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The Federative Republic of Brazil
Brazil
is a union of 27 Federative Units (Portuguese: Unidades Federativas, UF): 26 states (estados) and one federal district (distrito federal), where the federal capital, Brasília, is located. The states are generally based on historical, conventional borders which have developed over time. The Federal District is not a state, but shares some characteristics of a state as well as some of a municipality. The codes given below are defined in ISO 3166-2:BR.

Brazil

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Brazil

Executive

President (list)

Michel Temer

Vice President

Vacant

Cabinet Attorney General of the Union National Defense Council Federal institutions

Legislative

Federal Senate Chamber of Deputies

Court of Accounts of the Union

Judiciary

Supreme Court Superior Court of Justice Superior Labor Court Superior Electoral Court Superior Military Court National Justice Council

Law

Constitution (history) Anti-discrimination Human rights LGBT rights

Administrative divisions

States

State governors State Senators

Municipalities

Recent elections

General: 2010 2014 2018

Municipal: 2008 2012 2016

Referendums: 1993 2005

Political parties

Foreign relations

Other countries Atlas

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Contents

1 History 2 Government 3 Evolution of state divisions

3.1 Proposed division of Pará

4 List 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] The present states of Brazil
Brazil
trace their history directly to the captaincies established by Portugal
Portugal
following the Treaty of Tordesillas which divided part of South America
South America
between Portugal
Portugal
and Spain. The first administrative divisions of Brazil
Brazil
were the hereditary captaincies (capitanias hereditárias), stretches of land granted by the Portuguese Crown to noblemen or merchants with a charter to colonize the land. As the map shows, these divisions generally followed lines of latitude. Each of the holders of these captaincies was referred to as a captain donatary (capitão donatário). These captaincies were to be passed from father to son, but the Crown retained the power to revoke them, which the King indeed did in the 16th century[disputed – discuss]. In 1549, the Portuguese Crown appointed Tomé de Sousa as the first governor-general of the vast Portuguese dominion in South America. This dominion overall became known as the State of Brazil
Brazil
(Estado do Brasil). In several[citation needed] periods of history, the northern half of the dominion was detached from the State of Brazil, becoming a separate entity known as the State of Maranhão. Maranhão
Maranhão
by then referred not only to current Maranhão, but rather to the whole of the Amazon region; the name marã-nã in old Tupi language means "wide river", referring to the Amazon River. After the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
(1580–1640), the territory of Portuguese colonial domains in South America
South America
was more than doubled, and the land was divided into hereditary and royal captaincies, with the latter being governed directly by the Crown. Unlike Spanish America, the whole territory remained united under a single governor-general (with the permanent title of viceroy after 1720), based in Salvador (after 1763, in Rio de Janeiro). This arrangement later helped to keep Brazil as a unified nation-state, avoiding fragmentation similar to that of the Spanish domains. In 1759, the heritability of the captaincies was totally abolished by the government of the Marquis of Pombal, with all captains becoming appointed by the Crown. The captaincies were officially renamed "provinces" on 28 February 1821. With independence, in 1822, the former captaincies became provinces of the Empire of Brazil. Most internal boundaries were kept unchanged from the colonial period, generally following natural features such as rivers and mountain ridges. Minor changes were made to suit domestic politics (such as transferring the Triângulo Mineiro from Goiás
Goiás
to Minas Gerais, splitting Paraná and transferring the south bank of the São Francisco River
São Francisco River
from Pernambuco
Pernambuco
to Bahia), as well as additions resulting from diplomatic settlement of territorial disputes by the end of the 19th century (Amapá, Roraima, Palmas). When Brazil
Brazil
became a republic in 1889, all provinces immediately became states. In 1943, with the entrance of Brazil
Brazil
into the Second World War, the Vargas regime detached seven strategic territories from the border of the country in order to administer them directly: Amapá, Rio Branco, Acre, Guaporé, Ponta Porã, Iguaçu and the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha. After the war, the first four territories became states, with Rio Branco and Guaporé being renamed Roraima
Roraima
(1962) and Rondônia
Rondônia
(1956), respectively, whilst Ponta Porã and Iguaçu remained as territories. In 1960, the square-shaped Distrito Federal was carved out of Goiás in preparation for the new capital, Brasília. The previous federal district became Guanabara State, but in 1975 it was merged with Rio de Janeiro State, retaining its name and with the municipality of Rio de Janeiro as its capital. In 1977, Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
was split into two states. The northern area retained the name Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
while the southern area became the state of Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
do Sul, with Campo Grande
Campo Grande
as its capital. The new Mato Grosso do Sul incorporated the territory of Ponta Porã and the northern part of Iguaçu. Central Iguaçu went to Paraná, and southern Iguaçu went to Santa Catarina. In 1988, the northern portion of Goiás
Goiás
became the state of Tocantins, with Palmas as its capital. Also archipelago Fernando de Noronha became part of Pernambuco. Government[edit] The government of each state of Brazil
Brazil
is divided into executive, legislative and judiciary branches. The state government constitutes the executive branch in each of the states. It is headed by a state governor and also includes a vice-governor, several secretaries of state—each one in charge of a given portfolio—and the state attorney-general. The state legislature branch is the legislative assembly, a unicameral body composed of state deputies. The judiciary in each of the states is made up of a Court of Justice and the judges of law. The judges of law constitute courts of first instance. The Court of Justice is the court of second instance of the state and is composed of judges called desembargadores. Evolution of state divisions[edit]

1534 Captaincies of Brazil

1621 First division in two states

1709 Greatest extent of São Paulo
São Paulo
captaincy

1750 Treaty of Madrid

1817 Captaincies at the time of Pernambucan revolt

1822 Imperial provinces

1889 States at the start of Republic

1943 Border territories

1988 Current states

Proposed division of Pará[edit] On 11 December 2011, a consultative referendum was held in the state of Pará
Pará
about splitting that state into three new ones (Pará, Tapajós and Carajás). Both Tapajós and Carajás were rejected by the population by approximate margins of 2:1.[1] List[edit]

Flag Federative unit Abbreviation Capital Area (km2) Area (sq mi) Population (2014) Density (per km2, 2014) Density (per sq mi, 2014) GDP (billion R$ and % total, 2012) GDP per capita (R$, 2012) HDI (2010) Literacy (2014) Infant mortality (2014) Life expectancy (years, 2014)

Acre AC Rio Branco 7005152581400000000♠152,581.4 7004589120000000000♠58,912 7005790101000000000♠790,101 7000447000000000000♠4.47 7001130000000000000♠13 7000962900000000000♠9.629 (6999200000000000000♠0.2%) 7004126900000000000♠12,690 6999663000000000000♠0.663 94% 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 7001754000000000000♠75.4

Alagoas AL Maceió 7004277677000000000♠27,767.7 7004107210000000000♠10,721 7006332173000000000♠3,321,730 7002112300000000000♠112.3 7002309000000000000♠309 7001295450000000000♠29.545 (6999700000000000000♠0.7%) 7003933300000000000♠9,333 6999631000000000000♠0.631 90% 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 7001735000000000000♠73.5

Amapá AP Macapá 7005142814600000000♠142,814.6 7004551510000000000♠55,151 7005750912000000000♠750,912 7000469000000000000♠4.69 7001130000000000000♠13 7001104200000000000♠10.420 (6999200000000000000♠0.2%) 7004149140000000000♠14,914 6999708000000000000♠0.708 99% 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 7001754000000000000♠75.4

Amazonas AM Manaus 7006157074570000000♠1,570,745.7 7005606470000000000♠606,470 7006387374300000000♠3,873,743 7000223000000000000♠2.23 7000600000000000000♠6 7001641200000000000♠64.120 (7000170000000000000♠1.7%) 7004178550000000000♠17,855 6999674000000000000♠0.674 96% 7000190000000000000♠1.9% 7001737000000000000♠73.7

Bahia BA Salvador 7005564692700000000♠564,692.7 7005218030000000000♠218,030 7007151263710000000♠15,126,371 7001248200000000000♠24.82 7001690000000000000♠69 7002167727000000000♠167.727 (7000380000000000000♠3.8%) 7004118320000000000♠11,832 6999660000000000000♠0.660 91% 7000200000000000000♠2.0% 7001743000000000000♠74.3

Ceará CE Fortaleza 7005148825600000000♠148,825.6 7004574620000000000♠57,462 7006884279100000000♠8,842,791 7001568000000000000♠56.8 7002153000000000000♠153 7001901320000000000♠90.132 (7000200000000000000♠2.0%) 7004104730000000000♠10,473 6999682000000000000♠0.682 93% 7000165000000000000♠1.65% 7001749000000000000♠74.9

Distrito Federal DF Brasília 7003582210000000000♠5,822.1 7003224990000000000♠2,249.9 7006285237200000000♠2,852,372 7002444660000000000♠444.66 7003126800000000000♠1,268 7002171236000000000♠171.236 (7000390000000000000♠3.9%) 7004646530000000000♠64,653 6999824000000000000♠0.824 98.8% 6999650000000000000♠0.65% 7001798000000000000♠79.8

Espírito Santo ES Vitória 7004460775000000000♠46,077.5 7004177910000000000♠17,791 7006388504900000000♠3,885,049 7001762500000000000♠76.25 7002218000000000000♠218 7002107328999900000♠107.329 (7000220000000000000♠2.2%) 7004299960000000000♠29,996 6999740000000000000♠0.740 99% 6999480000000000000♠0.48% 7001801009999900000♠80.1

Goiás GO Goiânia 7005340086700000000♠340,086.7 7005131310000000000♠131,310 7006652322200000000♠6,523,222 7001176509999900000♠17.65 7001490000000000000♠49 7002123926000000000♠123.926 (7000240000000000000♠2.4%) 7004201340000000000♠20,134 6999735000000000000♠0.735 97% 6999900000000000000♠0.9% 7001759000000000000♠75.9

Maranhão MA São Luís 7005331983300000000♠331,983.3 7005128180000000000♠128,180 7006685088400000000♠6,850,884 7001198109999900000♠19.81 7001530000000000000♠53 7001589200000000000♠58.920 (7000120000000000000♠1.2%) 7003876000000000000♠8,760 6999639000000000000♠0.639 90% 7000190000000000000♠1.9% 7001725000000000000♠72.5

Mato Grosso MT Cuiabá 7005903357900000000♠903,357.9 7005348790000000000♠348,790 7006322435700000000♠3,224,357 7000336000000000000♠3.36 7000900000000000000♠9 7001808300000000000♠80.830 (7000150000000000000♠1.5%) 7004259450000000000♠25,945 6999725000000000000♠0.725 94% 7000130000000000000♠1.3% 7001746009999900000♠74.6

Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
do Sul MS Campo Grande 7005357125000000000♠357,125.0 7005137890000000000♠137,890 7006261965700000000♠2,619,657 7000686000000000000♠6.86 7001190000000000000♠19 7001544710000099999♠54.471 (7000100000000000000♠1.0%) 7004217440000000000♠21,744 6999729000000000000♠0.729 97% 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 7001761009999900000♠76.1

Minas Gerais MG Belo Horizonte 7005586528300000000♠586,528.3 7005226460000000000♠226,460 7007207340970000000♠20,734,097 7001334109999999999♠33.41 7001910000000000000♠91 7002403551000000000♠403.551 (7000920000000099999♠9.2%) 7004203240000000000♠20,324 6999731000000000000♠0.731 98.6% 6999610000000000000♠0.61% 7001787000000000000♠78.7

Pará PA Belém 7006124768950000000♠1,247,689.5 7005481740000000000♠481,740 7006807392400000000♠8,073,924 7000607000000000000♠6.07 7001160000000000000♠16 7001910090000000000♠91.009 (7000190000000000000♠1.9%) 7004116780000000000♠11,678 6999646000000000000♠0.646 94% 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 7001742000000000000♠74.2

Paraíba PB João Pessoa 7004564398000000000♠56,439.8 7004217920000000000♠21,792 7006394388500000000♠3,943,885 7001667000000000000♠66.70 7002180000000000000♠180 7001387310000000000♠38.731 (6999800000000000000♠0.8%) 7004101510000000000♠10,151 6999658000000000000♠0.658 92% 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 7001741009999900000♠74.1

Paraná PR Curitiba 7005199314900000000♠199,314.9 7004769560000000000♠76,956 7007110816920000000♠11,081,692 7001524000000000000♠52.40 7002143000000000000♠143 7002255927000000000♠255.927 (7000580000000000000♠5.8%) 7004241940000000000♠24,194 6999749000000000000♠0.749 98% 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 7001778000000000000♠77.8

Pernambuco PE Recife 7004983116000000000♠98,311.6 7004379580000000000♠37,958 7006927772700000000♠9,277,727 7001896200000000000♠89.62 7002244000000000000♠244 7002117340000000000♠117.340 (7000230000000099999♠2.3%) 7004131380000000000♠13,138 6999673000000000000♠0.673 92% 7000190000000000000♠1.9% 7001748000000000000♠74.8

Piauí PI Teresina 7005251529200000000♠251,529.2 7004977260000000000♠97,726 7006319417800000000♠3,194,178 7001124000000000000♠12.4 7001320000000000000♠32 7001257210000000000♠25.721 (6999500000000000000♠0.5%) 7003813700000000000♠8,137 6999646000000000000♠0.646 90% 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 7001727000000000000♠72.7

Rio de Janeiro RJ Rio de Janeiro 7004436961000000000♠43,696.1 7004168710000000000♠16,871 7007164611730000000♠16,461,173 7002365230000000000♠365.23 7002975000000000000♠975 7002504221000000000♠504.221 (7001115000000000000♠11.5%) 7004310640000000000♠31,064 6999761000000000000♠0.761 99% 7000130000000000000♠1.3% 7001771009999900000♠77.1

Rio Grande do Norte RN Natal 7004527968000000000♠52,796.8 7004203850000000000♠20,385 7006340851000000000♠3,408,510 7001599900000000000♠59.99 7002167000000000000♠167 7001395449999900000♠39.544 (6999900000000000000♠0.9%) 7004122490000000000♠12,249 6999684000000000000♠0.684 95.1% 7000137990000099999♠1.38% 7001767000000000000♠76.7

Rio Grande do Sul RS Porto Alegre 7005281748500000000♠281,748.5 7005108780000000000♠108,780 7007112072740000000♠11,207,274 7001379600000000000♠37.96 7002103000000000000♠103 7002277658000000000♠277.658 (7000630000000000000♠6.3%) 7004257790000000000♠25,779 6999746000000000000♠0.746 99% 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 7001793000000000000♠79.3

Rondônia RO Porto Velho 7005237576200000000♠237,576.2 7004917290000000000♠91,729 7006174853100000000♠1,748,531 7000658000000000000♠6.58 7001190000000000000♠19 7001293620000000000♠29.362 (6999600000000000000♠0.6%) 7004130750000000000♠13,075 6999690009999900000♠0.690 94.6% 7000185000000000000♠1.85% 7001737000000000000♠73.7

Roraima RR Boa Vista 7005224299000000000♠224,299.0 7004866020000000000♠86,602 7005496936000000000♠496,936 7000200999999999999♠2.01 7000500000000000000♠5 7000731400000000000♠7.314 (6999200000000000000♠0.2%) 7004155570000000000♠15,557 6999707000000000000♠0.707 94.5% 7000151000000000000♠1.51% 7001735000000000000♠73.5

Santa Catarina SC Florianópolis 7004953462000000000♠95,346.2 7004368130000000000♠36,813 7006672714800000000♠6,727,148 7001652690000000000♠65.27 7002182000000000000♠182 7002177276000000000♠177.276 (7000400000000000000♠4.0%) 7004277710000000000♠27,771 6999774000000000000♠0.774 99% 6999300000000000000♠0.30% 7001810000000000000♠81

São Paulo SP São Paulo 7005248209400000000♠248,209.4 7004958340000000000♠95,834 7007440353040000000♠44,035,304 7002166230000000000♠166.23 7002459000000000000♠459 7003140890400000000♠1,408.904 (7001321000000000000♠32.1%) 7004336240000000000♠33,624 6999783000000000000♠0.783 99% 6999450000000000000♠0.45% 7001798000000000000♠79.8

Sergipe SE Aracaju 7004219103000000000♠21,910.3 7003845960000000000♠8,459.6 7006221951400000000♠2,219,514 7001943600000000000♠94.36 7002262000000000000♠262 7001278230000000000♠27.823 (6999600000000000000♠0.6%) 7004131800000000000♠13,180 6999665000000000000♠0.665 93% 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 7001730000000000000♠73.0

Tocantins TO Palmas 7005277620900000000♠277,620.9 7005107190000000000♠107,190 7006149688000000000♠1,496,880 7000498000000000000♠4.98 7001130000000000000♠13 7001195300000000000♠19.530 (6999400000000000000♠0.4%) 7004137750000000000♠13,775 6999699000000000000♠0.699 94% 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 7001745000000000000♠74.5

See also[edit]

Brazil
Brazil
portal

Brazil
Brazil
socio-geographic division List of Brazil
Brazil
state name etymologies List of Brazilian states by area List of Brazilian states by murder rate List of Brazilian states by population Brazilian states by Human Development Index Provinces of Brazil Regions of Brazil

References[edit]

^ "Voters Reject Division of Brazilian State". Americas Quarterly. December 13, 2011. 

External links[edit]

Economic statistical data for Brazil's 26 states and federal district (in English, Portuguese, and Spanish) States of Brazil
Brazil
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Brazil Map of Brazil, showing states and their regular timezones "Em 2012, Sudeste concentrava 55,2% do PIB do país e o DF tinha o maior PIB per capita" (in Portuguese). IGBE. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. 

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Brazil 

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Vargas Era
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Regions and States of Brazil

North

Acre Amapá Amazonas Pará Rondônia Roraima Tocantins

Northeast

Alagoas Bahia Ceará Maranhão Paraíba Pernambuco Piauí Rio Grande do Norte Sergipe

Center-West

Distrito Federal Goiás Mato Grosso Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
do Sul

Southeast

Espírito Santo Minas Gerais Rio de Janeiro São Paulo

South

Paraná Rio Grande do Sul Santa Catarina

Fernando de Noronha Rocas Atoll Saint Peter and Saint Paul Trindade and Martim Vaz

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First-level administrative divisions of South American countries

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Panama1 Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago1 Uruguay Venezuela

1 Territories also in or commonly reckoned to be elsewhere in the Americas (North America).

Table of administrative country subdi

.