Koniecpolski (1591 – 11 March 1646) was a Polish military
commander, regarded as one of the most talented and capable in the
history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was also a magnate,
a royal official (starosta), a castellan, a member of the Polish
nobility (szlachta), and the voivode (governor) of
1625 until his death. He led many successful military campaigns
Cossacks and invading Tatars. From 1618 he held the
Field Crown Hetman
Field Crown Hetman before becoming the Grand Crown Hetman, the
military commander second only to the King, in 1632.
Koniecpolski's life was one of almost constant warfare. Before he had
reached the age of 20, he had fought in the
Dymitriads and the
Magnate Wars. Later, in 1620, he took part in the Battle of
Cecora, during which he was captured by Ottoman forces. After his
release in 1623, he defeated the Ottomans' Tatar vassals several times
between 1624 and 1626. With inferior numbers, during the
Polish–Swedish War (1626–29),
Koniecpolski stopped the Swedish
Gustavus Adolphus from conquering
Prussia and Pomerania
before the war was concluded with the Truce of Altmark. In 1634, he
defeated a major Turkish invasion at
Podolski), in the Ukraine, while in 1644, his victory against the
Tatars at the Battle of Ochmatów brought him international fame and
2 Early career: 1610–1626
3 Fighting Gustavus Adolphus: 1626–1629
4 Grand Crown Hetman: 1630–1637
5 Last years: 1637–1645
6 Wealth and influence
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
The details of Stanisław Koniecpolski's birth are unclear. Various
dates between 1590 and 1594[a] have been provided, and none of his
biographers identify where he was born. What is known, though, is that
his father, Aleksander Koniecpolski, was a wealthy magnate belonging
to the szlachta (Polish nobility) and was also the voviode of Sieradz,
and a staunch supporter of King Sigismund III of the Swedish House of
Vasa. Koniecpolski's mother, Anna Sroczycka, was the daughter of
Stanisław Sroczycki, the voivode of Kamianets-Podilskyi, and had
brought several large Podole estates into the
Koniecpolski family upon
her marriage to Aleksander. Stanisław's brothers were Krzysztof, who
held the court office of chorąży wielki koronny (Grand
Standard-Bearer of the Crown) and was voivode of
Bełsk from 1641;
Remigiusz, who was the bishop of Chełm before his death in 1640; Jan,
a castellan and the voivode of Sieradz; and Przedbór who died in
Koniecpolski had a stutter, when he was 15, through his
father's influence in the royal court, he secured an appointment as
starosta (mayor) of Wieluń. In 1603 he began studying at the Kraków
Academy, and after several years he was sent to the royal court
by his father so that he could continue his education in a more
practical fashion. He is believed to have stayed there a year or
two. He may also have undertaken a tour of
Western Europe for
several months, spending the majority of his time in France before
returning to his family's estates.
Early career: 1610–1626
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent, 1648
Hussars—Polish heavy cavalry—at Kłuszyn
From a young age
Koniecpolski chose to follow a military career. In
1610, together with his brother Przedbór, he took part in the
Dymitriads against Muscovy, raising a group of 300 men to join the
Army of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at Smolensk. On 4
July 1610 he participated in the
Battle of Klushino
Battle of Klushino before joining the
Smolensk where Przedbór was crushed to death by the
fortress' collapsing walls on 8 July 1611. After returning to his
family mansion at
Koniecpol with his brother's body, the following
Koniecpolski rejoined the army. Under the command of Grand
Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, he took part in the effort to
relieve and supply the besieged Polish forces in the Moscow
Kremlin. During that time, he was entrusted by the
command of the right flank of the Polish forces.
Koniecpolski joined the wojsko kwarciane (regular Commonwealth
Ukraine under the command of
Field Crown Hetman
Field Crown Hetman Stanisław
Żółkiewski, who greatly influenced his career. In 1614 he was
entrusted with destroying rebellious regular units led by Jan
Karwacki, and on 17 May, with Stanisław Żółkiewski's son, Jan,
he won the Battle of Rohatyn and captured Karwacki. In 1615 he
married Żółkiewski's daughter Katarzyna (Catherine). Soon after
the wedding, he received the official rank of podstoli koronny (Crown
Master of the Pantry).
Throughout 1615 and 1616
Koniecpolski gained further experience in
Ukraine, fighting the Tatar hordes, but failed to destroy or capture
any sizable enemy units. In 1616, Katarzyna died while giving
birth to in labor with Koniecpolski's first son, Andrzej. The
Koniecpolski took part in the Moldavian
alongside Żołkiewski, and stood against Iskender Pasha's powerful
Turkish army. The conflict ended that year with a negotiated
cease-fire. Following negotiations with the
Cossacks in Olszanica,
Koniecpolski reduced the
Cossack register to 1,000, thereby limiting
the number of positions that the
Cossacks could hold in the
Commonwealth military. He also banned raids on the Black Sea. Such
raids, which pillaged wealthy Ottoman cities, contributed to the
Cossacks' income but provoked retaliatory raids into Commonwealth
In 1618, during a session of the Sejm—the Commonwealth
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa granted the buława (ceremonial
mace or baton) of
Grand Crown Hetman
Grand Crown Hetman to
Stanisław Żółkiewski and
Field Crown Hetman
Field Crown Hetman to Koniecpolski, disregarding the
opposition of magnate
Krzysztof Zbaraski and his allies. Soon
Koniecpolski was defeated by the
Tatars near Orynin, where
he committed the mistake of pursuing the enemy against overwhelming
odds and barely made it out of the battle alive. In 1619,
Koniecpolski married Krystyna Lubomirska, who gave birth to a son,
Aleksander, the following year.
Koniecpolski and Żólkiewski led an army to
protect Gaspar Graziani, an ally of the Commonwealth. The army
numbered over 7,000 and included the private regiments of the Korecki,
Zasławski, Kazanowski, Kalinowski and
Potocki magnates. During
the Battle of Cecora (Ţuţora)
Koniecpolski commanded the right flank
of the Commonwealth forces, which were defeated on 19 September by
a combined force belonging to Iskender Pasha and Kantymir (Khan
Temir). After retreating in good order, the army's morale fell and
Koniecpolski prevented the army's disintegration on 20–21
September, during the later stages of the retreat its resolve
collapsed and the men ran for the river. In the ensuing battle,
Żólkiewski was killed and
Koniecpolski and many magnates including
Samuel Korecki, Mikołaj Struś, Mikołaj Potocki, and Jan and Łukasz
Żółkiewski were taken captive. The prisoners were transported
to Białograd (Bilhorod), to Iskender Pasha, then to the Castle of
Seven Towers at Constantinople, where they were held in the Black
Tower. Polish-Ottoman relations stabilized in the wake of the Ottoman
defeat at Khotyn in 1621, and in the spring of 1623 the prisoners
returned to Poland after a diplomatic mission by Krzysztof Zbaraski
purchased their freedom for 30,000 thalers.
The Castle of the Seven Towers, Constantinople, where
In the aftermath of the Battle of Khotyn, a treaty had been signed
that aimed to prevent further border hostilities. While Khan Canibek
Giray resolved to respect the treaty's provisions, Kantymir continued
to raid the borderlands in an effort to usurp Canibek Giray's
position. Following fresh raids by Kantymir's forces in June 1623,
Koniecpolski was given command of local Commonwealth forces and
ordered to stop the incursions. Early the following year, the
Budjak horde, under Kantymir's command, attacked southern Poland.
On 6 February,
Koniecpolski intercepted one of the
Budjak armies and
destroyed it near Szmańkowice and Oryszkowce. Later that year,
after Kantymir's forces crossed the border in early June, Koniecpolski
inflicted a further defeat on him at the Battle of Martynów.
Using a new strategy that employed light Cossack cavalry to drive
Kantymir's forces towards fortified tabors where they were attacked by
small arms and artillery,
Koniecpolski forced the khan's troops to
retreat in disarray. His victory was soon celebrated
throughout the Commonwealth and, as a reward,
Koniecpolski was granted
30,000 złoty by the Sejm. He was also appointed voivode of
In 1625, during the
Zhmailo Uprising the Zaporozhian Cossacks, led by
Marek Zhmaylo, rebelled. Joineing forces with Szanhin Girej, they
attempted to form an alliance with Moscow. Reasoning that the
Tatars had their share of trouble with the Porte and that Kantymir's
Budjak horde would be unable to send major assistance,
Koniecpolski gathered a 12,000-strong army of regular and private
units to deal with the rebellion. He pledged fair treatment to all
Cossacks loyal to the Commonwealth, and death to rebels. On 25
October 1625, near Kryłów, he launch a cavalry attack against the
Cossacks. His initial thrusts were stopped and the
Cossacks fell back
Lake Kurukove where they checked a secondary attack. As the
tide of battle went against him, Koniecpolski's position was at one
point described as "grave"; however, the conflict eventually ended
in a negotiated cease-fire. This was formalized by the Treaty of
Kurukove on 6 November under which the
Cossack register was set at
6,000, and the
Cossacks again promised to stop raiding the Black Sea
shores and provoking the Tatars.
In late January 1626 the
Tatars invaded again. With an army estimated
at between 15,000 and 20,000, they raided and pillaged territories as
far north as the Podole Voivodeship, passing
Ternopil and Terebovlia,
while some advanced units reached the cities of Lutsk,
Volodymyr-Volynskyi and Lviv. In response,
some 13,000 troops and moved to intercept the Tatars, but they refused
to engage. Eventually
Koniecpolski defeated the rear guard of the
main Tatar army, which crossed the borders with much treasure and
slaves. Later that year, fearing a repeat invasion, Koniecpolski
Sejm resolution in recruiting and fielding an army of 8,000
against an expected Tatar second wave. During this time,
Koniecpolski was aided in a number of battles by a highly capable
officer, Bohdan Khmelnytsky; Khmelnytsky would also score a major
victory over the
Tatars later that year, after
departed north to a new battlefield near the Baltic Sea.
Fighting Gustavus Adolphus: 1626–1629
Koniecpolski's great adversary,
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
In 1626 the southern threat to the Commonwealth was overshadowed by a
northern one, as an incursion by Swedish forces reignited the
Polish–Swedish War. In June, Gustavus Adolphus, with a fleet of 125
ships and an army of over 14,000 men, approached the Polish coast and
began collecting tariffs on trade passing through Gdańsk
(Danzig). Having taken Piława and Braniewo, Swedish forces
spread through Pomerania, taking Frombork, Tolkmicko, Elbląg,
Tczew and Starograd, while other Swedish forces landed
near Puck—the main port of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
fleet—and captured it. The major city of Gdańsk, however,
refused to surrender even in the face of lightning Swedish
advances. In a battle that took place between 22 and 30 September
1626 near the village of Gniew, Gustavus defeated a Polish army led by
King Sigismund, who retreated and called for reinforcements from other
parts of the country. In response,
Koniecpolski was tasked with
Prussia against the Swedish incursion. He was delayed
by the unstable situation in the south, though, and it was not until 1
October that he finally departed for Prussia.
Koniecpolski's force of 4,200 light cavalry, 1,000 dragoons, and 1,000
infantry quickly moved to Prussia. Reinforced by other units, he
had 9,000 men against the 20,000-strong Swedish force.[b]
Employing maneuver warfare, using small mobile units to strike at
enemy communication lines and smaller units, he stopped the Swedish
attack and forced
Axel Oxenstierna into a defensive posture.
Sejm agreed to raise money for the war. The
situation of the Commonwealth forces, short of money and food, was
difficult. Lithuanian forces were dealt a serious defeat near
Koknese, Inflanty Voivodeship, in December 1626 and they subsequently
retreated behind the Dvina River. The Swedes then planned to
Koniecpolski from two directions: Oxenstierna, from the Vistula
River, and Johann Streiff von Lawentstein and Maxymilian Teuffl, from
Swedish-held Pomorze. The flooding of the Vistula, however,
disrupted their plans and allowed
Koniecpolski to intercept the enemy
units advancing from Pomerania.
On 2 April 1627
Koniecpolski managed to recapture Puck. He took
Czarne (Hamersztyn) on 18 April and forced the Swedish forces to
retreat into the city. A week later they surrendered, with many
mercenaries and some Swedish abandoning their banners and
insignia, and changing sides. As a result of the series of
Swedish defeats in spring 1627, they lost all their strongholds on the
west bank of the Vistula, and with those, their hopes for a quick and
decisive victory. The situation also convinced the Elector of
Brandenburg to declare his support for the Commonwealth, and
afterwards the Lithuanian forces resumed their offensive in
Koniecpolski with a hetman's buława, portraited in a military
encampment against a battle, National Museum in Warsaw
On 17 May Gustavus landed with 8,000 reinforcements. On the night
of 22–23 May, while crossing the Vistula near Kieżmark and Danzig,
Gustavus encountered Polish forces. Wounded in the hip, he was forced
Koniecpolski then decided to take back
devised a diversionary plan. Polish forces were sent to attempt to
take back Braniewo, forcing Gustavus to relieve the siege; then
Gustavus followed the retreating Polish army and laid siege to
Orneta. Koniecpolski, who had foreseen this, responded with a
sudden attack on Gniew, his primary objective, which he
captured. Gustavus was reported to be impressed with the speed
of Koniecpolski's reaction.
Near Tczew, with about 7,800 men—including 2,500 cavalry and
hussars, the Commonwealth's elite heavy cavalry—
to stop the Swedish army from reaching Danzig. On 7–8 August, he
encountered a Swedish force consisting of 10,000 men, which included
5,000 infantry, near the swamps of Motława. The Swedes wanted to
provoke the Poles into attacking, then destroy them with infantry fire
and artillery, but
Koniecpolski decided against attacking. The
Swedes then went on the attack with cavalry, but were unable to draw
the Poles within range of their fire. The Swedish attacks dealt severe
damage to the Polish cavalry but did not cripple the Polish army whose
morale was kept high by Koniecpolski. The battle ended when
Gustavus Adolphus was again wounded and the Swedes retreated.
Koniecpolski now recognized the need to reform his army and strengthen
the firepower of its infantry and artillery to match the Swedes'.
The Swedes, on the other hand, had learned the arts of cavalry charges
and melée combat from the Poles. Overall the 1627 campaign had
been favorable to the Commonwealth; Puck and
Gniew had been retaken,
Swedish plans had been thwarted, and the Swedish army had been
weakened. The last major engagement of the year saw the surprising
defeat of a Swedish flotilla by the small
Polish Navy on 28 November
1627 at the Battle of Oliwa.
In 1628 the Polish forces, short of funds, were forced to cease their
offensive and go on the defensive.
Gustavus Adolphus captured
Nowe and Brodnica.
putting his small forces to most efficient use—quick cavalry melée
attacks, combined with supporting infantry and artillery fire,
guerrilla warfare, the use of engineers to raise fortifications, and
clever use of terrain advantage. Despite his best efforts, he
was hampered by insufficient funds. The
Sejm increased funding for
the war after the Battle of Górzno, where Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki
Austria sent the Commonwealth help in the form of
Field Marshal Johann Georg Arnheim. Arnheim, however,
refused to take orders from Koniecpolski.
Koniecpolski Frees Captives of the Tatars, by Henryk
Rodakowski. (The original was lost in World War II.)
The final battle took place on 27 June 1629 near Trzciana (or
Trzcianka). The Swedes attacked toward Grudziądz, were halted,
and retreated to
Sztum and Malbork.
Koniecpolski attacked the rear
guard, which was led by Jan Wilhelm Reingraff, Count of Ren, and
destroyed it. He also repelled a counterattack by Swedish
raitars, who were pushed toward Pułkowice, where another
counterattack was led by
Gustavus Adolphus with 2,000 raitars.
This counterattack was also fended off, and the Swedish forces were
saved from total defeat by the last Swedish reserves, led by Field
Marshal Herman Wrangel, who blocked the Polish attack. Gustavus
Adolphus was wounded and barely escaped. Of the Swedes, 1,200
were killed, and Reingraff and several hundred others were
captured. Polish losses were under 200 killed or injured.
Poland did not follow up this victory politically or militarily. A
cease-fire contracted at
Stary Targ (the Truce of Altmark) on 26
October 1629 favored the Swedes, who received the right to tax
Polish trade moving over the Baltic (3.5% of the value of goods),
retained control of many cities in Royal Prussia, and were
recognized as the dominant power on the southern Baltic coast.
Koniecpolski exerted little influence on the negotiations, as he had
been called back to
Ukraine to crush a Tartar incursion.
Grand Crown Hetman: 1630–1637
Treaty of Sztumska Wieś
Treaty of Sztumska Wieś (1635), painted 1640. Pictured are Bishop
Jakub Zadzik, King Władysław IV, and
Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski.
In 1630, the Cossack leader, Taras Fedorovych, executed the moderate
Hryhoriy Chorny, and began a Cossack uprising, later dubbed the
"Fedorovych Uprising". Soon afterwards he captured the fortress of
Korsun. In an effort to restore the situation,
siege to Pereyaslav. Lacking artillery and infantry support, he could
not breach its walls, but the Cossacks, needing supplies and
having suffered heavy casualties, agreed to negotiate. The Treaty
of Pereyaslav, signed in August 1630, it resuluted in. It granted
liberal terms, including amnesty for the rebels. Koniecpolski,
as usual, was for harsh punishment, but also argued that in the
long run the Cossack situation was better remedied by more equitable
treatment, including an increase in the
Cossack register and the
regular payment of wages. Still, he supported policies aimed at
Cossacks into serfs, which was one of the main causes of
unrest in Ukraine; this, along with his decision to settle his
soldiers' living expenses on the local populace instead of paying them
wages, led to his extreme unpopularity in Ukraine.
In 1632, a few months before his death, King Sigismund III Vasa
Koniecpolski the post of Grand Crown Hetman. It had
stood vacant for 12 years, since the death of Stanisław
Żółkiewski; presumably King Sigismund had feared that Koniecpolski,
if given the post earlier, would have become too powerful a
magnate. After the King's death,
Koniecpolski played a major role
in directing the political affairs of the Commonwealth and in 1632
supported the election of Sigismund's son,
Władysław IV Vasa, as
king. In return, a year after his election, King Władysław IV
Koniecpolski with the office of
Castellan of Kraków, the
most prestigious of the Commonwealth's district offices.
Koniecpolski became an influential adviser to the new king, often
encouraging him to direct Polish foreign policy against the
Koniecpolski also supported King Władysław IV's military
reforms. Though generally seen as a supporter of the King,
Koniecpolski opposed some of his plans aimed at increasing royal power
in the Commonwealth and weakening the
Golden Liberty of the
Fortress of Kamianets-Podilskyi
Koniecpolski thwarted the Turks' attacks on the Commonwealth,
defeating their forces on 4 July at Sasowy Róg. On 22 October
that year, he repulsed a superior invading Ottoman force of over
20,000 at Kamianets-Podilskyi, his own forces numbering a mere
11,000. The Ottoman defeats and Koniecpolski's attitude
persuaded the Turks to sign a new treaty on 19 August 1634. The
treaty repeated the terms of the
Treaty of Chocim
Treaty of Chocim of 1621 and ended
the Ottoman–Commonwealth War (1633–34).
In 1635, in the short lived Sulima Uprising, after
Cossacks under Ivan
Sulyma captured and destroyed the Polish
Kodak Fortress (near modern
Koniecpolski led an expedition that retook the fort and
punished the insurgents. Sulima was taken prisoner and
Later that year
Koniecpolski returned to
Pomerania to prepare for
another war against Sweden, but it was rendered unnecessary by the
Treaty of Sztumska Wieś.
Koniecpolski grasped the need to modernize the Commonwealth's military
and worked with King
Władysław IV to that end, including the
recruitment of mercenaries experienced in western warfare, and further
development of artillery (he supervised the construction of arsenals
at Kudak, Bar and Kamieniec Podolski, and built forges on his
Ukrainian estates). He was patron to many gifted artillery and
engineering officers. He may also have sponsored cartographers
such as William le Vasseur de Beauplan, who mapped Ukraine, and
Sebastian Aders, who mapped Crimea. He also supported plans to
create a Commonwealth Baltic Fleet.
Last years: 1637–1645
Koniecpolski's effigy, Trinity Church, Koniecpol
After 1637 Koniecpolski's declining health made him reliant on the
Hetman Mikołaj Potocki, who successfully crushed Cossack
uprisings in 1637 and 1638, and a Tartar uprising in 1639.
Koniecpolski's influence also protected the outlaw Samuel Łaszcz,
whom he saw as another able commander.
One of Koniecpolski's greatest victories occurred during a winter 1644
campaign against Tatars. With a large army of some 19,000
soldiers (60% of them, magnates' private armies; Koniecpolski's own
forces numbered 2,200) he dealt a crushing defeat to Toğay bey's
forces near Ochmatów on 30 January 1644. Many
near Sina Woda when the ice over the water gave way. The Battle
of Ochmatów, the Commonwealth's greatest victory over the
the first half of the 17th century, brought international fame to
Koniecpolski, who had not only predicted the time and place of their
attack but had destroyed their forces before they could deploy their
usual tactic of splitting their main forces into multiple
highly-mobile units (czambuls).
The victory led King
Władysław IV to consider an offensive war
against the Turks.
Koniecpolski supported a limited war against
Crimean Khanate but opposed the King's plan to wage war on the
entire Ottoman Empire, believing it to be an unrealistic
folly. Setting out his strategic views in a plan titled
"Dyskurs o zniesieniu Tatarow krymskich i lidze z Moskwą" (Discourse
on Destruction of the Crimean Tartars and on coalition with Moscow),
Koniecpolski also strongly urged a coalition with Moscow for such a
Władysław IV continued to push for a
crusade against Turkey, but it had little internal support and failed
to achieve anything except to spread false hopes among the Cossacks,
to whom he promised privileges and money in exchange for their
On 15 June 1645, Koniecpolski's wife, Krystyna, died.
Koniecpolski remarried soon after, taking the hand of 16-year-old
Zofia Opalińska, daughter of future Crown Marshal Łukasz Opaliński,
on 16 January 1646. The marriage was short lived, though,
ending with Koniecpolski's death in
Brody on 11 March 1646.
Sources suggest that his new marriage was the cause of his death;
Joachim Jerlicz wrote in his diary that
Koniecpolski had overdosed on
an aphrodisiac. His funeral was held in
Brody on 30 April
Wealth and influence
Pidhirtsi Castle, built by Wilhelm Beauplan for Koniecpolski,
Over the course of his life,
Koniecpolski accumulated much wealth.
Most of his possessions were in Ukraine, and he became Ukraine's
unofficial ruler; some foreigners referred to him as "viceroy of
Ukraine", though no such Commonwealth position ever existed. King
Władysław IV trusted him with most political decisions concerning
this southeastern region of the Commonwealth. With the
knowledge and support of the King,
Koniecpolski sent and received
diplomatic missions from Constantinople, carried out negotiations and
signed treaties, and as the
Grand Crown Hetman
Grand Crown Hetman he directly controlled
a substantial part of the Commonwealth's military. He had
his own private army and an espionage network that stretched from
Moscow to the Ottoman Empire.
Koniecpolski inherited some seven or eight villages from his
father. At his death, he owned 12 starostwo districts, with
over 300 settlements, including dozens of towns, giving him yearly
revenues of over 500,000 złoty. His holdings of land and serfs
Ukraine were considerable; he owned 18,548 households in
Koniecpolski invested much of his wealth in developing
his Ukrainian estates, and supported settlement of underpopulated
regions. He founded and sponsored the development of many towns
and cities, including the town of Brody, which flourished with
his investments, and became an important local commercial center.
Koniecpolski fortified the town with a citadel and bastions in 1633
and set up workshops for producing Persian-type samite fabrics,
carpets and rugs. He also constructed a fortified palace in
Pidhirtsi (Podhorce) with beautiful Italian gardens. Like most
Koniecpolski was a patron of the arts, sponsoring painters,
sculptors, writers. He also founded many churches and sought to
upgrade Brody's school to an academy. He sponsored the
construction of the
Palace (now the Presidential Palace)
in Warsaw, and military fortifications in Bar and Kudak.
Regarded as a courteous and educated man,
Koniecpolski participated in
Sejm sessions that he could, though he rarely spoke publicly
due to his stutter. He was widely respected and highly
popular among his szlachta peers.
History of Poland (1569–1795)
a. ^ The year of Koniecpolski's birth is not certain and several
different dates are provided by historians. The earliest date
mentioned is 1590, while 1594 is the latest. Leszek Podhorodecki, in
his biography Stanisław
Koniecpolski ok. 1592–1646, states that
1591 is the date that is most commonly given by historians, noting
Encyclopædia Britannica provides this date.
Nevertheless, Podhorodecki chose to mark Koniecpolski's date of birth
as circa 1592, based on the diary of Karol Ogier, a French courtier,
who noted that in 1635
Koniecpolski was 43 years old. The date of
1593 or 1594 has also been proposed in historian Władysław
Czapliński's Polski Słownik Biograficzny. In discussing this
possibility, Podhorodecki recognizes Czapliński as "a great
specialist of that era", while noting, though, that his work fails to
justify this date.
b. ^ Podhorodecki gives slightly different estimates—just over
15,000 (including low-quality
Gdańsk infantry) against 21,000.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 22–25.
^ a b c d Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 14–15.
^ a b c Podhorodecki (1978), p. 28.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lerski (1996), p. 262.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 22–23.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 33–34.
^ a b c Podhorodecki (1978), p. 35.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 36.
^ a b c Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 42–43.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 44.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 45.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 46–47.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 48–49.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 40–41.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 51.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 53–56.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 58.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 64–65.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 66–70.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 78.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 78–100.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 101–110.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 113.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 114–115.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 115–120.
^ a b c d Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 125–134.
^ Jaques (2007), p. 155.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 135.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 136–137.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 137–138.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 139–142.
^ a b Davies (2007), p. 100.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 143–144.
^ Podhorodecki (1998), p. 29.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 145.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 146–147.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 150–152.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 167.
^ Davies (2005), p. 238.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), p. 168.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 173–174.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 175.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 175–176.
^ a b c d Bain (2006), p. 207.
^ Scott (1992), p. 172.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 177–178.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 179–182.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 183–185.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 185.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 188–190.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 191–192.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 193–194.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 200–204.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 206–207.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 211.
^ a b c d Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 212–213.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 214.
^ a b c d e Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 215–221.
^ Halecki, Reddaway & Penson, p. 473.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 221–225.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 221–222.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 222–223.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 223–227.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), p. 230.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), p. 232.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 234–235.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 235–236.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 237.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 238.
^ a b c d e f g h Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 240–246.
^ a b Peterson (2007), p. 157.
^ a b c Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 251–252.
^ Spilling (1999), p. 23.
^ Bonney (1999), p. 471.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 262.
^ a b Plokhy (2001), p. 136, also p. 37 and p. 46.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 259.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 263.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 264.
^ Subtelny (2000), p. 117.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 265–267.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 383–384.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 267–268.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 387.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), p. 270.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 271.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 272.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 315–323.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 378–380.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 281.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 289–295.
^ Fedorowicz, Bogucka & Samsonowicz (1982), p. 186.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 312–314.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 325–326.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 326–335.
^ a b c d e Stone (2001), pp. 151–152, p. 158 and p. 195.
^ Polish Museum: William le Vasseur de Beauplan.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 384.
^ Subtelny (2000), p. 108.
^ a b c d Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 396–405.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 401.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 406.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 414–416.
^ Przyłecki &
Koniecpolski (1842), p. 2.
^ Serczyk, Władysław A. (1998). Na płonącej Ukrainie. Dzieje
Kozaczyzny 1648-1651. Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza. p. 20.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 410.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 418.
^ a b Bogucka (2004), p. 6.
^ a b Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 419–421.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), pp. 421–424.
^ a b c Podhorodecki (1978), p. 337.
^ a b c Podhorodecki (1978), p. 375.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 374–375.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 339.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 345.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 351.
^ Wilson (2002), p. 60.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 353–359.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 361.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 362–364.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 362–367.
^ a b c Podhorodecki (1978), p. 371.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 370–371.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 389.
^ Podhorodecki (1978), p. 430.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stanisław Koniecpolski.
Wikisource has the text of a 1911
Encyclopædia Britannica article
about Stanisław Koniecpolski.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Stanisław
"Stanislaw Koniecpolski". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved
Koniecpolski Stanisław" (in Polish). WIEM Encyklopedia. Retrieved 16
Koniecpolski Stanisław, Encyklopedia Internautica
Short biography at the Polish-American Journal
Another short bio at www.kresy.co.uk
Koniecpolski entry in 1911 Britannica and in modern Britannica
(in Polish) Entries at Encyklopedia PWN:, Encyklopedia
Internautica:, Encyklopedia WIEM:
Great Crown Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki
Dymitr Jerzy Wiśniowiecki
Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski
Feliks Kazimierz Potocki
Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski
Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski
Stanisław Mateusz Rzewuski
Jan Klemens Branicki
Franciszek Ksawery Branicki
Field Crown Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki
Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski
Dymitr Jerzy Wiśniowiecki
Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski
Mikołaj Hieronim Sieniawski
Feliks Kazimierz Potocki
Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski
Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski
Stanisław Mateusz Rzewuski
Jan Klemens Branicki
Franciszek Ksawery Branicki
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