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The Info List - Standschützen





The Standschützen
Standschützen
(singular: Standschütze[A. 1]) were originally rifle guilds and rifle companies that had been formed in the 15th and 16th centuries, and were involved time and again in military operations within the borders of the Austrian County of Tyrol. A Standschütze was a member of a Schützenstand ("shooting club"), into which he was enrolled,[A. 2] which automatically committed him to the voluntary, military protection of the state of Tyrol (and Vorarlberg). In effect they were a type of Tyrolean local militia or home guard. Even though the regular army was already stationed in the Tyrol and Vorarlberg, voluntary Standschützen
Standschützen
were often called up, for example in the War of the First Coalition
War of the First Coalition
of 1796–1797, the revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire, the Austro-Sardinian War
Austro-Sardinian War
of 1859 and the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866. The highlights of their military involvement, however, were undoubtedly their struggle for freedom under Andreas Hofer
Andreas Hofer
against their Bavarian and French occupiers, culminating in the Battles of Bergisel, and their mobilization during the First World War. The origins of the Standschützen
Standschützen
are found in the Landlibell, a deed issued by Emperor Maximilian I dating to 1511, and a decree by Archduchess Claudia de' Medici
Claudia de' Medici
of 1632, in which each Tyrolean judicial district had an obligation to provide volunteers, capable of acting as fighting men, the number to be determined in each case depending on the threat, in order to form of a Landwehr
Landwehr
for the defence of the state.

Contents

1 Development 2 Formation 3 Garrison and recruiting locations

3.1 Welschtirol 3.2 Vorarlberg

4 First World War

4.1 Preparation and mobilization 4.2 Welsch Tyrolese Standschützen 4.3 Equipment 4.4 Deployment 4.5 Operational theatre and operations 4.6 Summary

5 Rank badges of the Standschützen
Standschützen
(examples) 6 Notes 7 Literature 8 References

Development[edit] In the late 19th century, the hitherto independent militia rifle companies were placed under command of the military and sponsored and supported as sources of manpower that could be utilized for the territorial defence of the state. The now officially titled Standschützen
Standschützen
were given the opportunity to practise shooting under better conditions than before in order to be prepared to defend their homeland in a crisis. The National Defence Act of 1887 specified that organizations formed for territorial defence were henceforth to be regarded as part of the armed forces, and were to be divided into the Standschützen, supplemented by new firing ranges, and the Landsturm. With the enactment of regulations (§ 17) in the National Defence Act for Tyrol and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
on 25 May 1913[1] and the law relating to firing range regulations (same date), the Schießstände (literally "firing ranges" but referring to the shooting clubs with their enrolled members) and all other entities of a military character (veterans and military societies) became liable for Landsturm
Landsturm
service. From this point on, every registered Standschütze was committed to Landsturm
Landsturm
duty; he was no longer regarded as a volunteer. Only those Standschützen
Standschützen
enlisting after mobilization retained the title of "volunteer". Discharge from the militia was prevented by law from August 1914. From that date, the Standschützen
Standschützen
were regarded as regular troops by the Hague Convention.[2] They could only be deployed in their own country and used to defend the country's borders. However, this stipulation was not observed in the last years of the war. Formation[edit] The formation of a Schießstand or shooting club could be carried out if there were at least 20 eligible men from one or more neighbouring villages or districts. Every Tyrolese and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
male over 17 years of age who was physically and mentally fit to shoot was eligible. It was mandatory for every member to participate in at least four exercises per year and to fire at least 60 shots on each occasion as part of a proper training plan. These shooting clubs had no military importance in peacetime. The Standschützen
Standschützen
had the right to elect their own officers[3] (which, to many serving officers, was a thorn in the side). The men first elected all the officers, initially to the rank of lieutenant. The officers then elected, from amongst themselves, the captains and the company commander and they, in turn, elected the major as battalion commander. The highest rank was major because Andreas Hofer was only a Standschützen
Standschützen
major and no one was intended or allowed to be placed above him. The result of the election had to be notified to the military chain of command and confirmed by "His Majesty". Only in the rarest cases, was this rejected, as in the case of Standschützen officer who had been convicted and demoted years before to six months imprisonment. The officers of the Standschützen
Standschützen
had the same ranks as the regular army and a Standschützen
Standschützen
command was the equivalent of a command in the army, even if it was commanded by an officer of lower rank. The officers of the Standschützen
Standschützen
wore as rank badges the star rosettes of military officers in goldwork on grass-green gorgets in the same pattern as that of the other members of their arm of service. Overall, there were 65,000 riflemen (Standschützen) in 444 Schießständen in North, East, South and Welsch Tyrol. Garrison and recruiting locations[edit] The following tables show the location of the garrison and recruiting areas for the various Standschützen
Standschützen
units. The abbreviation "k.k." stands for "Imperial-Royal".

Battalions Companies

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. IX, Auer 1 Coy, Auer/Aldein/Radein - 2 Coy, Leifers/ Branzoll
Branzoll
- 3 Coy, Neumarkt/ Salurn
Salurn
- 4 Coy, Deutschnofen/Petersberg - 5 Coy, Montan/Truden

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. I, Bozen 1 Coy, Bozen
Bozen
- 2 Coy, Bozen
Bozen
- 3 Coy, Ritten

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. IV, Brixen 1 Coy, Brixen
Brixen
- 2 Coy, Brixen/St. Andrä - 3 Coy, Neustift/Vahrn/Natz - 4 Coy, Lüsen/Afers

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Enneberg 1 Coy, Bruneck
Bruneck
- 2 Coy, Enneberg
Enneberg
- 3 Coy, St.Leonhard/Abtei - 4 Coy, Buchenstein/Cortina

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Glurns 1 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 2 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 3 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 4 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company,

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Gries 1 Coy, Gries - 2 Coy, Jenesien/Afing - 3 Coy, Terlan/Andrian/Vilpan/Mölten/Flaas

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Gröden 1 Coy, St. Ulrich - 2 Coy, Wolkenstein - 3 Coy, St. Christina

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Imst 1 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 2 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 3 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company,

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
I 1 Coy, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- 2 Coy, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- 3 Coy, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- 4 Coy, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- 5 Coy, Hötting

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
II 1 Coy, Hall - 2 Coy, Stubaital
Stubaital
- 3 Coy, Wipptal

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
III (Telfs) 1 Coy, Telfs
Telfs
- 2 Coy, Inzing

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Kaltern
Kaltern
I 1 Coy, Eppan
Eppan
- 2 Coy, Kaltern

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Kaltern
Kaltern
II 1 Coy, Margreid
Margreid
- 2 Coy, Kurtatsch
Kurtatsch
- 3 Coy, Tramin

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. II, Kastelruth 1 Coy, Kastelruth
Kastelruth
- 2 Coy, Seis am Schlern
Seis am Schlern
- 3 Coy, Völs - 4 Coy, Barbian

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Kitzbühel 1 Coy, Kitzbühel
Kitzbühel
- 2 Coy, Hopfgarten - 3 Coy, Brixen
Brixen
im Thale - 4 Coy, Fieberbrunn

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. III, Klausen 1 Coy, Klausen/ Villanders
Villanders
- 2 Coy, Feldthurns/ Latzfons
Latzfons
- 3 Coy, Lajen - 4 Coy, Gufidaun/Villnöss/Theis

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Kufstein 1 Coy, Kufstein
Kufstein
- 2 Coy, Ellmau/Scheffau - 3 Coy, Langkampfen/ Kirchbichl
Kirchbichl
- 4 Coy, Thiersee/Ebbs

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Lana 1 Coy, Lana/ Villanders
Villanders
- 2 Coy, Völlian/Tisens/Nals

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Landeck 1 Coy, Landeck/ Villanders
Villanders
- 2 Coy, Stanzertal - 3 Coy, Paznauntal

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Lienz 1 Coy, Lienz/ Villanders
Villanders
- 2 Coy, Nußdorf - 3 Coy, Matrei - 4 Coy, Huben

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. X, Meran
Meran
I 1 Coy, Meran/(main shooting range) - 2 Coy, Meran
Meran
(reservists) - 3 Coy, Dorf Tirol
Dorf Tirol
- 4 Coy, Meran
Meran
(veterans)

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. VI, Meran
Meran
II 1 Coy, Schenna/ Riffian /Tall - 2 Coy, Algund
Algund
- 3 Coy, Partschins
Partschins
- 4 Coy, Naturns

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Meran
Meran
III 1 Coy, Obermais/ Untermais - 2 Coy, Marling/ Tscherms
Tscherms
- 3 Coy, Burgstall/Gargazon/Hafling/Vöran

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Nauders-Ried 1 Coy, Ried - 2 Coy, Reschen - 3 Coy, Graun

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. VII, Passeier 1 Coy, St. Martin - 2 Coy, St. Leonhard - 3 Coy, Moos - 4 Coy, Platt/Pfelders

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Prad 1 Coy, Prad - 2 Coy, Laas - 3 Coy, Tschengls - 4 Coy, Lichtenberg

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Rattenberg 1 Coy, Alpbach/ Brixlegg
Brixlegg
- 2 Coy, Brandenberg

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Reutte
Reutte
I 1 Coy, Reutte
Reutte
- 2 Coy, Berwang/ Bichlbach
Bichlbach
- 3 Coy, Lermoos/Ehrwald

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Reutte
Reutte
II 1 Coy, Steeg/Bach - 2 Coy, Häselgehr/ Forchach
Forchach
- 3 Coy, Nesselwängle/Jungholz

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Sarnthein 1 Coy, Sarnthein - 2 Coy, Pens

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Schlanders 1 Coy, Schlanders
Schlanders
- 2 Coy, Kortsch - 3 Coy, Martell - 4 Coy, Latsch
Latsch
- 5 Coy, Tartsch - 6 Coy, Kastelbell
Kastelbell
- 7 Coy, Tabland - 8 Coy, Schnals

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Schwaz 1 Coy, Schwaz
Schwaz
- 2 Coy, Jenbach

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Sillian 1 Coy, Sillian
Sillian
- 2 Coy, Lesachtal
Lesachtal
- 3 Coy, Sexten
Sexten
- 4 Coy, Toblach

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Silz 1 Coy, Silz - 2 Coy, Oetz
Oetz
- 3 Coy, Umhausen
Umhausen
- 4 Coy, Haiming (Tirol)

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Sterzing 1 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 2 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 3 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, - 4 Standschützen
Standschützen
Company,

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Ulten 1 Coy, St. Pankraz/ Pawigl - 2 Coy, St. Walburg/ Proveis
Proveis
- 3 Coy, St. Nikolaus/St. Gertraud

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Welsberg 1 Coy, Vintl
Vintl
- 2 Coy, Sand in Taufers
Sand in Taufers
- 3 Coy, Welsberg

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Welschnofen 1 Coy, Welschnofen
Welschnofen
- 2 Coy, Tiers/Karneid - 3 Coy, Ritten/Rentsch - 4 Coy, St. Nikolaus
St. Nikolaus
in Eggen

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Zillertal 1 Coy, Mayrhofen/Brandberg - 2 Coy, Mittleres Zillertal/Stumm

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company Stilfs

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company Taufers

Welschtirol[edit]

I. II.

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Ala (Trentino)-Pilcante k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Baselga k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Bedolo k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Borgo k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Brentonico k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Caldonazzo k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Campitello k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Carbonare k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Castel Tesino k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Cavedine k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Cembra k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Civezzano k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Faedo k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Fai k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Folgaria-Sebastiano k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Lasino k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Lavis k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Levico k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Lusern k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Mezzolombardo

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Moena k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Nomi k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Pedemonte-Casotto k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Pergine k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Peive-Tesino k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Pozza k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Section, Riva-Arco (Trentino) k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Rovere della Luna k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Sardagna k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Segonzano k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Spormaggiore k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Strigno k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Tione k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Trambileno k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Company, Vallarsa k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Wezzano k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Vigo di Non k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Formation, Vigolo-Vattaro k.k. South Tyrol
South Tyrol
Standschützen-Arbeiter Company, k.k. Weinberg Work Detail (Arbeitskommando) of the 11th AK

Battalions Companies

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Cavalese 1 Coy, Predazzo
Predazzo
- 2 Coy, Cavalese
Cavalese
- 3 Coy, Altrei
Altrei
- 4 Coy, Primör

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Cles 1 Coy, Cles
Cles
- 2 Coy, Taio - 3 Coy, Fondo
Fondo
- 4 Coy, Flavon - 5 Coy, Brez - 6 Coy, Proveis/Laurein

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Malè 1 Coy, Rabbi - 2 Coy, Caldès - 3 Coy, Malè

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Trient

Vorarlberg[edit]

Battalions Companies

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Bezau 1 Coy, Bezau
Bezau
- 2 Coy, Mittelberg - 3 Coy, Lingenau/Hittisau

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Bludenz 1 Coy, Walgau - 2 Coy, Klostertal
Klostertal
- 3 Coy, Montafon

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Bregenz 1 Coy, Bregenz
Bregenz
- 2 Coy, Wolfurt/Kennelbach/Hard - 3 Coy, Sulzberg - 4 Coy, Alberschwende

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Dornbirn 1 Coy, Dornbirn
Dornbirn
- 2 Coy, Lustenau
Lustenau
- 3 Coy, Hohenems
Hohenems
- 4 Coy, Höchst/Fußach

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion
Battalion
No. 4, Feldkirch 1 Coy, Feldkirch - 2 Coy, Frastanz
Frastanz
- 3 Coy, Altenstadt/Gisingen

k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
Battalion, Rankweil 1 Coy, Rankweil
Rankweil
- 2 Coy, Götzis
Götzis
- 3 Coy, Sulz/Röthis

Standschützen
Standschützen
from Enneberg
Enneberg
with their CO, Major
Major
Kostner

First World War[edit] Preparation and mobilization[edit] At the beginning of the First World War, the three regiments of Landesschützen were transferred to the Russian front, although, according to the letter of the law, they should only have been used to defend the Tyrol. As a result, in Tyrol, the only trained troops available to protect the border with Italy
Italy
were two fully effective battalions (No. X march battalion of the 59th Infantry (K.u.k. Salzburgisch-Oberösterreichisches Infanterie- Regiment
Regiment
„Erzherzog Rainer“ Nr. 59) and the Tyrolean Ist Landsturm
Landsturm
Battalion. A further 19 battalions were only partially effective. The Tyrol defence command soon began to distrust "neutral" Italy. Since the Standschützen, who were liable to call-up, had already been mobilized and were no longer available, the remaining, non-liable Standschützen
Standschützen
were rapidly trained in military skills. These included, for example, disabled or otherwise discharged Kaiserjäger
Kaiserjäger
or Landesschützen riflemen. Training took place in the national costume or shooting jackets; in addition the men had to furnish their own hunting rifles. Their initial tasks involved guard duties at military installations and on bridges or the like. Since no uniforms were available, black and yellow armbands were made.[2] Training was not easy. In particular, the younger conscripts, who had not yet received any regular military training, but also the elderly, who had not done any military service for decades, gave their leaders headaches. The youngest rifleman was just 14 years old;[A. 3] the oldest was over 80.[4] Because of these deficiencies, many serving officers did not take the Standschützen
Standschützen
seriously for a long time, and often patronized or even insulted them. This was not surprising, because suddenly people were appointed as majors, in an instant, as it were, whereas a normal officer only attained this rank after serving about 15 years. A captain with ten or more years of service suddenly found himself facing a Standschützen
Standschützen
major, who had only been a lance corporal or corporal when on active military service or who even had no military service at all.[5] This inevitably caused tension. The commander in chief in Tyrol, Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Dankl, issued an order in November 1915 that insults and improper treatment of Standschützen
Standschützen
officers would be severely punished. In April, the Standschützen
Standschützen
units were inspected for the first time.[2] In the wake of this inspection, the Standschützen
Standschützen
were divided into those capable of service at the front (thus considered field formations) and those of lower capability (deployed on guarding duties or used as replacements). It was expected that Italy
Italy
would declare war on Austria-Hungary. For this reason the Standschützen were mobilized on 18 May 1915. Only a day later, the first formations in South Tyrol
South Tyrol
advanced to the southern front. Another three days later trains arrived at the new front, having crossed the Brenner Pass, carrying North Tyrolese Standschützen. Italy
Italy
finally declared war on Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
on 23 May. Welsch Tyrolese Standschützen[edit] The Imperial and Royal leadership of the Army were uneasy about members of the Standschützen
Standschützen
units in Trentino. Although the Schießstände had existed for a long time, they were mistrustful of the Italian-speaking Tyrolese and attempted to classify them according to their reliabity. The classification ranged from "fully reliable" to "completely unreliable". Weapons and uniforms were only issued to the Welsch Tyrolese Standschützen
Standschützen
that were absolutely reliable units; even so they were only deployed in combat on a few occasions. In most cases they were assigned to guard duties or used as porters, or were divided into work details. Equipment[edit] Until the end of March 1915, no military clothing or weapons had even been envisaged for the Standschützen, much less made available or issued. But after it became increasingly evident that Italy
Italy
would enter the war on the side of the Entente, the formation of Standschützen
Standschützen
units, which had started in the January, began to accelerate. Initially they were issued with whatever uniforms could be found. On 23 May 1915, the two companies of the Schwaz
Schwaz
battalion, for example, drew pike gray parade uniforms of the pattern designed for the Jägertruppe. Mannlicher repeating rifles were initially either unavailable or only available in small numbers so, to begin with, the Standschützen
Standschützen
were issued with old, single-shot Werndl
Werndl
rifles or forced to use their own weapons. In May 1915, the North Tyrol
North Tyrol
and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
Standschützen received 16,000 Model 98 guns from German sources; at that time the South Tyrolean units were still only armed with Mannlicher rifles. The Welsch Tyrolese units kept their Werndl
Werndl
guns; only a few units, assigned to combat missions, were given Model 98s. Schwarzlose machine guns were allocated to individual units when needed and, where they had good relations, like the Bolzano battalion, were even given their own machine gun sections. The Standschützen
Standschützen
had no artillery; only the Schlanders
Schlanders
battalion had a very old 6 inch mountain gun of unknown origin. After some initial difficulties, the Standschützen
Standschützen
were issued with mountain infantry uniform.[A. 4][2] The sudden effort made to do this stemmed from fears that non-uniformed combatants might be treated as guerrillas. Nevertheless, significant deficiencies in the quality of equipment remained. For example, instead of sashes (Riemenzeug), web belt material (Webgurtmaterial) was issued. There were no bread bags or spades - both were initially fashioned or improvised out of anything possible. As a badge, troops wore the Tyrolean eagle of Tyrolese units on grass green gorgets. The Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
troops wore the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
coat of arms. On the left side of the cap, the edelweiss of the mountain infantry could be attached. The front of the cap itself was specially designed for the additional badge with the slogan "Hands off Tyrol" (Hände weg von Tirol). The celluloid stars of the regular army were used as rank badges for non-commissioned officers and men, instead of the envisaged silver embroidered rosettes. The difficulties of ordering the latter in large quantities meant that they could only be issued to the officers. The rescue equipment of the Alpine huts in the mountains were made to serve as medical facilities. Their equipment and medical stores were emptied out, packed onto wooden frames and assigned to the battalions. Each battalion was given two medicine and two bandage knapsacks. Units were intended to have standards, but the only ones to receive them were the battalions at Bozen, Kaltern, Passeier
Passeier
and Meran
Meran
II. Many of the other units flew their club standards for the swearing-in ceremonies and march off parades. Deployment[edit] Following the mobilization order issued by Emperor Franz Joseph I on Tue 18 May 1915, 39 German Tyrolese rifle battalions and 2 independent rifle companies, 6 Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
battalions, 4 Welsch Tyrolese battalions and 41 Welsch Tyrolese rifle companies were formed. On 22 May 1915, one day before Italy
Italy
declared war, the Standschützen deployed to protect the frontier in the south and southwest. The only exceptions were the Zillertal
Zillertal
and Nauders-Ried battalions, which remained to protect the main chain of the Alps, and the Lienz battalion, which was initially deployed to protect the East Tyrolean border south of the River Drau
River Drau
and remained there until September 1915. Operational theatre and operations[edit] The operational theatre of the Standschützen
Standschützen
covered all five districts of the South Tyrolean front. It stretched from the Dreisprachenspitze
Dreisprachenspitze
mountain on the Swiss border to the eastern foothills of the Carnic Alps
Carnic Alps
at the Kreuzberg Saddle. Although the Standschützen
Standschützen
were used almost exclusively to defend the Tyrol against the frequent Italian attacks, they also participated in attacks against Italy. In addition to trench warfare they also conducted patrols and reconnaissance operations. Their other main task was in the construction and repair of defensive works: they built defensive positions, accommodation, caverns and barbed wire barriers, and assisted in repairing damaged fortifications. They were also used to transport supplies, as stretcher bearers and on guard duties.

Mention of the Sarnthein Standschützen
Standschützen
in the war diary of Zugsführer
Zugsführer
Franz Pomykahler of the IIIrd Innichen Rifles in 1917

In the early weeks the Standschützen
Standschützen
were asked to defend the Tyrolean front on their own. Despite that, these weak forces were sufficient to withstand the Italian attacks, as the Italian leadership could not believe that the border stood virtually unprotected. Only later did regular troops and soldiers of the German Alpine Corps, the Kaiserschützen
Kaiserschützen
and Kaiserjäger
Kaiserjäger
arrive. Unlike many other officers, they recognized the Standschützen
Standschützen
as proper soldiers. The Austrian war strategists described the Standschützen
Standschützen
initially as "a disorderly mob with no experience of war."[2] However, by their courage, marksmanship and mountaineering skills, the Standschützen soon acquired respect and esteem. Summary[edit] There is no doubt that the use of the Standschützen
Standschützen
saved Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
at that stage of the war in May 1915. There were only 12,000 regular troops available, which theoretically meant that a man with a rifle could only be stationed every 30 metres. Thus the 23,000 Standschützen
Standschützen
men under arms, at two thirds of the total available strength, formed the backbone of the defensive line. The German Alpine Corps could initially only intervene in a limited way, because Germany was not yet at war with Italy
Italy
at that time and German troops were not allowed to enter Italian soil. Thanks especially to the excellent local knowledge of the Standschützen, they were often able to intercept Italian patrols and reconnaissance companies and repulse them. In particular, since the correct uniforms had now been issued, the impression was given that they constituted regular forces, which may have influenced the reluctance of the Italian commanders. The moral value of the Standschützen
Standschützen
lay in the fact his property and his family were often not far behind the front and had to be protected. The purely military value of Standschützen
Standschützen
formations was highly variable. The proverbial obstinacy and stubbornness, particularly amongst the miners, often led to indiscipline and high-handedness. For example, Feldmarschalleutnant Goiginger reported on 12 Jun 1915 to Innsbruck
Innsbruck
that the Monte Piano Standschützen
Standschützen
"had left the battle without authorization." However, such incidents were not common and restricted to isolated cases. In order to strengthen military discipline, active duty army officers began to be appointed as commanders to the Standschützen. Furthermore, after the manning situation had eased with the arrival of troops from the Eastern Front, work began to train the Standschützen and strengthen them militarily. Officers and men were sent off on various training courses in order to learn the latest tactics and techniques. At the suggestion of the German Alpine Corps, regular units were inserted into sections of the front that had previously been held by the Standschützen
Standschützen
alone. In this way, a kind of "corset" was formed that further strengthened the combat power available.

Rank badges of the Standschützen
Standschützen
(examples)[edit]

Unterjäger (Corporal) Vorarlberg

Zugsführer (Master Cpl or L/Sergeant) Vorarlberg

Leutnant (2nd lieutenant) Tyrol

Oberleutnant (Lieutenant) Tyrol

Hauptmann (Captain) Vorarlberg

Major (Major) Tyrol

Notes[edit]

^ The German noun Standschütze is a so-called nominal composition, composed of the nouns Stand- (en = social position, standing, status) and -Schütze (en = rifle man). In the Imperial-Royal Austria (e.g. Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
and Tirol) it referred to members of the Schützenstand (en = rifle guild) or a Schützenverein (en = shooting club). Standschützen
Standschützen
were skilled in precision shooting and often volunteered for deployments in a k.k. Standschützen
Standschützen
units. ^ enrolliert is the Austrian military jargon for "enrolled" (from the Old French
Old French
enroller). ^ and Standschützen
Standschützen
under 17 years old were only allowed in to be employed on duties in the rear area. ^ Montur is the Austrian word for working dress or uniform

Literature[edit]

Jahrbuch der Kaiserschützen, Tiroler Standschützen
Standschützen
und Tiroler Landstürmer. (published: 1924–1925). Wagner, Innsbruck, ZDB-ID 555983-2. Rudolf Huchler: Das Standschützen-Bataillon Dornbirn
Dornbirn
im Weltkriege. Verlag des Verfassers, Höchst 1927. (Online at ALO). Fritz Weiser (Red.), Kaiserschützenbund für Österreich (pub.): Kaiserschützen, Tiroler-Vorarlberger Landsturm
Landsturm
und Standschützen. Göth, Vienna, 1933. [6] Karl Kelz: Die Standschützen
Standschützen
des Gerichtsbezirkes Feldkirch im Weltkrieg 1914–1918. Mit einem Anhang heimatgeschichtlicher Erinnerungen. Graff’sche Buchdruckerei, Feldkirch, 1934. (Online bei ALO). Anton von Mörl: Standschützen
Standschützen
verteidigen Tirol 1915–1918. Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck, 1958 (Schlern-Schriften. 185, ZDB-ID 503740-2). Bernhard Wurzer: Tirols Heldenzeit vor 150 Jahren.--> Tyrolia-Verlag, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
(u. a.) 1959. [7] Benedikt Bilgeri: Die Landesverteidigung. Zur Erinnerung an den Ausmarsch der Vorarlberger Standschützen
Standschützen
vor 50 Jahren. Teutsch, Bregenz, 1965. [8] Oswald Gschließer, Erich Egg: Tiroler Standschützen. Vierhundert Jahre Landesverteidigung in Tirol. Ausstellung im Gedenken an den Auszug der Tiroler Standschützen
Standschützen
zu Pfingsten 1915, Juni bis September 1965. Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, 1965. [9] Helmut Golowitsch: „Und kommt der Feind ins Land herein …“ Schützen verteidigen Tirol und Kärnten. Standschützen
Standschützen
und Freiwillige Schützen 1915–1918. „Buchdienst Südtirol“ Kienesberger, Nürnberg 1985, ISBN 3-923995-05-9 (Schriftenreihe zur Zeitgeschichte Tirols. 6, ZDB-ID 1068770-1). Rolando Cembran: „Baon Auer“. Die Odyssee des Standschützen-Bataillons „Auer“ No. IX (1915–1918). Manfrini, Calliano (Trentino), 1993, ISBN 88-7024-483-0. Heinz Tiefenbrunner, Südtiroler Schützenbund Bezirk Süd-Tiroler Unterland (publ.): Standschützen
Standschützen
Bataillon Kaltern
Kaltern
1915–1918. Aus dem Kriegstagebuch des Major
Major
Johann Nepomuk Baron
Baron
Di Pauli. Verlagsanstalt Athesia, Bozen, 1996, ISBN 88-7014-865-3. Oswald Kaufmann (Hrsg.): Meine Kriegs-Chronik. Mit dem Standschützenbataillon Bezau
Bezau
in Südtirol und Albanien. 1. Weltkrieg, Kriegsgefangenschaft, Wirtschaftskrise und Inflation 1914-1925. 2. Auflage. Gesellschaft Vorarlberger Militärmuseum, Bregenz, 1997. [10] Wolfgang Joly: Standschützen. Die Tiroler und Vorarlberger k.k. Standschützen-Formationen im Ersten Weltkrieg. Organisation und Einsatz. Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck, 1998, ISBN 3-7030-0310-3 (Schlern-Schriften. 303).

References[edit]

^ The new Territorial Defence Act for Tyrol together with new firing range orders and regulations about the facilitation of firing ranges. (online at ALO). ^ a b c d e Ludwig Wiedemayr: Weltkriegschauplatz Osttirol. Die Gemeinden an der Karnischen Front im östlichen Pustertal. Nearchos, Archäologisch-militärhistorische Forschungen, Vol. 2. Osttiroler Bote Medienunternehmen, Lienz, 2007, ISBN 978-3-900773-80-9. ^ Standschützen
Standschützen
in: Austria-Forum
Austria-Forum
(in German)  (at AEIOU) ^ Das Standschützenwesen. In: Bezirkslandwirtschaftskammer Lienz: Osttiroler Bote. Issue dated 29 November 2007, ZDB-ID 522804-9. ^ Joly. Standschützen, p. 36 ^ Permalink Österreichischer Bibliothekenverbund. ^ Permalink Österreichischer Bibliothekenverbund. ^ Permalink Österreichischer Bibliothekenverbund. ^ Permalink Österreichischer Bibliothekenverbund. ^ Permalink Österreichischer Bibliothekenverbund.

v t e

Military
Military
of Austria-Hungary

Army

Austro-Hungarian Army Common Army Imperial Austrian Landwehr Privilegiertes uniformiertes Grazer Bürgerkorps Royal Hungarian Honvéd Royal Croatian Home Guard

42nd Inf. Division

First Army Rank insignia Military
Military
Intelligence Weaponry Imperial and Royal Infantry Alpine companies Kaiserjäger Imperial and Royal Mountain Troops Imperial and Royal Dragoons Imperial and Royal Hussars Imperial and Royal Uhlans Standschützen

Navy

K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Ranks Battleships Cruisers U-Boats

Air Force

K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen

Aircraft

Ministers for War

Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Kuhn Freiherr Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld General der Kavallerie Alexander Freiherr von Koller Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Arthur Maximilian Graf
Graf
Bylandt-Rheydt (der Ältere) Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Ferdinand Freiherr Bauer Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Rudolf Freiherr Merkl General der Kavallerie Edmund Freiherr von Krieghammer Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Heinrich Ritter
Ritter
von Pitreich General der Infanterie Franz Freiherr Schönaich General der Infanterie Moritz Ritter
Ritter
Auffenberg von Komarów Feldmarschall
Feldmarschall
Alexander Freiherr von Krobatin Generaloberst
Generaloberst
Rudolf Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten

Commanders

Archduke Eugen of Austria Franz Rohr von Denta Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli Svetozar Boroević Archduke Joseph August of Austria Franz Böhme Josip Jelačić Günther Burstyn Georg Dragičević Karol Durski-Trzaska Gheorghe Flondor Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria Rudolf Maister Artur Phleps Oskar Potiorek Alfred Redl Maximilian Ronge Viktor Dankl
Dankl
von Krasnik Viktor Graf
Graf
von Scheuchenstuel Stjepan Sarkotić Gottfried Freiherr von Banfield Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria Miklós Horthy Franz von Keil Giovanni Luppis Georg von Trapp Janko Vuković

Commanders-in-Chief of the Navy

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Maximilian Njegovan Adm. Miklós Horthy

Heads of the Naval Section

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Karl Kailer von Kaltenfels Adm. Maximilian Njegovan RAdm Franz von Holub

Chiefs of the General Staff

Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Josef Wilhelm Freiher von Gallina Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Anton Freiherr von Schönfeld Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Friedrich Graf
Graf
von Beck-Rzikowsky Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf Generalmajor Blasius Schemua General der Infanterie Arthur Arz von Straußenburg

Commanders-in-Chief of the Army

Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen Francis Joseph I Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles I Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza

Supreme Commanders

Francis Joseph

.