Stanisław Herman Lem (Polish pronunciation: [staˈɲiswaf
ˈlɛm] ( listen); 12 or 13 September 1921 – 27 March
2006) was a Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy, and satire,
and a trained physician. Lem's books have been translated into 41
languages and have sold over 45 million copies. From the 1950s
to 2000s, he published many books, both science fiction and
philosophical/futurological. He is best known as the author of the
1961 novel Solaris, which has been made into a feature film three
times. In 1976,
Theodore Sturgeon wrote that Lem was the most widely
read science fiction writer in the world.
Lem's works explore philosophical themes through speculation on
technology, the nature of intelligence, the impossibility of
communication with and understanding of alien intelligence, despair
about human limitations, and humanity's place in the universe. They
are sometimes presented as fiction, but others are in the form of
essays or philosophical books.
Translations of his works are difficult due to passages with elaborate
word formation, idiomatic wordplay, alien or robotic poetry, and puns.
1.1 Early life
1.2 Rise to fame
1.3 Final years
2 Personal life
3 Relationship with American science fiction
3.2 Philip K. Dick
5.1 Science fiction
8 Further reading
9 External links
House #4 on
Bohdan Lepky Street in Lwów, where, according to his
autobiography "Wysoki zamek", Lem spent his childhood
Lem was born in 1921 in Lwów, interwar Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine).
According to his own account, he was actually born on the 13th of
September, but the date was changed to the 12th on his birth
certificate because of superstition. He was the son of Sabina née
Woller (1892–1979) and Samuel Lem (1879–1954), a wealthy
laryngologist and former physician in the Austro-Hungarian Army,
and first cousin to Polish poet
Marian Hemar (Lem's father and Hemar's
mother were brother and sister). In later years Lem sometimes
claimed to have been raised Roman Catholic, but he went to Jewish
religious lessons during his school years. He later became an
atheist "for moral reasons ... the world appears to me to be put
together in such a painful way that I prefer to believe that it was
not created ... intentionally". In later years he would call
himself both an agnostic and an atheist.
After the Soviet invasion and occupation of Eastern Poland, he was not
allowed to study at Lwow Polytechnic as he wished because of his
"bourgeois origin", and only due to his father's connections was
accepted to study medicine at
Lwów University in 1940. During the
subsequent Nazi occupation (1941–1944), Lem's family, which had
Jewish roots, avoided imprisonment in a ghetto, surviving with false
papers. He would later recall:
During that period, I learned in a very personal, practical way that I
was no "Aryan". I knew that my ancestors were Jews, but I knew nothing
of the Mosaic faith and, regrettably, nothing at all of Jewish
culture. So it was, strictly speaking, only the Nazi legislation that
brought home to me the realization that I had Jewish blood in my
During that time, Lem earned a living as a car mechanic and welder,
and occasionally stole the munitions from storehouses (to which he had
access as an employee of a German company) to pass it to Polish
In 1945, Polish Eastern Borderlands were annexed into Soviet Ukraine,
and the family, like many other Poles, was resettled to Kraków, where
Lem, at his father's insistence, took up medical studies at the
Jagiellonian University. He did not take his final examinations on
purpose, so as not to be obliged to become a military doctor.
Earlier, he had started working as an assistant in a hospital[citation
needed] and writing stories in his spare time.
Rise to fame
Stanisław Lem and toy cosmonaut, 1966
Lem made his literary debut in 1946 with a number of works of
different genres, including poetry as well as a science fiction novel,
The Man from Mars (Człowiek z Marsa), serialized in Nowy Świat
Przygód (pl) (New World of Adventures). Between 1948 and 1950
Lem was working as a scientific research assistant at the Jagiellonian
University, and published a number of short stories, poems, reviews
and similar works, particularly at Tygodnik Powszechny. In 1951,
he published his first book,
The Astronauts (Astronauci). In 1953
he met and married (civil marriage) Barbara Leśniak, a medical
student. Their church marriage ceremony was performed in February,
1954. In 1954, he published a short story anthology, Sesame and
Other Stories (Sezam i inne opowiadania (pl)). The following
year, 1955, saw the publication of another science fiction novel, The
Magellanic Cloud (Obłok Magellana).
During the era of Stalinism, which had begun in Poland in the late
1940s, all published works had to be directly approved by the
communist regime. Thus Astronauci was not, in fact, the first novel
Lem finished, just the first that made it past the censors. Going
by the date of finished manuscript, Lem's first book was a partly
Hospital of the Transfiguration
Hospital of the Transfiguration (Szpital
Przemienienia), finished in 1948. It would be published seven years
later, in 1955, as a trilogy under a title
Czas nieutracony (Time Not
Lost). The experience of trying to push
Czas nieutracony through
the censors was one of the major reasons Lem decided to focus on the
less-censored genre of science fiction. Nonetheless, most of Lem's
works published in the 1950s also contain—forced upon him by the
censors and editors—various references to socialist realism as well
as the "glorious future of communism". Lem later criticized
several of his early pieces as compromised by the ideological
Lem became truly productive after 1956, when the de-Stalinization
period in the
Soviet Union led to the "Polish October", when Poland
experienced an increase in freedom of speech. Between 1956
and 1968, Lem authored seventeen books. His writing over the next
three decades or so was split between science fiction (primarily
prose) and essays about science and culture.
In 1957, he published his first non-fiction, philosophical book,
Dialogues (Dialogi (pl)), as well as a science fiction anthology,
The Star Diaries
The Star Diaries (Dzienniki gwiazdowe), collecting short stories
about one of his most popular characters, Ijon Tichy. 1959 saw the
publication of three books: Eden, Śledztwo and the short story
anthology Inwazja z Aldebarana. 1961 saw two more books, the first
regarded as being among his top works: Pamiętnik znaleziony w wannie,
Solaris, as well as Powrót z gwiazd. This was followed by a
collections of his essays and non-fiction prose, Wejście na orbitę
(1962), and a short story anthology Noc księżycowa (1963). In
1964, Lem published a large work on the border of philosophy and
sociology of science and futurology, Summa Technologiae, as well as a
The Invincible (Niezwyciężony).
Lem signing in Kraków, 30 October 2005.
1965 saw the publication of
The Cyberiad (Cyberiada) and of a short
story anthology, The Hunt (Polowanie (pl)). 1966 is the year
of Wysoki Zamek, followed in 1968 by '"Głos Pana and Tales of Pirx
the Pilot (Opowieści o pilocie Pirxie). Wysoki Zamek was
another of Lem's autobiographical works, and touched upon a theme that
usually was not favored by the censors: Lem's youth in the pre-war,
then-Polish, Lviv. 1967 and 1970 saw two more non-fiction
treatises, Filozofia przypadku and Fantastyka i futurologia. Ijon
Tichy returned in 1971's
The Futurological Congress
The Futurological Congress Kongres
futurologiczny; in the same year he released a genre-mixing
experiment, Doskonała próżnia, a collection of reviews of
non-existent books. In 1973 a similar work, Wielkość urojona, was
published. In 1976, Lem published two novels: Maska and Katar.
In 1980, he published another set of reviews of non-existent works,
Prowokacja. The following year sees another Tichy novel, Wizja
lokalna, and Golem XIV. Later in that decade, he published Pokój
na Ziemi (1984) and Fiasko (1986), Lem's final science fiction
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Lem cautiously supported the Polish
dissident movement, and started publishing essays in Paris-based
Kultura. In 1982, with martial law in Poland declared, Lem moved to
West Berlin, where he became a fellow of the Institute for Advanced
Study, Berlin (Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin). After that, he
settled in Vienna. He returned to Poland in 1988.
From the late 1980s onwards, he tended to concentrate on philosophical
texts and essays, published in a number of Polish magazines (Tygodnik
Powszechny, Odra, Przegląd, and others). They were later
collected in a number of anthologies.
In the early 1990s, Lem met with the literary scholar and critic Peter
Swirski for a series of extensive interviews, published together with
other critical materials and translations as A Stanislaw Lem Reader
(1997); in the book, Lem speaks about a range of issues rarely touched
on before in any interview. Moreover, the book includes Swirski's
translation of Lem's retrospective essay "Thirty Years Later", devoted
to Lem's legendary nonfictional treatise Summa Technologiae. During
later interviews in 2005, Lem expressed his disappointment with the
genre of science fiction, and his general pessimism regarding
technical progress. He viewed the human body as unsuitable for space
travel, held that information technology drowns people in a glut of
low-quality information, and considered truly intelligent robots as
both undesirable and impossible to construct. Subsequently, Peter
Swirski has published a series of in-depth studies of Lem as a writer,
philosopher, and futurologist; notable among them are the recent From
Literature to Biterature: Lem, Turing, Darwin (2013), Stanislaw Lem:
Selected Letters to
Michael Kandel (2014), Lemography (2014), and
Stanislaw Lem: Philosopher of the
Stanislaw Lem's grave at the Salwator Cemetery, Kraków
Lem was a polyglot: he knew Polish, Latin (from medical school),
German, French, English, Russian and Ukrainian.
Lem was married to Barbara Lem née Krymska until his death. She died
on 27 April 2016. Their only son, Tomasz, was born in 1968. He
studied physics and mathematics at the University of Vienna, and
graduated with a degree in physics from Princeton University. Tomasz
wrote a memoir about his father, Awantury na tle powszechnego
ciążenia ("Tantrums on the Background of the Universal
Gravitation"), which contain numerous personal details about
Stanisław Lem. The annotation of the book says Tomasz works as a
translator and has a daughter, Anna.
Stanisław Lem died from heart disease in
Kraków on 27 March 2006 at
the age of 84.
Relationship with American science fiction
Lem was awarded an honorary membership in the Science
of America (SFWA) in 1973. SFWA Honorary membership is given to people
who do not meet the publishing criteria for joining the regular
membership, but who would be welcomed as members had their work
appeared in the qualifying English-language publications. Lem,
however, never had a high opinion of American science fiction,
describing it as ill-thought-out, poorly written, and interested more
in making money than in ideas or new literary forms. After his
eventual American publication, when he became eligible for regular
membership, his honorary membership was rescinded, an action that some
of the SFWA members apparently intended as a rebuke, and it seems
that Lem interpreted it as such. Lem was invited to stay on with the
organization with a regular membership, but declined. After many
members (including Ursula K. Le Guin) protested against Lem's
treatment by the SFWA, a member offered to pay his dues. Lem never
accepted the offer.
Philip K. Dick
Lem singled out only one
American science fiction
American science fiction writer for
praise, Philip K. Dick, in a 1984 English-language anthology of his
critical essays, Microworlds: Writings on Science
Fiction and Fantasy.
Lem had initially held a low opinion of
Philip K. Dick
Philip K. Dick (as he did for
the bulk of American science fiction) and would later claim that this
was due to a limited familiarity with Dick's work.
Dick, suffering from mental health issues, would go on to maintain
Stanisław Lem was probably a false name used by a composite
committee operating on orders of the
Communist party to gain control
over public opinion, and wrote a letter to the
FBI to that effect.
Lem was also responsible for the Polish translation of Dick's work
Ubik in 1972, and when Dick felt monetarily short-changed by the
publisher, he held Lem personally responsible (see
Lem is one of the most highly acclaimed science fiction writers,
hailed by critics as equal to such classic authors as
H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells and
Olaf Stapledon. In 1976,
Theodore Sturgeon wrote that Lem was the
most widely read science fiction writer in the world.
In Poland, in the 1960s and 1970s, Lem remained under the radar of
mainstream critics, who dismissed him as a "mass market", low-brow,
youth-oriented writer; such dismissal might have given him a form of
invisibility from censorship.
The total volume of his published works is over 28 million
volumes. His works were widely translated abroad, appearing in
over 40 languages, though the bulk of them were in Eastern Bloc
countries (Poland, Germany, and the Soviet Union). Franz
Rottensteiner, Lem's former agent abroad, had this to say about Lem's
reception on international markets:
With [number of translations and copies sold], Lem is the most
successful author in modern Polish fiction; nevertheless his
commercial success in the world is limited, and the bulk of his large
editions was due to the special publishing conditions in the Communist
countries: Poland, the Soviet Union, and the German Democratic
Republic). Only in
West Germany was Lem really a critical and a
commercial success [... and everywhere ...] in recent years interest
in him has waned.
But he is the only writer of European [science fiction, most of whose]
books have been translated into English, and [...] kept in print in
the USA. Lem's critical success in English is due mostly to the
excellent translations of Michael Kandel.
His best-known novels include
Solaris (1961), His Master's Voice
(Głos pana, 1968), and the late Fiasco (Fiasko, 1987).
made into a film in 1968 by Russian director Boris Nirenburg, a film
in 1972 by Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky—which won a Special
Jury Prize at the
Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival in 1972—and an American
re-adaptation in 2002 by American director Steven Soderbergh, starring
Solaris is not the only work of Lem's to be filmed. Over ten film and
television adaptations of his work exist, such as adaptations of The
Astronauts (First Spaceship on Venus, 1960) and The Magellan Nebula
(Ikarie XB-1, 1963). Lem himself was, however, critical of most of
the screen adaptations, with the sole exception of
1968 by Andrzej Wajda. More recently, in 2013, the Israeli–Polish
co-production The Congress was released, inspired by Lem's novel The
Lem's works have been used in education, for example as teaching texts
for philosophy students.
Lem's works have influenced not only the realm of literature, but that
of science as well. For example,
Return from the Stars
Return from the Stars includes the
"opton", which is often cited as the first published appearance of the
idea of electronic paper.
In 1981, the philosophers Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett
included three extracts from Lem's fiction in their annotated
anthology The Mind's I, accompanied by Hofstadter's comment, which
says in part that Lem's "literary and intuitive approach ... does a
better job of convincing readers of his views than any hard-nosed
scientific article ... might do".
Other influences exerted by Lem's works include Will Wright's popular
city-planning game SimCity, which was partly inspired by Lem's short
story The Seventh Sally.
A major character in the film Planet 51, an alien Lem, was named by
Joe Stillman after Stanisław Lem. Since the film was
intended to be a parody of American pulp science fiction shot in
Eastern Europe, Stillman thought that it would be hilarious to hint at
the writer whose works have nothing to do with little green men.
Main article: List of works by
Stanisław Lem and their adaptations
Stanisław Lem works were influenced by such masters of Polish
Cyprian Norwid and Stanisław Witkiewicz.[citation
needed] His prose show a mastery of numerous genres and themes.
One of Lem's major recurring themes, beginning from his very first
novel, The Man from Mars, was the impossibility of communication
between profoundly alien beings, which may have no common ground with
human intelligence, and humans. The best known example is the living
planetary ocean in Lem's novel Solaris. Other examples include swarms
of mechanical insects (in The Invincible), and strangely ordered
societies of more human-like beings in Fiasco and Eden, describing the
failure of the first contact. In His Master's Voice, Lem describes the
failure of humanity's intelligence to decipher and truly comprehend an
apparent message from space.
Two overlapping arcs of short stories,
Fables for Robots
Fables for Robots (Bajki
Robotów), translated in the collection Mortal Engines), and The
Cyberiad (Cyberiada) provide a commentary on humanity in the form of a
series of grotesque, humorous, fairytale-like short stories about a
mechanical universe inhabited by robots (who have occasional contact
with biological "slimies" and human "palefaces").
Śledztwo and Katar are crime novels (the latter without a murderer);
Pamiętnik... is a psychological drama inspired by Kafka.
Doskonała próżnia and Wielkość urojona are collections of reviews
of non-existent books and introductions to them. Similarly,
Prowokacja purports to review a Holocaust-themed work.
Lem's criticism of most science fiction surfaced in literary and
philosophical essays Science
interviews. In the 1990s, Lem forswore science fiction and
returned to futurological prognostications, most notably those
expressed in Blink of an Eye (Okamgnienie (pl)). He became
increasingly critical of modern technology in his later life,
criticizing inventions such as the Internet.
Summa Technologiae (1964) are Lem's two most famous
philosophical texts. The Summa is notable for being a unique analysis
of prospective social, cybernetic, and biological advances; in this
work, Lem discusses philosophical implications of technologies that
were completely in the realm of science fiction at the time, but are
gaining importance today—for instance, virtual reality and
Main article: List of honors bestowed on Stanisław Lem
1957 – City of Kraków's Prize in Literature (Nagroda Literacka
1965 – Prize of the Minister of Culture and Art, 2nd Level (Nagroda
Ministra Kultury i Sztuki II stopnia)
Prize of the Minister of Foreign Affairs for popularization of Polish
culture abroad (nagroda Ministra Spraw Zagranicznych za popularyzację
polskiej kultury za granicą)
Literary Prize of the Minister of Culture and Art (nagroda literacka
Ministra Kultury i Sztuki) and honorary member of Science Fiction
Writers of America
1976 – State Prize 1st Level in the area of literature (Nagroda
Państwowa I stopnia w dziedzinie literatury)
Grand Prix de Littérature Policière for his novel Katar.
1986 – Austrian State Prize for European Literature
1991 – Austrian literary
Franz Kafka Prize
1996 – recipient of the Order of the White Eagle
1972 – member of commission "Poland 2000" of the Polish Academy of
1979 – a minor planet, 3836 Lem, discovered by Soviet astronomer
Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykhis named after him.
1981 – Doctor honoris causa honorary degree from the Wrocław
University of Technology
1994 – member of the Polish Academy of Learning
1997 – honorary citizen of Kraków
1998 – Doctor honoris causa: University of Opole, Lviv University,
2003 – Doctor honoris causa of the University of Bielefeld
2007 – A street in
Kraków is to be named in his honour.
2009 – A street in
Wieliczka was named in his honour
2011 – An interactive Google logo inspired by
The Cyberiad was
created and published in his honor for the 60th anniversary of his
first published book: The Astronauts.
2013 – two planetoids were named after Lem's literary characters:
343000 Ijontichy, after
Ijon Tichy and 343444 Halluzinelle, after
Tichy's holographic companion Analoge Halluzinelle from German TV
series Ijon Tichy: Space Pilot
Orzeł Biały dla Lema (White Eagle for Lem), article in "Gazeta
Wyborcza" nr 217, 17 September 1996, page 2, 
^ "Stanislaw Lem – Obituaries – News". The Independent.
2006-03-31. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
^ a b Agnieszka Gajewska. Zagłada i gwiazdy. Przeszłość w prozie
Stanisława Lema. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań.
^ Rob Jan. "Stanislaw Lem 1921 – 2006. Obituary by Rob Jan". ZERO-G
AUSTRALIAN RADIO and lem.pl.
^ "Technik: Visionär ohne Illusionen". ZEIT ONLINE. 28 July
2005. . Part essay, part interview with Lem by
Die Zeit newspaper
^ a b Theodore Sturgeon: "Introduction". Archived from the original on
17 October 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-07. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link) to
Roadside Picnic by Arkady and
Boris Strugatsky, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc, New York 1976
Wojciech Orliński (2017). Lem. Życie nie z tej ziemi. Wydawnictwo
Czarne/Agora SA. p. 37. ISBN 978-83-8049-552-4.
^ Jerzy Jarzȩbski (1986). Zufall und Ordnung: zum Werk Stanlisław
Lems (in German). Suhrkamp. p. 1.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Tomasz FIAŁKOWSKI.
Stanisław Lem czyli życie spełnione" (in Polish).
^ Lem's FAQ Archived 25 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "The religion of Stanislaw Lem, science fiction writer".
^ "An Interview with Stanislaw Lem". Archived from the original on 27
September 2007. Retrieved 2017-05-12. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link) by Peter Engel. Missouri Review
Volume 7, Number 2, 1984.
^ Noack, Hans-Joachim (15 January 1996). "Jeder Irrwitz ist denkbar
Science-fiction-Autor Lem über Nutzen und Risiken der Antimaterie
(engl: Each madness is conceivable Science-fiction author Lem about
the benefits and risks of anti-matter)". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 6
^ В. Шуткевич, СТАНИСЛАВ ЛЕМ: ГЛУПОСТЬ
КАК ДВИЖУЩАЯ СИЛА ИСТОРИИ ("Stanislaw Lem:
Stupidity as a Driving Force of History", an interview),
Комсомольская правда, February 26, 1991, p. 3.
^ a b "Lem about Himself". Stanislaw Lem homepage.
Stanisław Lem (January 1984). "Chance and Order". The New Yorker 59
/ 30. pp. 88–98.
^ Stanisław Lem, Mein Leben ("My Life"), Berlin, 1983.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jerzy Jarzębski. Lem, Stanisław (in
Polish). 'PWN. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
^ Stanisław Lem, Mein Leben ("My Life"), Berlin, 1983
^ a b c d e Lem, Stanislaw. SFE. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 6 November
Stanisław Lem (2000). Memoirs of a Space Traveler: Further
Reminiscences of Ijon Tichy. Northwestern University Press.
p. Back cover blurb. ISBN 978-0-8101-1732-7. [Tichy] endures
as one of Lem's most popular characters
^ Auch Hosenträger sind intelligent, Zeit Wissen, 1/2005; Im
Ramschladen der Phantasie, Zeit Wissen, 3/2005. (in German)
^ Tomasz Lem, Awantury na tle powszechnego ciążenia, Kraków,
Wydawnictwo Literackie, 2009, ISBN 978-83-08-04379-0, p. 198.
^ "Barbara Lem", a necrolog in Gazeta Literacka (retrieved 2 March
^ "Lem jakiego nie znamy", Publisher's annotation of the book Lem
jakiego nie znamy by Tomasz Lem.
^ a b "Stanislaw Lem – Frequently Asked Questions. SWFA, quoted on
Lem's homepage". Stanislaw Lem.
^ "The Lem Affair (Continued)". Science
Fiction Studies, # 14 = Volume
5, Part 1 = March 1978. 1978.
^ a b "Lem and SFWA". Archived from the original on 11 January
2008. in Science
Fantasy Writers of America FAQ,
"paraphrasing Jerry Pournelle" who was SFWA President 1973-4
^ "Philip K. Dick: A Visionary Among the Charlatans". Stanislaw
^ a b "Philip K. Dick:
Stanisław Lem is a Communist Committee", Matt
Davies, April 29, 2015
^ "Stanislaw Lem – Frequently Asked Questions. P.K.Dick, Letter to
FBI, quoted on Lem's homepage". Stanislaw Lem.
^ a b "Stanislaw Lem". The Times. 28 March 2006. (Subscription
Franz Rottensteiner (1999). "Note on the Authors: Stanisław Lem".
View from Another Shore: European Science Fiction. Liverpool
University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-85323-942-0.
Peter Swirski (1 January 2008). The Art and Science of Stanislaw
Lem. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. pp. 153–170.
^ "Israeli Polish coproduction "The Congress" to Open Director's
Fortnight in Cannes". Archived from the original on 20 May 2013.
^ For instance, in the subject Natural and Artificial Thinking,
Faculty of Math. & Phys., Charles University in Prague, or
Philosophy in sci-fi at
Masaryk University in Brno
^ Lew, Julie (15 June 1989). "Making City Planning a Game".
nytimes.com. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
^ Lem wśród zielonych ludzików.
^ David Langford (July 2005). The Sex Column and Other Misprints, a
collection of essays from SFX magazine. Wildside Press LLC.
p. 65. ISBN 978-1-930997-78-3.
^ The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science
Fiction and Fantasy: Themes,
Works ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved
^ "Cyberiada". Lem's official website. Retrieved 6 November
^ ""Folha de S.Paulo" – interview with Lem". Stanislaw Lem's
^ ""Shargh" daily newspaper interview". Stanislaw Lem. Archived from
the original on 2011-08-07. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th
ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 325.
^ "UCHWAŁA NR VIII/122/07 Rady Miasta Krakowa z dnia 14 marca 2007 r.
w sprawie nazw ulic. Par.1, pkt.1" (in Polish). [permanent dead
^ "Uchwała nr XXXII/479/2009 Rady Miejskiej w Wieliczce z dnia 30
września 2009 r. w sprawie nadania nazwy ulicy" (PDF) (in Polish).
Urząd Marszałkowski Województwa Małopolskiego.
Stanisław Lem doodle". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
^ "Google creates doodle in Stanislaw Lem's book". The Guardian. 23
November 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
By Stanisław Lem
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Wojciech Orliński, Co to są sepulki? Wszystko o Lemie (What are
Sepulki? Everything about Lem), 2007, ISBN 8324007989.
Peter Swirski, Stanislaw Lem Reader, Northwestern University Press,
1997, ISBN 0-8101-1495-X description
Peter Swirski, Between Literature and Science: Poe, Lem, and
Explorations in Aesthetics, Cognitive Science, and Literary Knowledge,
McGill-Queen's UP, 2000, ISBN 0-7735-2078-3
Peter Swirski (ed), The Art and Science of Stanislaw Lem,
McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-7735-3047-9
Peter Swirski From Literature to Biterature: Lem, Turing, Darwin,
McGill-Queen's University Press, 2013.
Peter Swirski Stanislaw Lem: Selected Letters to Michael Kandel,
Liverpool University Press, 2014.
Peter Swirski (ed), Lemography, Liverpool University Press, 2014.
Peter Swirski Stanislaw Lem: Philosopher of the Future, Liverpool
University Press, 2015.
"Acta Lemiana Monashiensis" ed. Lech Keller, „Acta Polonica
Monashiensis", special edition dedicated to Lem, 2002, vol. 2, nr 2
Monash University 2003, 207 p., ISSN 1326-8562 review in Polish
Lech Keller, Visions of the
Future in the Writings of Stanislaw Lem
(Volume 1, "Visions of the Future") Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP Lambert
Academic Publishing, 2010, 392 p., ISBN 978-3-8383-5900-7
Lech Keller, Visions of the
Future in the Writings of Stanislaw Lem
(Volume 2, "Annotated and Cross-Referenced Primary and Secondary
Bibliography of Stanislaw Lem") Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP Lambert
Academic Publishing, 2010, 696 p., ISBN 978-3-8383-6942-6
Jameson, Fredric. "The Unknowability Thesis." In Archaeologies of the
Future: This Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions. London
and New York: Verso, 2005.
Suvin, Darko. "Three World Paradigms for SF: Asimov, Yefremov, Lem."
Pacific Quarterly (Moana): An International Review of Arts and Ideas
"A Visionary Among the Charlatans": Lem's essay on
Philip K. Dick
Philip K. Dick at
Fiction Studies website
Biography at poland.gov
Life after Lem,
Warsaw Voice 5 April 2006 (cover story)
Solaris and beyond, Philosopher's Zone Australian Broadcasting
Corporation discussion about Lem's works; MP3
Times Online obituary
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stanisław Lem.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Stanisław Lem
Official website – maintained by Lem's son and secretary
Stanisław Lem at the
Stanisław Lem on IMDb
Lemopedia, The Lem Encyclopedia wiki
Works of Stanisław Lem
Time Not Lost
Hospital of the Transfiguration
Hospital of the Transfiguration (1948)
The Astronauts (1951)
The Magellanic Cloud
The Magellanic Cloud (1955)
The Investigation (1959)
Return from the Stars
Return from the Stars (1961)
Memoirs Found in a Bathtub
Memoirs Found in a Bathtub (1961)
The Invincible (1964)
His Master's Voice (1968)
The Futurological Congress
The Futurological Congress (1971)
The Chain of Chance
The Chain of Chance (1975)
Golem XIV (1981)
Observation on the Spot (1982)
Peace on Earth (1987)
Short story collections
The Star Diaries
The Star Diaries (1957)
Fables for Robots
Fables for Robots (1964)
The Cyberiad (1965)
Tales of Pirx the Pilot
Tales of Pirx the Pilot (1966)
Summa Technologiae (1964)
Philosophy of Chance (1968)
A Perfect Vacuum
A Perfect Vacuum (1971)
Imaginary Magnitude (1973)
One Human Minute (1986)
Do You Exist, Mr. Jones? (1955)
Faithful Robot (1961)
First Spaceship on Venus
First Spaceship on Venus (1960)
Voyage to the End of the Universe
Voyage to the End of the Universe (1963)
Roly Poly (1968)
Inquest of Pilot Pirx (1979)
Victim of the Brain
Victim of the Brain (1988)
The Congress (2013)
Ijon Tichy: Space Pilot (2007)
End of the World at Eight O'Clock (2015)
Trurl and Klapaucius
The Golden Age
Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic
Science fiction Western
Libraries and museums
Women in SF
Illustrators of the Future
Writers of the Future
Space stations and habitats
Sex and sexuality
Science, technology and society
Technology and society
Utopian and dystopian fiction
Recipients of the Austrian State Prize for European Literature
Zbigniew Herbert (1965)
W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden (1966)
Vasko Popa (1967)
Václav Havel (1968)
Not given (1969)
Eugène Ionesco (1970)
Peter Huchel (1971)
Sławomir Mrożek (1972)
Harold Pinter (1973)
Sándor Weöres (1974)
Miroslav Krleža (1975)
Italo Calvino (1976)
Pavel Kohout (1977)
Fulvio Tomizza (1977)
Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir (1978)
Fulvio Tomizza (1979)
Sarah Kirsch (1980)
Doris Lessing (1981)
Tadeusz Różewicz (1982)
Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1983)
Christa Wolf (1984)
Stanisław Lem (1985)
Giorgio Manganelli (1986)
Milan Kundera (1987)
Andrzej Szczypiorski (1988)
Marguerite Duras (1989)
Helmut Heissenbüttel (1990)
Péter Nádas (1991)
Salman Rushdie (1992)
Chinghiz Aitmatov (1993)
Inger Christensen (1994)
Aleksandar Tišma (1995)
Jürg Laederach (1996)
Antonio Tabucchi (1997)
Dubravka Ugrešić (1998)
Péter Esterházy (1999)
António Lobo Antunes
António Lobo Antunes (2000)
Umberto Eco (2001)
Christoph Hein (2002)
Cees Nooteboom (2003)
Julian Barnes (2004)
Claudio Magris (2005)
Jorge Semprún (2006)
A. L. Kennedy
A. L. Kennedy (2007)
Agota Kristof (2008)
Per Olov Enquist
Per Olov Enquist (2009)
Paul Nizon (2010)
Javier Marías (2011)
Patrick Modiano (2012)
John Banville (2013)
Lyudmila Ulitskaya (2014)
Mircea Cărtărescu (2015)
Andrzej Stasiuk (2016)
Karl Ove Knausgård
Karl Ove Knausgård (2017)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2134 0125
BNF: cb11912319s (data)