A spoken language is a language
produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language
. Many languages are only in written form and are not spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language
, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.
In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context
. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument. Similarly, spoken language tends to convey subjective information, including the relationship between the speaker and the audience, whereas written language tends to convey objective information.
The relationship between spoken language and written language is complex. Within the field of linguistics
the current consensus is that speech is an innate human capability, and written language is a cultural invention. However some linguists, such as those of the Prague school
, argue that written and spoken language possess distinct qualities which would argue against written language being dependent on spoken language for its existence.
Both vocal and sign languages are composed of word
s. In vocal languages, words are made up from a limited set of vowels
, and often tone
. In sign languages, words are made up from a limited set of shapes, orientations, locations movements of the hands, and often facial expressions; in both cases, the building blocks are called phoneme
s. In both vocal and sign languages, words are grammatically
linked into phrase
s, and larger units of discourse
Hearing children acquire as their first language
the language that is used around them, whether vocal, cued (if they are sighted), or signed. Deaf children can do the same with Cued Speech or sign language if either visual communication system is used around them. Vocal language are traditionally taught to them in the same way that written language must be taught to hearing children. (See oralism
Teachers give particular emphasis on spoken language with children who speak a different primary language outside of the school. For the child it is considered important, socially and educationally, to have the opportunity to understand multiple languages.
* Body language
* Language acquisition
* List of language disorders
* Origin of speech
* Whistled language
*Teaching English as a second or foreign language