributions came from those who hoped for American support in the French attempt to build the Panama Canal. The copper may have come from multiple sources and some of it is said to have come from a mine in Visnes, Norway,[38] though this has not been conclusively determined after testing samples.[39] According to Cara Sutherland in her book on the statue for the Museum of the City of New York, 90,800 kilos (200,000 pounds) was needed to build the statue, and the French copper industrialist Eugène Secrétan
Eugène Secrétan
donated 58,100 kilos (128,000 pounds) of copper.[40] Although plans for the statue had not been finalized, Bartholdi moved forward with fabrication of the right arm, bearing the torch, and the head. Work began at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. workshop.[41] In May 1876, Bartholdi traveled to the United States
United States
as a member of a French delegation to the Centennial Exhibition,[42] and arranged for a huge painting of the statue to be shown in New York as part of the Centennial festivities.[43] The arm did not arrive in Philadelphia until August; because of its late arrival, it was not listed in the exhibition catalogue, and while some reports correctly identified the work, others called it the "Colossal Arm" or "Bartholdi Electric Light". The exhibition grounds contained a number of monumental artworks to compete for fairgoers' interest, including an outsized fountain designed by Bartholdi.[44] Nevertheless, the arm proved popular in the exhibition's waning days, and visitors would climb up to the balcony of the torch to view the fairgrounds.[45] After the exhibition closed, the arm was transported to New York, where it remained on display in Madison Square Park
Madison Square Park
for several years before it was returned to France to join the rest of the statue.[45] During his second trip to the United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union.[46] Committees to raise money to pay for the foundation and pedestal were formed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia.[47] The New York group eventually took on most of the responsibility for American fundraising and is often referred to as the "American Committee".[48] One of its members was 19-year-old Theodore Roosevelt, the future governor of New York and president of the United States.[46] On March 3, 1877, on his final full day in office, President Grant signed a joint resolution that authorized the President to accept the statue when it was presented by France and to select a site for it. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who took office the following day, selected the Bedloe's Island site that Bartholdi had proposed.[49] Construction in France

The statue's head on exhibit at the Paris World's Fair, 1878

On his return to Paris in 1877, Bartholdi concentrated on completing the head, which was exhibited at the 1878 Paris World's Fair. Fundraising continued, with models of the statue put on sale. Tickets to view the construction activity at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. workshop were also offered.[50] The French government authorized a lottery; among the prizes were valuable silver plate and a terracotta model of the statue. By the end of 1879, about 250,000 francs had been raised.[51] The head and arm had been built with assistance from Viollet-le-Duc, who fell ill in 1879. He soon died, leaving no indication of how he intended to transition from the copper skin to his proposed masonry pier.[52] The following year, Bartholdi was able to obtain the services of the innovative designer and builder Gustave Eiffel.[50] Eiffel and his structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin, decided to abandon the pier and instead build an iron truss tower. Eiffel opted not to use a completely rigid structure, which would force stresses to accumulate in the skin and lead eventually to cracking. A secondary skeleton was attached to the center pylon, then, to enable the statue to move slightly in the winds of New York Harbor
New York Harbor
and as the metal expanded on hot summer days, he loosely connected the support structure to the skin using flat iron bars[28] which culminated in a mesh of metal straps, known as "saddles", that were riveted to the skin, providing firm support. In a labor-intensive process, each saddle had to be crafted individually.[53][54] To prevent galvanic corrosion between the copper skin and the iron support structure, Eiffel insulated the skin with asbestos impregnated with shellac.[55] Eiffel's design made the statue one of the earliest examples of curtain wall construction, in which the exterior of the structure is not load bearing, but is instead supported by an interior framework. He included two interior spiral staircases, to make it easier for visitors to reach the observation point in the crown.[56] Access to an observation platform surrounding the torch was also provided, but the narrowness of the arm allowed for only a single ladder, 40 feet (12 m) long.[57] As the pylon tower arose, Eiffel and Bartholdi coordinated their work carefully so that completed segments of skin would fit exactly on the support structure.[58] The components of the pylon tower were built in the Eiffel factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret.[59] The change in structural material from masonry to iron allowed Bartholdi to change his plans for the statue's assembly. He had originally expected to assemble the skin on-site as the masonry pier was built; instead he decided to build the statue in France and have it disassembled and transported to the United States
United States
for reassembly in place on Bedloe's Island.[60] In a symbolic act, the first rivet placed into the skin, fixing a copper plate onto the statue's big toe, was driven by United States Ambassador to France Levi P. Morton.[61] The skin was not, however, crafted in exact sequence from low to high; work proceeded on a number of segments simultaneously in a manner often confusing to visitors.[62] Some work was performed by contractors—one of the fingers was made to Bartholdi's exacting specifications by a coppersmith in the southern French town of Montauban.[63] By 1882, the statue was complete up to the waist, an event Barthodi celebrated by inviting reporters to lunch on a platform built within the statue.[64] Laboulaye died in 1883. He was succeeded as chairman of the French committee by Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal. The completed statue was formally presented to Ambassador Morton at a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York.[65] The statue remained intact in Paris pending sufficient progress on the pedestal; by January 1885, this had occurred and the statue was disassembled and crated for its ocean voyage.[66]

Richard Morris Hunt's pedestal under construction in June 1885

The committees in the United States
United States
faced great difficulties in obtaining funds for the construction of the pedestal. The Panic of 1873 had led to an economic depression that persisted through much of the decade. The Liberty statue project was not the only such undertaking that had difficulty raising money: construction of the obelisk later known as the Washington Monument
Washington Monument
sometimes stalled for years; it would ultimately take over three-and-a-half decades to complete.[67] There was criticism both of Bartholdi's statue and of the fact that the gift required Americans to foot the bill for the pedestal. In the years following the Civil War, most Americans preferred realistic artworks depicting heroes and events from the nation's history, rather than allegorical works like the Liberty statue.[67] There was also a feeling that Americans should design American public works—the selection of Italian-born Constantino Brumidi to decorate the Capitol had provoked intense criticism, even though he was a naturalized U.S. citizen.[68] Harper's Weekly
Harper's Weekly
declared its wish that "M. Bartholdi and our French cousins had 'gone the whole figure' while they were about it, and given us statue and pedestal at once."[69] The New York Times stated that "no true patriot can countenance any such expenditures for bronze females in the present state of our finances."[70] Faced with these criticisms, the American committees took little action for several years.[70] Design

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 1885, showing (clockwise from left) woodcuts of the completed statue in Paris, Bartholdi, and the statue's interior structure

The foundation of Bartholdi's statue was to be laid inside Fort Wood, a disused army base on Bedloe's Island constructed between 1807 and 1811. Since 1823, it had rarely been used, though during the Civil War, it had served as a recruiting station.[71] The fortifications of the structure were in the shape of an eleven-point star. The statue's foundation and pedestal were aligned so that it would face southeast, greeting ships entering the harbor from the Atlantic Ocean.[72] In 1881, the New York committee commissioned Richard Morris Hunt
Richard Morris Hunt
to design the pedestal. Within months, Hunt submitted a detailed plan, indicating that he expected construction to take about nine months.[73] He proposed a pedestal 114 feet (35 m) in height; faced with money problems, the committee reduced that to 89 feet (27 m).[74] Hunt's pedestal design contains elements of classical architecture, including Doric portals, as well as some elements influenced by Aztec architecture.[28] The large mass is fragmented with architectural detail, in order to focus attention on the statue.[74] In form, it is a truncated pyramid, 62 feet (19 m) square at the base and 39.4 feet (12.0 m) at the top. The four sides are identical in appearance. Above the door on each side, there are ten disks upon which Bartholdi proposed to place the coats of arms of the states (between 1876 and 1889, there were 38 U.S. states), although this was not done. Above that, a balcony was placed on each side, framed by pillars. Bartholdi placed an observation platform near the top of the pedestal, above which the statue itself rises.[75] According to author Louis Auchincloss, the pedestal "craggily evokes the power of an ancient Europe over which rises the dominating figure of the Statue of Liberty".[74] The committee hired former army General Charles Pomeroy Stone to oversee the construction work.[76] Construction on the 15-foot-deep (4.6 m) foundation began in 1883, and the pedestal's cornerstone was laid in 1884.[73] In Hunt's original conception, the pedestal was to have been made of solid granite. Financial concerns again forced him to revise his plans; the final design called for poured concrete walls, up to 20 feet (6.1 m) thick, faced with granite blocks.[77][78] This Stony Creek granite came from the Beattie Quarry in Branford, Connecticut.[79] The concrete mass was the largest poured to that time.[78] Norwegian immigrant civil engineer Joachim Goschen Giæver designed the structural framework for the Statue of Liberty. His work involved design computations, detailed fabrication and construction drawings, and oversight of construction. In completing his engineering for the statue's frame, Giæver worked from drawings and sketches produced by Gustave Eiffel.[80] Fundraising

Unpacking of the face of the Statue of Liberty, which was delivered on June 17, 1885

Fundraising for the statue had begun in 1882. The committee organized a large number of money-raising events.[81] As part of one such effort, an auction of art and manuscripts, poet Emma Lazarus
Emma Lazarus
was asked to donate an original work. She initially declined, stating she could not write a poem about a statue. At the time, she was also involved in aiding refugees to New York who had fled anti-Semitic pogroms in eastern Europe. These refugees were forced to live in conditions that the wealthy Lazarus had never experienced. She saw a way to express her empathy for these refugees in terms of the statue.[82] The resulting sonnet, "The New Colossus", including the iconic lines "Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free", is uniquely identified with the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
and is inscribed on a plaque in the museum in its base.[83] Even with these efforts, fundraising lagged. Grover Cleveland, the governor of New York, vetoed a bill to provide $50,000 for the statue project in 1884. An attempt the next year to have Congress provide $100,000, sufficient to complete the project, also failed. The New York committee, with only $3,000 in the bank, suspended work on the pedestal. With the project in jeopardy, groups from other American cities, including Boston and Philadelphia, offered to pay the full cost of erecting the statue in return for relocating it.[84] Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World, a New York newspaper, announced a drive to raise $100,000—the equivalent of $2.3 million today.[85] Pulitzer pledged to print the name of every contributor, no matter how small the amount given.[86] The drive captured the imagination of New Yorkers, especially when Pulitzer began publishing the notes he received from contributors. "A young girl alone in the world" donated "60 cents, the result of self denial."[87] One donor gave "five cents as a poor office boy's mite toward the Pedestal Fund." A group of children sent a dollar as "the money we saved to go to the circus with."[88] Another dollar was given by a "lonely and very aged woman."[87] Residents of a home for alcoholics in New York's rival city of Brooklyn—the cities would not merge until 1898—donated $15; other drinkers helped out through donation boxes in bars and saloons.[89] A kindergarten class in Davenport, Iowa, mailed the World a gift of $1.35.[87] As the donations flooded in, the committee resumed work on the pedestal.[90] Construction On June 17, 1885, the French steamer Isère, laden with the Statue of Liberty, reached the New York port safely. New Yorkers displayed their new-found enthusiasm for the statue, as the French vessel arrived with the crates holding the disassembled statue on board. Two hundred thousand people lined the docks and hundreds of boats put to sea to welcome the Isère.[91] [92] After five months of daily calls to donate to the statue fund, on August 11, 1885, the World announced that $102,000 had been raised from 120,000 donors, and that 80 percent of the total had been received in sums of less than one dollar.[93] Even with the success of the fund drive, the pedestal was not completed until April 1886. Immediately thereafter, reassembly of the statue began. Eiffel's iron framework was anchored to steel I-beams within the concrete pedestal and assembled.[94] Once this was done, the sections of skin were carefully attached.[95] Due to the width of the pedestal, it was not possible to erect scaffolding, and workers dangled from ropes while installing the skin sections. Nevertheless, no one died during the construction.[96] Bartholdi had planned to put floodlights on the torch's balcony to illuminate it; a week before the dedication, the Army Corps of Engineers vetoed the proposal, fearing that ships' pilots passing the statue would be blinded. Instead, Bartholdi cut portholes in the torch—which was covered with gold leaf—and placed the lights inside them.[97] A power plant was installed on the island to light the torch and for other electrical needs.[98] After the skin was completed, renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, co-designer of New York's Central Park
Central Park
and Brooklyn's Prospect Park, supervised a cleanup of Bedloe's Island in anticipation of the dedication.[99] Dedication

Unveiling of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Enlightening the World (1886) by Edward Moran. Oil on canvas. The J. Clarence Davies Collection, Museum of the City of New York.

A ceremony of dedication was held on the afternoon of October 28, 1886. President Grover Cleveland, the former New York governor, presided over the event.[100] On the morning of the dedication, a parade was held in New York City; estimates of the number of people who watched it ranged from several hundred thousand to a million. President Cleveland headed the procession, then stood in the reviewing stand to see bands and marchers from across America. General Stone was the grand marshal of the parade. The route began at Madison Square, once the venue for the arm, and proceeded to the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan
by way of Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
and Broadway, with a slight detour so the parade could pass in front of the World building on Park Row. As the parade passed the New York Stock Exchange, traders threw ticker tape from the windows, beginning the New York tradition of the ticker-tape parade.[101] A nautical parade began at 12:45 p.m., and President Cleveland embarked on a yacht that took him across the harbor to Bedloe's Island for the dedication.[102] De Lesseps made the first speech, on behalf of the French committee, followed by the chairman of the New York committee, Senator William M. Evarts. A French flag draped across the statue's face was to be lowered to unveil the statue at the close of Evarts's speech, but Bartholdi mistook a pause as the conclusion and let the flag fall prematurely. The ensuing cheers put an end to Evarts's address.[101] President Cleveland spoke next, stating that the statue's "stream of light shall pierce the darkness of ignorance and man's oppression until Liberty enlightens the world".[103] Bartholdi, observed near the dais, was called upon to speak, but he declined. Orator Chauncey M. Depew
Chauncey M. Depew
concluded the speechmaking with a lengthy address.[104] No members of the general public were permitted on the island during the ceremonies, which were reserved entirely for dignitaries. The only females granted access were Bartholdi's wife and de Lesseps's granddaughter; officials stated that they feared women might be injured in the crush of people. The restriction offended area suffragists, who chartered a boat and got as close as they could to the island. The group's leaders made speeches applauding the embodiment of Liberty as a woman and advocating women's right to vote.[103] A scheduled fireworks display was postponed until November 1 because of poor weather.[105] Shortly after the dedication, The Cleveland Gazette, an African American newspaper, suggested that the statue's torch not be lit until the United States
United States
became a free nation "in reality":

"Liberty enlightening the world," indeed! The expression makes us sick. This government is a howling farce. It can not or rather does not protect its citizens within its own borders. Shove the Bartholdi statue, torch and all, into the ocean until the "liberty" of this country is such as to make it possible for an inoffensive and industrious colored man to earn a respectable living for himself and family, without being ku-kluxed, perhaps murdered, his daughter and wife outraged, and his property destroyed. The idea of the "liberty" of this country "enlightening the world," or even Patagonia, is ridiculous in the extreme.[106]

After dedication Lighthouse
Board and War Department (1886–1933)

Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
ca. 1900

Government poster using the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
to promote the sale of Liberty Bonds

When the torch was illuminated on the evening of the statue's dedication, it produced only a faint gleam, barely visible from Manhattan. The World characterized it as "more like a glowworm than a beacon."[98] Bartholdi suggested gilding the statue to increase its ability to reflect light, but this proved too expensive. The United States Lighthouse
Board took over the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
in 1887 and pledged to install equipment to enhance the torch's effect; in spite of its efforts, the statue remained virtually invisible at night. When Bartholdi returned to the United States
United States
in 1893, he made additional suggestions, all of which proved ineffective. He did successfully lobby for improved lighting within the statue, allowing visitors to better appreciate Eiffel's design.[98] In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt, once a member of the New York committee, ordered the statue's transfer to the War Department, as it had proved useless as a lighthouse.[107] A unit of the Army Signal Corps
Army Signal Corps
was stationed on Bedloe's Island until 1923, after which military police remained there while the island was under military jurisdiction.[108] The statue rapidly became a landmark. Many immigrants who entered through New York saw it as a welcoming sight. Oral histories of immigrants record their feelings of exhilaration on first viewing the Statue of Liberty. One immigrant who arrived from Greece recalled,

I saw the Statue of Liberty. And I said to myself, "Lady, you're such a beautiful! [sic] You opened your arms and you get all the foreigners here. Give me a chance to prove that I am worth it, to do something, to be someone in America." And always that statue was on my mind.[109]

Originally, the statue was a dull copper color, but shortly after 1900 a green patina, also called verdigris, caused by the oxidation of the copper skin, began to spread. As early as 1902 it was mentioned in the press; by 1906 it had entirely covered the statue.[110] Believing that the patina was evidence of corrosion, Congress authorized US$62,800 (equivalent to $1,710,486 in 2017) for various repairs, and to paint the statue both inside and out.[111] There was considerable public protest against the proposed exterior painting.[112] The Army Corps of Engineers studied the patina for any ill effects to the statue and concluded that it protected the skin, "softened the outlines of the Statue and made it beautiful."[113] The statue was painted only on the inside. The Corps of Engineers also installed an elevator to take visitors from the base to the top of the pedestal.[113] On July 30, 1916, during World War I, German saboteurs set off a disastrous explosion on the Black Tom peninsula in Jersey City, New Jersey, in what is now part of Liberty State Park, close to Bedloe's Island. Carloads of dynamite and other explosives that were being sent to Britain and France for their war efforts were detonated, and seven people were killed. The statue sustained minor damage, mostly to the torch-bearing right arm, and was closed for ten days. The cost to repair the statue and buildings on the island was about US$100,000 (equivalent to $2,248,930 in 2017). The narrow ascent to the torch was closed for public-safety reasons, and it has remained closed ever since.[104] That same year, Ralph Pulitzer, who had succeeded his father Joseph as publisher of the World, began a drive to raise US$30,000 (equivalent to $674,679 in 2017) for an exterior lighting system to illuminate the statue at night. He claimed over 80,000 contributors, but failed to reach the goal. The difference was quietly made up by a gift from a wealthy donor—a fact that was not revealed until 1936. An underwater power cable brought electricity from the mainland and floodlights were placed along the walls of Fort Wood. Gutzon Borglum, who later sculpted Mount Rushmore, redesigned the torch, replacing much of the original copper with stained glass. On December 2, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
pressed the telegraph key that turned on the lights, successfully illuminating the statue.[114] After the United States
United States
entered World War I in 1917, images of the statue were heavily used in both recruitment posters and the Liberty Bond drives that urged American citizens to support the war financially. This impressed upon the public the war's stated purpose—to secure liberty—and served as a reminder that embattled France had given the United States
United States
the statue.[115] In 1924, President Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
used his authority under the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
to declare the statue a National Monument.[107] The only successful suicide in the statue's history occurred five years later, when a man climbed out of one of the windows in the crown and jumped to his death, glancing off the statue's breast and landing on the base.[116] Early National Park Service
National Park Service
years (1933–1982)

Bedloe's Island in 1927, showing the statue and army buildings. The eleven-pointed walls of Fort Wood, which still form the statue's base, are visible.

In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt
Franklin Roosevelt
ordered the statue to be transferred to the National Park Service
National Park Service
(NPS). In 1937, the NPS gained jurisdiction over the rest of Bedloe's Island.[107] With the Army's departure, the NPS began to transform the island into a park.[117] The Works Progress Administration
Works Progress Administration
(WPA) demolished most of the old buildings, regraded and reseeded the eastern end of the island, and built granite steps for a new public entrance to the statue from its rear. The WPA also carried out restoration work within the statue, temporarily removing the rays from the statue's halo so their rusted supports could be replaced. Rusted cast-iron steps in the pedestal were replaced with new ones made of reinforced concrete;[118] the upper parts of the stairways within the statue were replaced, as well. Copper sheathing was installed to prevent further damage from rainwater that had been seeping into the pedestal.[119] The statue was closed to the public from May until December 1938.[118] During World War II, the statue remained open to visitors, although it was not illuminated at night due to wartime blackouts. It was lit briefly on December 31, 1943, and on D-Day, June 6, 1944, when its lights flashed "dot-dot-dot-dash", the Morse code
Morse code
for V, for victory. New, powerful lighting was installed in 1944–1945, and beginning on V-E Day, the statue was once again illuminated after sunset. The lighting was for only a few hours each evening, and it was not until 1957 that the statue was illuminated every night, all night.[120] In 1946, the interior of the statue within reach of visitors was coated with a special plastic so that graffiti could be washed away.[119] In 1956, an Act of Congress
Act of Congress
officially renamed Bedloe's Island as Liberty Island, a change advocated by Bartholdi generations earlier. The act also mentioned the efforts to found an American Museum of Immigration on the island, which backers took as federal approval of the project, though the government was slow to grant funds for it.[121] Nearby Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument by proclamation of President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
in 1965.[107] In 1972, the immigration museum, in the statue's base, was finally opened in a ceremony led by President Richard Nixon. The museum's backers never provided it with an endowment to secure its future and it closed in 1991 after the opening of an immigration museum on Ellis Island.[94]

September 26, 1972: President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
visits the statue to open the American Museum of Immigration. The statue's raised right foot is visible, showing that it is depicted moving forward.

In 1970, Ivy Bottini led a demonstration at the statue where she and others from the National Organization for Women's New York chapter draped an enormous banner over a railing which read "WOMEN OF THE WORLD UNITE!"[122][123] Beginning December 26, 1971, 15 anti-Vietnam War veterans occupied the statue, flying a US flag upside down from her crown. They left December 28 following a Federal Court order.[124] The statue was also several times taken over briefly by demonstrators publicizing causes such as Puerto Rican independence, opposition to abortion, and opposition to US intervention in Grenada. Demonstrations with the permission of the Park Service included a Gay Pride Parade
Gay Pride Parade
rally and the annual Captive Baltic Nations rally.[125] A powerful new lighting system was installed in advance of the American Bicentennial
American Bicentennial
in 1976. The statue was the focal point for Operation Sail, a regatta of tall ships from all over the world that entered New York Harbor
New York Harbor
on July 4, 1976, and sailed around Liberty Island.[126] The day concluded with a spectacular display of fireworks near the statue.[127] Renovation and rededication (1982–2000)

July 4, 1986: First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
(in red) reopens the statue to the public.

Main article: Conservation-restoration of the Statue of Liberty See also: Liberty Weekend The statue was examined in great detail by French and American engineers as part of the planning for its centennial in 1986.[128] In 1982, it was announced that the statue was in need of considerable restoration. Careful study had revealed that the right arm had been improperly attached to the main structure. It was swaying more and more when strong winds blew and there was a significant risk of structural failure. In addition, the head had been installed 2 feet (0.61 m) off center, and one of the rays was wearing a hole in the right arm when the statue moved in the wind. The armature structure was badly corroded, and about two percent of the exterior plates needed to be replaced.[129] Although problems with the armature had been recognized as early as 1936, when cast iron replacements for some of the bars had been installed, much of the corrosion had been hidden by layers of paint applied over the years.[130] In May 1982, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
announced the formation of the Statue of Liberty– Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Centennial Commission, led by Chrysler Corporation
Chrysler Corporation
chair Lee Iacocca, to raise the funds needed to complete the work.[131] Through its fundraising arm, the Statue of Liberty– Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Foundation, Inc., the group raised more than $350 million in donations.[132] The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
was one of the earliest beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. A 1983 promotion advertised that for each purchase made with an American Express card, the company would contribute one cent to the renovation of the statue. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7 million to the restoration project.[133] In 1984, the statue was closed to the public for the duration of the renovation. Workers erected the world's largest free-standing scaffold,[28] which obscured the statue from view. Liquid nitrogen
Liquid nitrogen
was used to remove layers of paint that had been applied to the interior of the copper skin over decades, leaving two layers of coal tar, originally applied to plug leaks and prevent corrosion. Blasting with baking soda powder removed the tar without further damaging the copper.[134] The restorers' work was hampered by the asbestos-based substance that Bartholdi had used—ineffectively, as inspections showed—to prevent galvanic corrosion. Workers within the statue had to wear protective gear, dubbed "moon suits", with self-contained breathing circuits.[135] Larger holes in the copper skin were repaired, and new copper was added where necessary.[136] The replacement skin was taken from a copper rooftop at Bell Labs, which had a patina that closely resembled the statue's; in exchange, the laboratory was provided some of the old copper skin for testing.[137] The torch, found to have been leaking water since the 1916 alterations, was replaced with an exact replica of Bartholdi's unaltered torch.[138] Consideration was given to replacing the arm and shoulder; the National Park Service
National Park Service
insisted that they be repaired instead.[139] The original torch was removed and replaced in 1986 with the current one, whose flame is covered in 24-carat gold.[31] The torch reflects the sun's rays in daytime and is lighted by floodlights at night.[31]

Liberty Enlightening the World

The entire puddled iron armature designed by Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
was replaced. Low-carbon corrosion-resistant stainless steel bars that now hold the staples next to the skin are made of Ferralium, an alloy that bends slightly and returns to its original shape as the statue moves.[140] To prevent the ray and arm making contact, the ray was realigned by several degrees.[141] The lighting was again replaced—night-time illumination subsequently came from metal-halide lamps that send beams of light to particular parts of the pedestal or statue, showing off various details.[142] Access to the pedestal, which had been through a nondescript entrance built in the 1960s, was renovated to create a wide opening framed by a set of monumental bronze doors with designs symbolic of the renovation.[143] A modern elevator was installed, allowing handicapped access to the observation area of the pedestal.[144] An emergency elevator was installed within the statue, reaching up to the level of the shoulder.[145] July 3–6, 1986, was designated "Liberty Weekend", marking the centennial of the statue and its reopening. President Reagan presided over the rededication, with French President François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
in attendance. July 4 saw a reprise of Operation Sail,[146] and the statue was reopened to the public on July 5.[147] In Reagan's dedication speech, he stated, "We are the keepers of the flame of liberty; we hold it high for the world to see."[146] Closures and reopenings (2001–present)

The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
on September 11, 2001 as the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center burn in the background

Following the September 11 attacks, the statue and Liberty Island
Liberty Island
were immediately closed to the public. The island reopened at the end of 2001, while the pedestal and statue remained off-limits. The pedestal reopened in August 2004,[147] but the National Park Service
National Park Service
announced that visitors could not safely be given access to the statue due to the difficulty of evacuation in an emergency. The Park Service adhered to that position through the remainder of the Bush administration.[148] New York Congressman Anthony Weiner
Anthony Weiner
made the statue's reopening a personal crusade.[149] On May 17, 2009, President Barack Obama's Secretary of the Interior, Ken Salazar, announced that as a "special gift" to America, the statue would be reopened to the public as of July 4, but that only a limited number of people would be permitted to ascend to the crown each day.[148] The statue, including the pedestal and base, closed on October 29, 2011, for installation of new elevators and staircases and to bring other facilities, such as restrooms, up to code. The statue was reopened on October 28, 2012,[1][150][151] only to close again a day later due to Hurricane Sandy.[152] Although the storm did not harm the statue, it destroyed some of the infrastructure on both Liberty Island and Ellis Island, severely damaging the dock used by the ferries bearing visitors to the statue. On November 8, 2012, a Park Service spokesperson announced that both islands would remain closed for an indefinite period for repairs to be done.[153] Due to lack of electricity on Liberty Island, a generator was installed to power temporary floodlights to illuminate the statue at night. The superintendent of Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument, David Luchsinger, whose home on the island was severely damaged, stated that it would be "optimistically ... months" before the island was reopened to the public.[154] The statue and Liberty Island
Liberty Island
reopened to the public on July 4, 2013.[155] Ellis Island
Ellis Island
remained closed for repairs for several more months but reopened in late October 2013.[156] For part of October 2013, Liberty Island
Liberty Island
was closed to the public due to the United States
United States
federal government shutdown of 2013, along with other federally funded museums, parks, monuments, construction projects and buildings.[157]

The new staircase to the crown

On October 7, 2016, construction started on a new Statue of Liberty museum on Liberty Island. The new $70 million, 26,000-square-foot (2,400 m2) museum will be able to accommodate all of the island's visitors when it opens in 2019, as opposed to the current museum, which only 20% of the island's visitors can visit.[158] The original torch will be relocated here, and in addition to exhibits relating to the statue's construction and history, there will be a theater where visitors can watch an aerial view of the statue.[158][159] The museum, designed by FXFOWLE Architects, will integrate with the parkland around it.[159] It is being funded privately by Diane von Fürstenberg, Michael Bloomberg, Jeff Bezos, Coca-Cola, NBCUniversal, the family of Laurence Tisch
Laurence Tisch
and Preston Robert Tisch, Mellody Hobson, and George Lucas.[160] Von Fürstenberg heads the fundraising for the museum, and the project had garnered more than $40 million in fundraising as of groundbreaking.[159] Access and attributes Location and tourism

Tourists aboard a Circle Line ferry arriving at Liberty Island, June 1973

The statue is situated in Upper New York Bay on Liberty Island
Liberty Island
south of Ellis Island, which together comprise the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Both islands were ceded by New York to the federal government in 1800.[161] As agreed in an 1834 compact between New York and New Jersey that set the state border at the bay's midpoint, the original islands remain New York territory despite their location on the New Jersey side of the state line. Liberty Island
Liberty Island
is one of the islands that are part of the borough of Manhattan
in New York. Land created by reclamation added to the 2.3 acres (0.93 ha) original island at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
is New Jersey territory.[162] No charge is made for entrance to the national monument, but there is a cost for the ferry service that all visitors must use, as private boats may not dock at the island. A concession was granted in 2007 to Statue Cruises
Statue Cruises
to operate the transportation and ticketing facilities, replacing Circle Line, which had operated the service since 1953.[163] The ferries, which depart from Liberty State Park
Liberty State Park
in Jersey City and Battery Park in Lower Manhattan, also stop at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
when it is open to the public, making a combined trip possible.[164] All ferry riders are subject to security screening, similar to airport procedures, prior to boarding.[165] Visitors intending to enter the statue's base and pedestal must obtain a complimentary museum/pedestal ticket along with their ferry ticket.[166] Those wishing to climb the staircase within the statue to the crown purchase a special ticket, which may be reserved up to a year in advance. A total of 240 people per day are permitted to ascend: ten per group, three groups per hour. Climbers may bring only medication and cameras—lockers are provided for other items—and must undergo a second security screening.[167] Inscriptions, plaques, and dedications

The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
stands on Liberty Island.

There are several plaques and dedicatory tablets on or near the Statue of Liberty.

A plaque on the copper just under the figure in front declares that it is a colossal statue representing Liberty, designed by Bartholdi and built by the Paris firm of Gaget, Gauthier et Cie (Cie is the French abbreviation analogous to Co.). [168] A presentation tablet, also bearing Bartholdi's name, declares the statue is a gift from the people of the Republic of France that honors "the Alliance of the two Nations in achieving the Independence of the United States
United States
of America and attests their abiding friendship."[168] A tablet placed by the New York committee commemorates the fundraising done to build the pedestal.[168] The cornerstone bears a plaque placed by the Freemasons.[168] In 1903, a bronze tablet that bears the text of Emma Lazarus's sonnet, "The New Colossus" (1883), was presented by friends of the poet. Until the 1986 renovation, it was mounted inside the pedestal; today it resides in the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Museum, in the base.[168] "The New Colossus" tablet is accompanied by a tablet given by the Emma Lazarus Commemorative Committee in 1977, celebrating the poet's life.[168]

A group of statues stands at the western end of the island, honoring those closely associated with the Statue of Liberty. Two Americans—Pulitzer and Lazarus—and three Frenchmen—Bartholdi, Eiffel, and Laboulaye—are depicted. They are the work of Maryland sculptor Phillip Ratner.[169] UNESCO
World Heritage Site In 1984, the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
was designated a UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The UNESCO
"Statement of Significance" describes the statue as a "masterpiece of the human spirit" that "endures as a highly potent symbol—inspiring contemplation, debate and protest—of ideals such as liberty, peace, human rights, abolition of slavery, democracy and opportunity."[170] Physical characteristics

As viewed from the ground on Liberty Island

Feature[72] U.S. Metric

Height of copper statue 151 ft 1 in 46 m

Foundation of pedestal (ground level) to tip of torch 305 ft 1 in 93 m

Heel to top of head 111 ft 1 in 34 m

Height of hand 16 ft 5 in 5 m

Index finger 8 ft 1 in 2.44 m

Circumference at second joint 3 ft 6 in 1.07 m

Head from chin to cranium 17 ft 3 in 5.26 m

Head thickness from ear to ear 10 ft 0 in 3.05 m

Distance across the eye 2 ft 6 in 0.76 m

Length of nose 4 ft 6 in 1.48 m

Right arm length 42 ft 0 in 12.8 m

Right arm greatest thickness 12 ft 0 in 3.66 m

Thickness of waist 35 ft 0 in 10.67 m

Width of mouth 3 ft 0 in 0.91 m

Tablet, length 23 ft 7 in 7.19 m

Tablet, width 13 ft 7 in 4.14 m

Tablet, thickness 2 ft 0 in 0.61 m

Height of pedestal 89 ft 0 in 27.13 m

Height of foundation 65 ft 0 in 19.81 m

Weight of copper used in statue 60,000 pounds 27.22 tonnes

Weight of steel used in statue 250,000 pounds 113.4 tonnes

Total weight of statue 450,000 pounds 204.1 tonnes

Thickness of copper sheeting 3/32 of an inch 2.4 mm

Depictions See also: Replicas of the Statue of Liberty
Replicas of the Statue of Liberty
and Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
in popular culture

A replica of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
forms part of the exterior decor at the New York-New York Hotel and Casino
New York-New York Hotel and Casino
on the Las Vegas Strip

Hundreds of replicas of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
are displayed worldwide.[171] A smaller version of the statue, one-fourth the height of the original, was given by the American community in Paris to that city. It now stands on the Île aux Cygnes, facing west toward her larger sister.[171] A replica 30 feet (9.1 m) tall stood atop the Liberty Warehouse on West 64th Street in Manhattan
for many years;[171] it now resides at the Brooklyn
Museum.[172] In a patriotic tribute, the Boy Scouts of America, as part of their Strengthen the Arm of Liberty campaign in 1949–1952, donated about two hundred replicas of the statue, made of stamped copper and 100 inches (2,500 mm) in height, to states and municipalities across the United States.[173] Though not a true replica, the statue known as the Goddess of Democracy
Goddess of Democracy
temporarily erected during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 was similarly inspired by French democratic traditions—the sculptors took care to avoid a direct imitation of the Statue of Liberty.[174] Among other recreations of New York City structures, a replica of the statue is part of the exterior of the New York-New York Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas.[175]

Head of Liberty, U.S. airmail stamp, 1971 issue

Reverse side of a Presidential Dollar coin

As an American icon, the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
has been depicted on the country's coinage and stamps. It appeared on commemorative coins issued to mark its 1986 centennial, and on New York's 2001 entry in the state quarters series.[176] An image of the statue was chosen for the American Eagle platinum bullion coins in 1997, and it was placed on the reverse, or tails, side of the Presidential Dollar series of circulating coins.[26] Two images of the statue's torch appear on the current ten-dollar bill.[177] The statue's intended photographic depiction on a 2010 forever stamp proved instead to be of the replica at the Las Vegas casino.[178] Depictions of the statue have been used by many regional institutions. Between 1986[179] and 2000,[180] New York State issued license plates with an outline of the statue to either the front or the side of the serial number.[179][180] The Women's National Basketball Association's New York Liberty
New York Liberty
use both the statue's name and its image in their logo, in which the torch's flame doubles as a basketball.[181] The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
depicted the statue's head on their third jersey, beginning in 1997.[182] The National Collegiate Athletic Association's 1996 Men's Basketball Final Four, played at New Jersey's Meadowlands Sports Complex, featured the statue in its logo.[183] The Libertarian Party of the United States
United States
uses the statue in its emblem.[184] The statue is a frequent subject in popular culture. In music, it has been evoked to indicate support for American policies, as in Toby Keith's song "Courtesy of the Red, White and Blue (The Angry American)", and in opposition, appearing on the cover of the Dead Kennedys' album Bedtime for Democracy, which protested the Reagan administration.[185] In film, the torch is the setting for the climax of director Alfred Hitchcock's 1942 movie Saboteur.[186] The statue makes one of its most famous cinematic appearances in the 1968 picture Planet of the Apes, in which it is seen half-buried in sand.[185][187] It is knocked over in the science-fiction film Independence Day [188] and in Cloverfield
the head is ripped off.[189] In Jack Finney's time-travel novel Time and Again, the right arm of the statue, on display in the early 1880s in Madison Square
Madison Square
Park, plays a crucial role.[190] Robert Holdstock, consulting editor of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, wondered in 1979,

Where would science fiction be without the Statue of Liberty? For decades it has towered or crumbled above the wastelands of deserted [E]arth—giants have uprooted it, aliens have found it curious ... the symbol of Liberty, of optimism, has become a symbol of science fiction's pessimistic view of the future.[191]

See also

Approximate heights of various notable statues: 1. Spring Temple Buddha
Spring Temple Buddha
153 m (incl. 25 m pedestal and 20 m throne) 2. Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
93 m (incl. 47 m pedestal) 3. The Motherland Calls
The Motherland Calls
91 m (excl. pedestal) 4. Christ the Redeemer 38 m (incl. 8 m pedestal) 5. Statue of David 5.17 m (excl. 2.5 m pedestal)

New Jersey portal New York portal New York City
New York City
portal NRHP portal United States
United States
portal Visual arts portal

List of the tallest statues in the United States Place des États-Unis, in Paris, France The Statue of Liberty, 1985 Ken Burns documentary film Statues and sculptures in New York City List of statues by height

References Notes

^ a b " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument". National Park Service. December 31, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ Schneiderman, R.M. (June 28, 2010). "For tourists, Statue of Liberty is nice, but no Forever 21". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "National Monument Proclamations under the Antiquities Act". National Park Service. January 16, 2003. Archived from the original on October 25, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(1994). National Register of Historic Places, 1966–1994: Cumulative List Through January 1, 1994. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. p. 502. ISBN 978-0-89133-254-1.  ^ "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
– Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved August 2, 2014.  ^ " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument" (PDF). New York City
New York City
Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 14, 1976. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ a b c Harris 1985, pp. 7–9. ^ Joseph, Rebecca M.; Brooke Rosenblatt; Carolyn Kinebrew (September 2000). "The Black Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Rumor". National Park Service. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^ "Abolition". National Park Service. Retrieved July 7, 2014.  ^ "The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
and its Ties to the Middle East" (PDF). University of Chicago. Retrieved February 8, 2017.  ^ Harris 1985, pp. 7–8. ^ Khan 2010, pp. 60–61. ^ a b Moreno 2000, pp. 39–40. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 12–13. ^ Khan 2010, pp. 102–103. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 16–17. ^ a b Khan 2010, p. 85. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 10–11. ^ a b c d e Sutherland 2003, pp. 17–19. ^ a b c d e Bodnar, John (2006). "Monuments and Morals: The Nationalization of Civic Instruction". In Warren, Donald R.; Patrick, John J. Civic and Moral Learning in America. Macmillan. pp. 212–214. ISBN 978-1-4039-7396-2.  ^ a b c Turner, Jane (2000). The Grove Dictionary of Art: From Monet to Cézanne : Late 19th-century French Artists. Oxford University Press US. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-312-22971-9.  ^ Khan 2010, pp. 96–97. ^ a b Khan 2010, pp. 105–108. ^ Blume, Mary (July 16, 2004). "The French icon Marianne
à la mode". The New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "Get the Facts (Frequently Asked Questions about the Statue of Liberty)". Statue of Liberty. National Park Service. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ a b "Lady Liberty Reverse Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(1886)". Presidential $1 coin. United States
United States
Mint. Retrieved July 29, 2010.  ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 52–53, 55, 87. ^ a b c d e f g Interviewed for Watson, Corin. Statue of Liberty: Building a Colossus (TV documentary, 2001) ^ Bartholdi, Frédéric (1885). The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Enlightening the World. North American Review. p. 42.  ^ a b Khan 2010, pp. 108–111. ^ a b c "Frequently asked questions". Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument. National Park Service. Retrieved August 10, 2010.  ^ Khan 2010, p. 120. ^ Khan 2010, pp. 118, 125. ^ Harris 1985, p. 26. ^ Khan 2010, p. 121. ^ a b c Khan 2010, pp. 123–125. ^ a b Harris 1985, pp. 44–45. ^ "News of Norway". 1999. Archived from the original on September 16, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2010.  ^ "Answers about the Statue of Liberty, Part 2". The New York Times. July 2, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ Sutherland 2003, p. 36. ^ Khan 2010, pp. 126–128. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 25. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 26. ^ Khan 2010, p. 130. ^ a b Harris 1985, p. 49. ^ a b Khan 2010, p. 134. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 30. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 94. ^ Khan 2010, p. 135. ^ a b Khan 2010, p. 137. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 32. ^ Khan 2010, pp. 136–137. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 22. ^ Khan 2010, pp. 139–143. ^ Harris 1985, p. 30. ^ Harris 1985, p. 33. ^ Harris 1985, p. 32. ^ Harris 1985, p. 34. ^ "La tour a vu le jour à Levallois". Le Parisien (in French). April 30, 2004. Retrieved December 8, 2012.  ^ Khan 2010, p. 144. ^ "Statue of Liberty". pbs.org. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ Harris 1985, pp. 36–38. ^ Harris 1985, p. 39. ^ Harris 1985, p. 38. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 37. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 38. ^ a b Khan 2010, pp. 159–160. ^ Khan 2010, p. 163. ^ Khan 2010, p. 161. ^ a b Khan 2010, p. 160. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 91. ^ a b "Statistics". Statue of Liberty. National Park Service. August 16, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ a b Khan 2010, p. 169. ^ a b c Auchincloss, Louis (May 12, 1986). "Liberty: Building on the Past". New York: 87. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ Bartholdi, Frédéric (1885). The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Enlightening the World. North American Review. p. 62.  ^ Harris 1985, pp. 71–72. ^ Sutherland 2003, pp. 49–50. ^ a b Moreno 2000, pp. 184–186. ^ "Branford's History Is Set in Stone". Connecticut Humanities.  ^ "STRUCTUREmag – Structural Engineering Magazine, Tradeshow: Joachim Gotsche Giaver". archive.org. November 27, 2012. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012.  ^ Khan 2010, pp. 163–164. ^ Khan 2010, pp. 165–166. ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 172–175. ^ Levine, Benjamin; Story, Isabelle F. (1961). "Statue of Liberty". National Park Service. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ "Seven Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1774 to Present/". MeasuringWorth. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  (Consumer price index) ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, pp. 40–41. ^ a b c Harris 1985, p. 105. ^ Sutherland 2003, p. 51. ^ Harris 1985, p. 107. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 110–111. ^ Harris 1985, p. 112. ^ "The Isere-Bartholdi Gift Reaches the Horsehoe Safely" (PDF). The Evening Post. June 17, 1885. Retrieved February 11, 2013.  ^ Harris 1985, p. 114. ^ a b Moreno 2000, p. 19. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 49. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 64. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 36. ^ a b c Harris 1985, pp. 133–134. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 65. ^ Khan 2010, p. 176. ^ a b Khan 2010, pp. 177–178. ^ Bell & Abrams 1984, p. 52. ^ a b Harris 1985, p. 127. ^ a b Moreno 2000, p. 71. ^ Harris 1985, p. 128. ^ "Postponing Bartholdi's statue until there is liberty for colored as well". The Cleveland Gazette. Cleveland, Ohio. November 27, 1886. p. 2.  ^ a b c d Moreno 2000, p. 41. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 24. ^ Sutherland 2003, p. 78. ^ "Answers about the Statue of Liberty". The New York Times. July 1, 2009. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ "To paint Miss Liberty". The New York Times. July 19, 1906. p. 1. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ "How shall "Miss Liberty"'s toilet be made?". The New York Times. July 29, 1906. pp. SM2. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ a b Harris 1985, p. 168. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 136–139. ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 148–151. ^ Harris 1985, p. 147. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 136. ^ a b Moreno 2000, p. 202. ^ a b Harris 1985, p. 169. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 141–143. ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 147–148. ^ "Honorees". Lapride.org. January 4, 2007. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.  ^ "The Feminist Chronicles, 1953–1993 – 1970 – Feminist Majority Foundation". Feminist.org. Retrieved November 6, 2012.  ^ 1973 World Almanac and Book of Facts, p. 996. ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 72–73. ^ Harris 1985, p. 143. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 20. ^ Harris 1985, p. 165. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 169–171. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 38. ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 204–205. ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 216–218. ^ Daw, Jocelyne (March 2006). Cause Marketing for Nonprofits: Partner for Purpose, Passion, and Profits. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-471-71750-8.  ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 81. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 76. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 55. ^ Harris 1985, p. 172. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 153. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 75. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, pp. 74–76. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 57. ^ Moreno 2000, p. 153. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 71. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 84. ^ Hayden & Despont 1986, p. 88. ^ a b Sutherland 2003, p. 106. ^ a b "History and Culture". Statue of Liberty. National Park Service. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b Chan, Sewell (May 8, 2009). "Statue of Liberty's Crown Will Reopen July 4". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Neuman, William (July 5, 2007). "Congress to Ask Why Miss Liberty's Crown is Still Closed to Visitors". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Raja, Nina (August 10, 2010). " Liberty Island
Liberty Island
to remain open during statue's renovation". CNN. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
interior to re-open next month". AP via Fox News. September 11, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2016.  ^ Powlowski, A. (November 2, 2012). " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
closed for 'foreseeable future'". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.  ^ Mcgeehan, Patrick (November 8, 2012). "Storm leaves Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island
Ellis Island
cut off from visitors". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2012.  ^ Barron, James (November 30, 2012). " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
was unscathed by hurricane, but its home took a beating". The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2012.  ^ Long, Colleen (July 4, 2013). " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
reopens as US marks July Fourth". Yahoo! News. Retrieved July 4, 2013.  ^ Foderaro, Lisa (October 28, 2013). " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Welcoming Visitors Once Again, but Repairs Continue". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ Armaghan, Sarah (October 1, 2013). " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Closed in Shutdown". Wall Street Journal.  ^ a b Durkin, Erin (October 6, 2016). " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
getting new $70M museum set to open in 2019". NY Daily News. Retrieved October 7, 2016.  ^ a b c Plagianos, Irene (October 6, 2016). "See Designs for the New Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Museum". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved October 7, 2016.  ^ Pereira, Ivan (October 6, 2016). " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Museum to open in 2019". am New York. Retrieved October 7, 2016.  ^ "Early History of Bedloe's Island". Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Historical Handbook. National Park Service. Archived from the original on October 21, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ "NEW JERSEY v. NEW YORK 523 U.S. 767". Supreme Court of the United States. 1998. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Ramirez, Anthony (June 29, 2007). "Circle Line Loses Pact for Ferries to Liberty Island". New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ "NPS: Liberty and Ellis Island
Ellis Island
ferry map". Ferry Map. National Park Service. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ "For Your Safety and Security". Statue of Liberty. National Park Service. Retrieved August 30, 2011.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Statue of Liberty. National Park Service. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ "Frequently asked questions: Reserving tickets to visit the crown". Statue of Liberty. National Park Service. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b c d e f Moreno 2000, pp. 222–223. ^ Harris 1985, p. 163. ^ "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b c Moreno 2000, pp. 200–201. ^ "Collections: American Art: Replica of the Statue of Liberty, from Liberty Storage & Warehouse, 43–47 West 64th Street, NYC". Brooklyn
Museum. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Attoun, Marti (October 2007). "Little Sisters of Liberty". Scouting. Retrieved August 1, 2010.  ^ Moreno 2000, pp. 103–104. ^ Goldberger, Paul (January 15, 1997). "New York-New York, it's a Las Vegas town". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
postage stamps". Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ "The redesigned $10 note". newmoney.gov. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Severson, Kim; Healey, Matthew (April 14, 2011). "This Lady Liberty is a Las Vegas teenager". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b "State to start issuing new license plates July 1". The New York Times. January 24, 1986. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b "State license plates to get new look". The New York Times. January 11, 2000. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ "'Liberty' for New York club". The New York Times. February 14, 1997. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Lapointe, Joe (January 12, 1997). "Lady Liberty laces up at the Garden". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Sandomir, Richard (March 29, 1996). "Final Four: States put aside their rivalry and try a little cooperation". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Axinn, Mark (October 28, 2011). "The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
after 125 years – by LPNY Chair Mark Axinn". Libertarian Party of the United States. Retrieved November 19, 2012.  ^ a b Morris, Tracy S. "The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
in Popular Culture". USA Today. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Spoto, Donald (1983). The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock. Ballantine. pp. 262–263. ISBN 978-0-345-31462-8.  ^ Greene, Eric; Slotkin, Richard (1998). Planet of the Apes as American myth: race, politics, and popular culture. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8195-6329-3. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ "10 Movies That Hated The Statue Of Liberty >> Page 6 of 10". Archived from the original on March 24, 2014. Retrieved March 24, 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "'Cloverfield' Release Will Be Test of Online Hype : NPR". Archived from the original on April 14, 2008. Retrieved March 24, 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Darrach, Brad (June 26, 1970). "The spy who came in from 1882". Life. p. 16. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Nicholls, Peter (1979). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. St Albans, Herts, UK: Granada Publishing Ltd. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-586-05380-5. 


Bell, James B.; Abrams, Richard L. (1984). In Search of Liberty: The Story of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
and Ellis Island. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co. ISBN 978-0-385-19624-6.  Harris, Jonathan (1985). A Statue for America: The First 100 Years of the Statue of Liberty. New York City: Four Winds Press (a division of Macmillan Publishing Company). ISBN 978-0-02-742730-1.  Hayden, Richard Seth; Despont, Thierry W. (1986). Restoring the Statue of Liberty. New York City: McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 978-0-07-027326-9.  Khan, Yasmin Sabina (2010). Enlightening the World: The Creation of the Statue of Liberty. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4851-5.  Moreno, Barry (2000). The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Encyclopedia. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7385-3689-7.  Sutherland, Cara A. (2003). The Statue of Liberty. New York City: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 978-0-7607-3890-0. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Statue of Liberty

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Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument Statue of Liberty– Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Foundation "A Giant's Task – Cleaning Statue of Liberty", Popular Mechanics (February 1932) Views from the webcams affixed to the Statue of Liberty Made in Paris The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
1877–1885 – many historical photographs Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
at Structurae Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NY-138, "Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY", 404 photos, 59 color transparencies, 41 measured drawings, 10 data pages, 33 photo caption pages HAER No. NY-138-A, "Statue of Liberty, Administration Building", 6 photos, 6 measured drawings, 1 photo caption page HAER No. NY-138-B, "Statue of Liberty, Concessions Building", 12 photos, 6 measured drawings, 1 photo caption page

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Statue of Liberty

Liberty Enlightening the World


Édouard René de Laboulaye, originator Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, sculptor Gustave Eiffel, builder

Eiffel company

Eugène Secrétan, donated copper


Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument

Liberty Island

Musée des Arts et Métiers, original statue

Former locations

Right arm and torch

Centennial Exposition, 1876 Madison Square
Madison Square
Park, 1876-1882


Paris World's Fair, 1878


Île aux Cygnes Flame of Liberty Boy Scout replicas Strengthen the Arm of Liberty

Fayetteville, Arkansas Pine Bluff, Arkansas Overview Park, Kansas


In popular culture "The New Colossus" (1883 sonnet) Working on the Statue of Liberty
Working on the Statue of Liberty
(1946 painting) Miss Liberty
Miss Liberty
(1949 musical) The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(1985 documentary) Statue of Liberty play
Statue of Liberty play
(American football) Liberty Weekend, 1986

Liberty Fanfare Medal of Liberty

Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Forever stamp American Platinum Eagle
American Platinum Eagle
coin Presidential $1 Coin Program


Conservation-restoration of the Statue of Liberty Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia Libertas

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National symbols of the United States


Flag of the United States Seal of the United States Bald eagle Uncle Sam Columbia General Grant (tree) American's Creed Pledge of Allegiance Rose Oak American bison Phrygian cap


"The Star-Spangled Banner" "Dixie" "America the Beautiful" "The Stars and Stripes Forever" "Hail to the Chief" "Hail, Columbia" "My Country, 'Tis of Thee" "God Bless America" "Lift Every Voice and Sing" "The Army Goes Rolling Along" "Anchors Aweigh" "Marines' Hymn" "Semper Fidelis" "The Air Force Song" "Semper Paratus" "National Emblem" "The Washington Post March" "Battle Hymn of the Republic" "Yankee Doodle" "You're a Grand Old Flag" "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" "This Land Is Your Land"


In God We Trust E Pluribus Unum Novus ordo seclorum Annuit cœptis


Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(Liberty Enlightening the World) Liberty Bell Mount Rushmore National Mall

West Potomac Park

Other articles related to the Statue of Liberty

v t e

Lighthouses of New York

Main: List of lighthouses in the United States

Ambrose Tower Aunt Phebe Rock Barber's Point Barcelona Blackwell Island Bluff Point Braddock Point Buffalo Light Buffalo Harbor North and South entrance Lights Buffalo Harbor South Entrance Light Buffalo North breakwater East end Light Buffalo North Breakwater South End Light Cape Vincent Carleton Island Cedar Island Charlotte–Genesee Cold Spring Harbor Coney Island Coxsackie Crossover Island Crown Point Cumberland Head Dunkirk East Charity Shoal Eatons Neck Elm Tree Beacon Esopus Meadows Execution Rocks Fair Haven Fire Island Fort Niagara Fort Lafayette Fort Tompkins Fort Wadsworth Frenchman Island Galloo Island Gardiners Point Horse Island Horton Point Hudson-Athens Huntington Harbor Kings Point Latimer Reef Little Gull Island Little Red Montauk Point Moriches New Dorp North Brother Island North Dumpling Oak
Orchard Old Field Point Old Orchard Shoal Ogdensburg Harbor Orient Long Beach Bar Orient Point Oswego Harbor West Pierhead Plattsburgh Beacon Plum Island Point Aux Roches Prince's Bay Race Rock Rock Island Romer Shoal Rondout Sands Point Saugerties Selkirk Shinnecock Sodus Outer Sodus Point South Brother Island Channel Range South Buffalo North Side Split Rock Point Staten Island Statue of Liberty Stepping Stones Stony Point (Henderson) Stony Point (Hudson) Strawberry Island Upper Cut Range Stuyvesant Sunken Meadows Sunken Rock Tarrytown Thirty Mile Point Three Sisters Island Throgs Neck Tibbetts Point Turkey Point Watervliet West Point West Bank Whitehall Narrows Whitestone Point

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Protected areas of New York


National Historic Sites, Parks and Districts

Christman Eleanor Roosevelt Harriet Tubman Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt Martin Van Buren Sagamore Hill Saint Paul's Church Saratoga Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Birthplace Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Inaugural Women's Rights Erie Canalway Kate Mullany


Thomas Cole


National Memorials

Federal Hall General Grant Hamilton Grange Statue of Liberty

National Monuments

African Burial Ground Castle Clinton Fort Stanwix Governors Island Stonewall

National Trails

Appalachian Trail North Country Trail

National Seashores and Recreation Areas

Fire Island Gateway Upper Delaware

National Wildlife Refuges

Iroquois Long Island Complex

Amagansett Conscience Point Elizabeth A. Morton Lido Beach Oyster Bay Sayville Seatuck Target Rock Wertheim

Montezuma Shawangunk Grasslands Wallkill River

National Forests

Finger Lakes

Wilderness Areas

Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune

State parks

Allen H. Treman Allegany Amherst Amsterdam Beach Battle Island Bayard Cutting Arboretum Bayswater Point Bear Mountain Beaver Island Beechwood Belmont Lake Bethpage Betty & Wilbur Davis Big Six Mile Creek Blauvelt Bonavista Bowman Lake Braddock Bay Brentwood Bristol Beach Brookhaven Buckhorn Island Buffalo Harbor Burnham Point Buttermilk Falls Caleb Smith Camp Hero Canandaigua Lake Canoe-Picnic Point Captree Catharine Valley Trail Caumsett Cayuga Lake Cedar Island Cedar Point Chenango Valley Cherry Plain Chimney Bluffs Chittenango Falls Clarence Fahnestock Clark Reservation Clay Pit Ponds Cold Spring Harbor Coles Creek Conesus Lake Connetquot River Crab Island Croil Island Cumberland Bay Darien Lakes De Veaux Woods Deans Cove Delta Lake Devil's Hole Dewolf Point Donald J. Trump Earl W. Brydges Artpark Eel Weir Empire – Fulton Ferry Evangola Fair Haven Beach Fillmore Glen Fort Niagara Four Mile Creek Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Franny Reese Frenchman Island Galop Island Gantry Plaza Genesee Valley Greenway Gilbert Lake Gilgo Glimmerglass Golden Hill Goosepond Mountain Grafton Lakes Grass Point Green Lakes Hallock Hamlin Beach Harriet Hollister Spencer Harriman Hart's Brook Haverstraw Beach Heckscher Helen L. McNitt Hempstead Lake High Tor Highland Lakes Higley Flow Hither Hills Honeoye Hook Mountain Hudson Highlands Hudson River
Hudson River
Islands Hudson River Hunts Pond Iona Island Irondequoit Bay Jacques Cartier James Baird John Boyd Thacher Jones Beach Joseph Davis Keewaydin Keuka Lake Knox Farm Kring Point Lake Erie Lake Lauderdale Lake Superior Lake Taghkanic Lakeside Beach Letchworth Lock 32 Lodi Point Long Point - Finger Lakes Long Point - Thousand Islands Long Point on Lake Chautauqua Macomb Reservation Margaret Lewis Norrie Mark Twain Mary Island Max V. Shaul Mexico Point Midway Mine Kill Minnewaska Mohawk River Montauk Downs Montauk Point Moreau Lake Napeague Newtown Battlefield Niagara Falls Nissequogue River Nyack Beach Oak
Orchard Ogden Mills & Ruth Livingston Mills Old Croton Aqueduct Old Erie Canal Oquaga Creek Orient Beach Peebles Island Pinnacle Pixley Falls Point Au Roche Reservoir Riverbank Robert G. Wehle Robert H. Treman Robert Moses - Long Island Robert Moses - Thousand Islands Robert V. Riddell Roberto Clemente Rockefeller Rock Island Lighthouse Rockland Lake Sampson Sandy Island Beach Saratoga Lake Saratoga Spa Schodack Island Schunemunk Mountain Selkirk Shores Seneca Lake Shadmoor Silver Lake Sonnenberg Gardens Southwick Beach St. Lawrence State Park at the Fair Sterling Forest Steuben Memorial Stony Brook Storm King Strawberry Island Sunken Meadow Taconic - Copake Falls Area Taconic - Rudd Pond Area Tallman Mountain Taughannock Falls Thompson's Lake Two Rivers Trail View Valley Stream Verona Beach Waterson Point Watkins Glen Wellesley Island Westcott Beach Whetstone Gulf Whirlpool Wildwood Wilson-Tuscarora Wonder Lake Woodlawn Beach

State historic sites

Bennington Battlefield Caumsett Clermont Clinton House Crailo Crown Point Darwin Martin House Fort Montgomery Fort Ontario Ganondagan Grant Cottage Herkimer Home Hyde Hall John Brown Farm John Burroughs Memorial (Woodchuck Lodge) John Hay Homestead Johnson Hall Knox's Headquarters Lorenzo New Windsor Cantonment Olana Old Croton Aqueduct Old Erie Canal Old Fort Niagara Oriskany Battlefield Philipse Manor Hall Plantings Fields Arboretum Sackets Harbor Battlefield Schoharie Crossing Schuyler Mansion Senate House Sonnenberg Gardens
Sonnenberg Gardens
& Mansion Staatsburgh Steuben Memorial Stony Point Battlefield Walt Whitman Birthplace Washington's Headquarters

Preserves and sanctuaries

Public preserves

Albany Pine Bush Forest Preserve

Adirondack Park

Saint Regis Canoe Area Santanoni Preserve wilderness areas

Catskill Park

Hudson River
Hudson River
Estuary Long Island Pine Barrens Reinstein Woods Rome Sand Plains Tahawus Vischer Ferry Welwyn

The Nature Conservacy

Accabonac Harbor Andy Warhol Visual Arts Arthur W. Butler Memorial Atlantic Double Dunes Bear Swamp Calverton Ponds Chaumont Barrens Clintonville Pine Barrens Coon Mountain Deer Lick Denton El Dorado Beach Eugene and Agnes Meyer Everton Falls Freund Gadway Sandstone Pavement Barrens Hannacroix Ravine Henry Morgenthau Indian Brook Assemblage Ironsides Island Kenrose Limestone Rise Lisha Kill Long Island Center for Conservation Long Pond Lordsland Lower Poultney River and Saddles Marrion Yarrow Mashomack Mianus River Gorge Mildred E. Grierson Memorial Moccasin Kill Montauk Mountain Moss Lake Mount Holly Nellie Hill Neversink O.D. von Engeln Otter Creek Pawling Peconic Estuary Big Woods Pine Neck Roger Perry Memorial Ruth Wales Schunemunk Mountain Shadmoor Silver Lake Bog Spring Pond Bog Stewart Lewis A. Swyer Thompson Pond
Thompson Pond
and Stissing Mountain Uplands Farm West Branch Whitbeck Memorial Grove

Other preserves

Angle Fly Baxter Bergen-Byron Swamp Black Rock Forest Brandreth Park Calder Center Louis C. Clark Cornell Botanic Gardens Ferncliff Forest Heiberg Memorial Forest James Lime Hollow Mohonk Peabody Plotter Kill Sagamore Camp Sam's Point Teatown Lake Turkey Mountain Turner Brook Theodore Roosevelt Wallkill Valley Woodlawn Zurich Bog

Other (lists)

National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks Botanical gardens Nature centers New York City
New York City


New York state



historic sites parks wildlife management areas


rail trails


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Protected areas of New York City


National Historic Sites

Lower East Side Tenement Museum Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt

National Monuments and Memorials

African Burial Ground Castle Clinton Federal Hall General Grant Governors Island Hamilton Grange Statue of Liberty Stonewall

Other Protected Areas

Gateway National Recreation Area

Floyd Bennett Field Fort Tilden Fort Wadsworth Great Kills Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge Jacob Riis Miller Field


State Parks

Bayswater Point Clay Pit Ponds East River Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Gantry Plaza Riverbank Roberto Clemente

City parks and preserves


79th Street Boat Basin Abingdon Square Albert Capsouto Asphalt Green Battery Bennett British Garden at Hanover Square Bowling Green Bryant Captain Patrick J. Brown Walk Carl Schurz Central Park Chelsea City Hall Collect Columbus Corlears Hook Dag Hammarskjold Plaza Damrosch Dante DeSalvio Playground DeWitt Clinton Drumgoole Plaza Duane East River
East River

East River
East River
Esplanade East River
East River
Park Stuyvesant Cove

Finn Square Foley Square Fort Tryon Fort Washington Gorman Gramercy Greenacre Park Hamilton Fish Hanover Square Harlem River Hell's Kitchen Herald Square High Line Highbridge Holcombe Rucker Hudson Hudson River Imagination Playground at Burling Slip Inwood Hill Isham J. Hood Wright Jackie Robinson Jackson Square John Jay Liberty Louis Cuvillier Madison Square Manhattan
Waterfront Greenway Marcus Garvey Mill Rock Mitchell Square Morningside Murphy's Brother's Playground Muscota Marsh Paley Peretz Square Peter Cooper Plaza Lafayette Queen Elizabeth II September 11th Garden Ralph Bunche Randalls Island Richard Tucker Square Riverside Robert Moses Playground Roosevelt Triangle Rucker Sakura Samuel N. Bennerson 2nd Playground Sara Delano Roosevelt Septuagesimo Uno Seward Sheridan Square Sherman Square St. John's St. Nicholas St. Vartan Straus Stuyvesant Square Swindler Cove Teardrop Theodore Roosevelt Thomas Jefferson Thomas Paine Tompkins Square Tribeca Union Square Verdi Square Vesuvio Playground Wards Island Washington Market Washington Square West Side Community Garden Winston Churchill Zuccotti


American Veterans Memorial Pier Amersfort Asser Levy Bath Beach Betsy Head Bensonhurst Breukelen Ballfields Brooklyn
Botanic Garden Brooklyn
Bridge Brooklyn
Heights Promenade Brooklyn– Queens
Greenway Brower Bushwick Byrne Cadman Plaza Canarsie Carroll Calvert Vaux City Line Coffey Columbus Commodore Barry Coney Island Beach & Boardwalk Coney Island Creek Continental Army Plaza Cooper Dyker Beach Floyd Bennett Field Fort Greene Four Sparrow Marsh Frank M. Charles Fresh Creek Nature Preserve Friends Field Fulton Gravesend Green Central Knoll Herbert Von King Highland Irving Square JJ Byrne Jamaica Bay Park John J. Carty John Paul Jones Kaiser Kelly Leif Ericson Leon S. Kaiser Playground Lieutenant Joseph Petrosino Lincoln Terrace Linden Lindower Linton Manhattan
Beach Maria Hernandez Marine McCarren McGolrick McKinley Mt. Prospect Owl's Head Paerdegat Basin Paerdegat Prospect Red Hook Robert E. Venable Saratoga Scarangella Seaside Seth Low Shore Spring Creek Steeplechase Sternberg St. Johns Sunset Tompkins Trinity Van Voorhees Walt Whitman Wingate WNYC Transmitter Zion Triangle

The Bronx

Baretto Point Bicentennial Veterans Bronx Castle Hill City Island Wetlands Claremont Concrete Plant Crotona Devoe Ewen Ferry Point Givans Creek Woods Grant Haffen Harding Harris Henry Hudson Hunts Point Jerome Joseph Rodman Drake Joyce Kilmer Julius Richman Macombs Dam Mill Pond Mullaly New York Botanical Garden North and South Brother Islands Orchard Beach Pelham Bay

Rodman's Neck

Playground 52 Poe Pugsley Creek Rainey Raoul Wallenberg Forest Richman Riverdale St. Mary's Seton Falls Seton Soundview Spuyten Duyvil Shorefront St. James St. Mary's Starlight Tremont University Woods Van Cortlandt Vidalia Vinmont Veteran Washington's Walk


Admiral Alley Alley Pond Andrews Grove Astoria Baisley Pond Bayside Fields Bayswater Beach Channel Big Bush Bowne Brant Point Wildlife Sanctuary Breininger Broad Channel American Park Broad Channel Park Broad Channel Wetlands Brooklyn– Queens
Greenway Brookville Bulova Captain Tilly Crocheron Cunningham Det. Keith L. Williams Det. William T. Gunn Dr. Charles R. Drew Dubos Point Wildlife Sanctuary Doughboy Douglaston Elmhurst Evergreen Flushing Fields Flushing Meadows-Corona Forest Fort Tilden Fort Totten Francis Lewis Frank Golden Frank Principe Haggerty Harvey Highland Hinton Hoffman Hook Creek Hunter's Point Idlewild Jamaica Bay John Golden Juniper Valley Kissena Kohlreiter Square Libra Triangle Linnaeus Little Bay Louis Pasteur Mafera Macneil Marconi Marie Curie Montbellier O'Donohue Overlook Park of the Americas Phil "Scooter" Rizzuto Ofc. Edward Byrne Powell's Cove Queens
County Farm Museum Queensbridge Rachel Carson Railroad Ralph Demarco Rochdale Rockaway Community Rufus King Seagirt Avenue Wetlands Socrates Sculpture Spring Creek Springfield St. Albans Travers Tudor Udall's Park Preserve Wayanda

Staten Island

Aesop Allison Pond Amundsen Circle Annadale Arbutus Woods Arden Woods Austen House Barrett Bayview Terrace Blood Root Valley Bloomingdale Blue Heron Park Preserve Blueberry Bradys Bunker Ponds Buono Beach Carlton Clove Lakes Clove's Tail Conference House Corporal Thompson Crescent Beach Deere Eibs Pond Faber Fairview Father Macris Forest Grove Fort Hill Fort Wadsworth FDR Boardwalk and Beach Freshkills Gaeta Great Kills Graniteville Quarry Graniteville Swamp Hero High Rock Hoffman Island Huguenot Ponds Hybrid Oak
Woods Ingram Woods Isle of Meadows Jones Woods Joseph Manna King Fisher Kingdom Pond Last Chance LaTourette Lemon Creek Long Pond Gen. MacArthur Maple Woods Mariners Marsh Meredith Woods Midland Beach Midland Field Miller Field Mount Loretto Unique Area New Dorp Beach New York Chinese Scholar's Garden Northerleigh Park Ocean Breeze Old Place Creek Olmstead-Beil House Prall's Island Reed's Basket WIllow Swamp Richmond Terrace Wetlands Saw Mill Creek Marsh Schmul Seaside Wildlife Nature Shooters Island Siedenburg Silver Lake Snug Harbor Cultural Center & Botanical Garden Sobel Court South Beach Wetlands St. George Staten Island
Staten Island
Greenbelt Staten Island
Staten Island
Industrial Swinburne Island Tappen Tompkinsville Tottenville Shore Von Briesen Walker Wegener Westerleigh Westwood William T. Davis Wildlife Refuge Willowbrook Wolfe's Pond


Nature centers

Alley Pond Belvedere Castle Blue Heron Crotona Dana Discovery Center Forest Fort Greene Fort Totten Greenbelt High Rock Inwood Hill Orchard Beach Prospect Salt Marsh Van Cortlandt


Bronx Central Park Prospect Queens Staten Island

Botanical gardens

Botanic Conservatory New York Botanical Queens
Botanical Staten Island
Staten Island

New York Chinese Scholar's

Wave Hill

Roosevelt Island

Lighthouse Southpoint

Other lists

World War I-related parks Vietnam War-related parks

Category Department of Parks and Recreation New York State Commons

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World Heritage Sites in the United States


Independence Hall Statue of Liberty




Everglades Great Smoky Mountains Mammoth Cave Monticello
and the University of Virginia Poverty Point San Antonio Missions


Carlsbad Caverns Chaco Culture National Historical Park Grand Canyon National Park Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kluane-Wrangell–St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek1 Mesa Verde Olympic National Park Pueblo de Taos Papahānaumokuākea Redwood Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park1 Yellowstone National Park Yosemite National Park


La Fortaleza
La Fortaleza
and San Juan National Historic Site

1 Shared with Canada

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Popular visitor attractions in New York City

More than 10 million annual visitors

Times Square
Times Square
(50 M) Central Park
Central Park
(40 M) Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal
(21.6 M) South Street Seaport
South Street Seaport
(12 M) Rockefeller Center

1 to 10 million annual visitors

High Line
High Line
(7.6 M) Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
(6.3 M) American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
(5.0 M) National September 11 Memorial & Museum (5.0 M) Empire State Building
Empire State Building
(3.5 M) Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
(2.8 M) Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(2.4 M) One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
(2.3 M) Bronx Zoo
(1.8 M) Ellis Island
Ellis Island
(1.7 M)

Note: Visitor numbers are estimates only. See also: Tourism in New York City

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U.S. National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in New York


Contributing property Keeper of the Register Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places National Park Service Property types

Lists by county

Albany Allegany Bronx Broome Cattaraugus Cayuga Chautauqua Chemung Chenango Clinton Columbia Cortland Delaware Dutchess Erie Essex Franklin Fulton Genesee Greene Hamilton Herkimer Jefferson Kings (Brooklyn) Lewis Livingston Madison Monroe Montgomery Nassau New York (Manhattan) Niagara Oneida Onondaga Ontario Orange Orleans Oswego Otsego Putnam Queens Rensselaer Richmond (Staten Island) Rockland Saratoga Schenectady Schoharie Schuyler Seneca St. Lawrence Steuben Suffolk Sullivan Tioga Tompkins Ulster Warren Washington Wayne Westchester

Northern Southern

Wyoming Yates

Lists by city

Albany Buffalo New Rochelle New York City

Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Manhattan

Below 14th St. 14th–59th St. 59th–110th St. Above 110th St. Minor islands

Niagara Falls Peekskill Poughkeepsie Rhinebeck Rochester Syracuse Yonkers

Other lists

Bridges and tunnels National Historic Landmarks

Category: National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in New York (state) Portal:National Register of Historic Places

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Museums in Manhattan

Financial District and Battery Park (Below Chambers St)

Castle Clinton China Institute Federal Hall Fraunces Tavern George Gustav Heye Center Mmuseumm Museum of American Finance Museum of Jewish Heritage New York City
New York City
Police Museum Skyscraper Museum South Street Seaport

Lower Manhattan (Chambers-14th Sts)

Asian American Arts Centre Drawing Center Eldridge Street Synagogue FusionArts Museum International Center of Photography Lower East Side Tenement Museum Merchant's House Museum Museum of Chinese in America New Museum New York City
New York City
Fire Museum The Theatre Museum Ukrainian Museum Whitney Museum of American Art

Chelsea, Flatiron, Gramercy (14th-34th Sts)

Center for Jewish History International Print Center New York John J. Harvey The Museum at FIT Museum of Mathematics Museum of Sex Rubin Museum of Art Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Birthplace Tibet House

Midtown (34th-59th Sts)

Girl Scout Museum and Archives Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum Japan Society John M. Mossman Lock Museum Madame Tussauds Morgan Library & Museum Museum of Arts and Design Museum of Modern Art New York Public Library Main Branch New York Transit Museum Paley Center for Media Scandinavia House United Nations Art Collection

Upper West Side (59th-125th Sts west of 5th Av)

American Folk Art Museum American Museum of Natural History

Center for Earth and Space

Children's Museum of Manhattan Museum of Biblical Art New York Public Library for the Performing Arts New-York Historical Society Nicholas Roerich Museum Rose

Upper East Side and East Harlem (59th-125th Sts along or east of 5th Av)

Asia Society El Museo del Barrio Frick Collection Gracie Mansion Grolier Club Guggenheim Museum Jewish Museum Met Breuer Metropolitan Museum of Art Mount Vernon Hotel Museum Museum of Motherhood Museum of the City of New York National Academy Museum and School

Upper Manhattan (Above 125th St)

American Academy of Arts and Letters The Cloisters Dyckman House Hamilton Grange National Memorial Hispanic Society of America Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center Morris–Jumel Mansion National Jazz Museum in Harlem National Track and Field Hall of Fame Neue Galerie New York Yeshiva University Museum Studio Museum in Harlem


Ellis Island Statue of Liberty


Chelsea Art Museum Dahesh Museum of Art Forbes Galleries Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art Museum of Primitive Art

See also: Museum Mile

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Hudson River
Hudson River


Batten Kill Black Meadow Creek Bowery Creek Breakneck Brook Canajoharie Creek Caroga Creek Casperkill Catskill Creek Cayadutta Creek Cedar River Claverack Creek Clove Brook Cobleskill Creek Coeymans Creek Coxsackie Creek Cross River Croton River East Branch Croton River East Branch Sacandaga River East Canada Creek Eightmile Creek Esopus Creek Fall Kill Fishkill Creek Fonteyn Kill Fulmer Creek Hannacrois Creek Honnedaga Brook Hoosic River Jackson Creek Jan De Bakkers Kill Kaaterskill Creek Kayaderosseras Kinderhook Creek Kisco River Lake Creek Little Shawangunk Kill Maritje Kill Miami River Mill Creek Mohawk River Moodna Creek Moordener Kill Moyer Creek Muddy Kill Neepaulakating Creek Normans Kill Nowadaga Creek Onesquethaw Creek Oriskany Creek Otsquago Creek Otter Kill Papakating Creek Peekskill Hollow Creek Pocantico River Pochuck Creek Poesten Kill Potic Creek Quassaick Creek Roeliff Jansen Kill Rondout Creek Sacandaga River Sauquoit Creek Saw Kill Saw Mill River Sawyer Kill Schoharie Creek Schroon River Shawangunk Kill Sparkill Creek Sprout Creek Steele Creek Stockport Creek Stony Clove Creek Taghkanic Creek Tenmile Creek Tin Brook Titicus River Verkeerder Kill Vloman Kill Wallkill River Walloomsac River Wappinger Creek Wawayanda Creek West Branch Papakating Creek West Branch Sacandaga River West Canada Creek West Kill Wynants Kill


Alcove Reservoir Ashokan Reservoir Basic Creek Reservoir Beacon Reservoir Bog Brook Reservoir Cedar Lake Chadwick Lake Chub Lake Cross River Reservoir Croton Falls Reservoir Dyken Pond East Branch Reservoir East Caroga Lake Fall Lake Franklinton Vlaie Garnet Lake Glenmere Lake Great Sacandaga Lake Great Vlaie Henderson Lake Honnedaga Lake Indian Lake Lizard Pond Lake Maratanza Muscoot Reservoir Lake Neepaulin New Croton Reservoir Notch Lake Piseco Lake Lake Pleasant Queechy Lake Rondout Reservoir Sacandaga Lake Saratoga Lake Sturgeon Pool Surprise Lake Sylvan Lake Lake Tear of the Clouds Thompson Pond Titicus Reservoir Trout Lake West Caroga Lake Whaley Lake Winnisook Lake


Albany Alpine Amsterdam Bayonne Beacon Bedford Beekman Bennington Bethlehem Blooming Grove Carmel Catskill Cliffside Park Clifton Park Cohoes Colonie Cortlandt East Fishkill East Greenbush Edgewater Englewood Cliffs Fishkill Fort Lee Glenville Gloversville Greenburgh Guilderland Halfmoon Herkimer Hoboken Hyde Park Jersey City Kingston Kirkland LaGrange Lloyd Malta Middletown Milton Monroe Montgomery Moreau Mount Pleasant New Castle New Hartford New Paltz New Windsor New York City Newburgh Niskayuna North Adams North Bergen Ossining Peekskill Plattekill Poughkeepsie Queensbury Rome Rotterdam Saugerties Schenectady Shawangunk Somers Southeast Sparta Tenafly Troy Utica Vernon Wallkill Wappinger Warwick Weehawken West New York Whitestown Wilton Yonkers Yorktown


Adirondack Mountains Adirondack Park Ashokan Bridge Blenheim Bridge Buskirk Bridge Catskill Mountains Champlain Canal Cohoes Falls Copeland Bridge Delaware and Hudson Canal Eagleville Bridge East River Erie Canal George Washington Bridge Harlem River Helderberg Escarpment Hudson Highlands State Park Kaaterskill Clove Kaaterskill Falls Kill Van Kull Kingston–Rhinecliff Bridge Mid-Hudson Bridge Newburgh–Beacon Bridge New Tappan Zee Bridge The Palisades Perrine's Bridge Plotter Kill Preserve Pollepel Island Popolopen Rexleigh Bridge Rip Van Winkle Bridge Salisbury Center Bridge Schoharie Bridge Shushan Bridge Sleepy Hollow Statue of Liberty Taconic Mountains Tappan Zee Bridge Verkeerder Kill
Verkeerder Kill
Falls Verrazano-Narrows Bridge Walkway over the Hudson Wallkill River
Wallkill River
National Wildlife Refuge West Canada Lake Wilderness Area West Point

Authority control

LCCN: sh85127593 GN