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Spelt
Spelt
(Triticum spelta; Triticum dicoccum[2]), also known as dinkel wheat[3] or hulled wheat,[3] is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BC. Spelt
Spelt
was an important staple in parts of Europe
Europe
from the Bronze Age to medieval times; it now survives as a relict crop in Central Europe and northern Spain, and has also found a new market as a 'health food'. Spelt
Spelt
is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (Triticum aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta. It is a hexaploid wheat, which means it has six sets of chromosomes. Since the beginning of the 21st century, spelt has gained widespread popularity as a common wheat substitute for making artisanal breads, pastas, and cereals.[4]

Spelt, without and with husks

Contents

1 Evolution 2 History 3 Nutrition 4 Products 5 Literary references 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Evolution[edit] Spelt
Spelt
has a complex history. It is a wheat species known from genetic evidence to have originated as a naturally occurring hybrid of a domesticated tetraploid wheat such as emmer wheat and the wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii. This hybridisation must have taken place in the Near East
Near East
because this is where Aegilops tauschii grows, and it must have taken place before the appearance of common or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, a hexaploid free-threshing derivative of spelt) in the archaeological record about 8,000 years ago. Genetic evidence shows that spelt wheat can also arise as the result of hybridisation of bread wheat and emmer wheat, although only at some date following the initial Aegilops–tetraploid wheat hybridisation. The much later appearance of spelt in Europe
Europe
might thus be the result of a later, second, hybridisation between emmer and bread wheat. Recent DNA
DNA
evidence supports an independent origin for European spelt through this hybridisation.[5] Whether spelt has two separate origins in Asia
Asia
and Europe, or single origin in the Near East, is currently unresolved.[5][6] History[edit] In Greek mythology spelt (ζειά [zeiá] in Greek) was a gift to the Greeks from the goddess Demeter. The earliest archaeological evidence of spelt is from the fifth millennium BC in Transcaucasia, north-east of the Black Sea, though the most abundant and best-documented archaeological evidence of spelt is in Europe.[7] Remains of spelt have been found in some later Neolithic sites (2500–1700 BC) in Central Europe.[7][8] During the Bronze Age, spelt spread widely in central Europe. In the Iron Age (750–15 BC), spelt became a principal wheat species in southern Germany
Germany
and Switzerland, and by 500 BC, it was in common use in southern Britain.[7] References to the cultivation of spelt wheat in Biblical times (see matzo), in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and Mesopotamia and in ancient Greece are incorrect and result from confusion with emmer wheat.[9] In the Middle Ages, spelt was cultivated in parts of Switzerland, Tyrol, and Germany. Spelt
Spelt
was introduced to the United States
United States
in the 1890s. In the 20th century, spelt was replaced by bread wheat in almost all areas where it was still grown. The organic farming movement revived its popularity somewhat toward the end of the century, as spelt requires less fertilizer. Nutrition[edit]

Spelt, uncooked

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 1,415 kJ (338 kcal)

Carbohydrates

70.19 g

Starch 53.92 g

Dietary fibre 10.7 g

Fat

2.43 g

Polyunsaturated 1.258 g

Protein

14.57 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(32%) 0.364 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(9%) 0.113 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(46%) 6.843 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(18%) 0.230 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(11%) 45 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(5%) 0.79 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(3%) 27 mg

Iron

(34%) 4.44 mg

Magnesium

(38%) 136 mg

Manganese

(143%) 3.0 mg

Phosphorus

(57%) 401 mg

Potassium

(8%) 388 mg

Sodium

(1%) 8 mg

Zinc

(35%) 3.28 mg

Other constituents

Water 11.02 g

Full USDA Nutrient Report

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

In a 100 gram serving, uncooked spelt provides 338 calories and is an excellent source (20% or more of the Daily Value) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins
B vitamins
and numerous dietary minerals (table). Richest nutrient contents include manganese (143% DV), phosphorus (57% DV) and niacin (46% DV). Cooking substantially reduces many nutrient contents.[10] Spelt
Spelt
contains about 70% total carbohydrates, including 11% as dietary fibre, and is low in fat (table). Spelt
Spelt
contains gluten and is therefore suitable for baking, but this component also makes it unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders,[11] such as celiac disease,[12] non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy.[11] In comparison to hard red winter wheat, spelt has a more soluble protein matrix characterized by a higher gliadin:glutenin ratio.[13][14] Products[edit] In Germany
Germany
and Austria, spelt loaves and rolls (Dinkelbrot) are widely available in bakeries as is spelt flour in supermarkets. The unripe spelt grains are dried and eaten as Grünkern
Grünkern
("green grain"). Dutch Jenever
Jenever
makers distill with spelt.[15] Beer
Beer
brewed from spelt is sometimes seen in Bavaria[16] and Belgium[17] and spelt is distilled to make vodka in Poland. Literary references[edit] Spelt
Spelt
is currently a specialty crop, but its popularity in the past as a peasants' staple food has been attested in literature. Although today's Russian-speaking children perhaps do not know exactly what polba (spelt) looks or tastes like,[18] they may recognize the word as something that can be made into porridge, having heard Pushkin's well-rhymed story in which the poor workman Balda asks his employer the priest "to feed me boiled spelt" ("есть же мне давай варёную полбу").[19] In Horace's Satire 2.6 (late 31–30 BC), which ends with the story of the Country Mouse and the City Mouse, the country mouse eats spelt at dinner while serving his city guest finer foods. In The Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
of Dante Alighieri, Pietro della Vigna
Pietro della Vigna
appears as a suicide in Circle VII, ring ii, Canto XIII of the Inferno. Pietro describes the fate awaiting souls guilty of suicide to Dante the Pilgrim and Virgil. According to Pietro, the soul of the suicide grows into a wild tree and is tormented by harpies that feast upon its leaves. Pietro likens the initial growth and transformation of the soul of the suicide to the germination of a grain of spelt (Inferno XIII, 94–102). Spelt
Spelt
is also mentioned in the Bible. The seventh plague in Egypt
Egypt
in Exodus, did not damage the harvest of wheat and spelt, as these were "late crops".[20] Ezekiel 4:9 says: "Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentils, and millet, and spelt, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof ...", though as noted above this is presumably a mistranslation and should be "emmer". It is mentioned again in Isaiah 28:25: "...and put in the wheat in rows and the barley in the appointed place and the spelt in the border thereof?" See also[edit]

Khorasan wheat Farro

References[edit]

^ The Plant
Plant
List: A Working List of All Plant
Plant
Species, retrieved 11 May 2016  ^ Zohar Amar, Five Types of Grain: Historical, Halachic, and Conceptual Aspects (Ḥameshet Mine Dagan), Har Bracha 2011, pp. 45–48 ISBN 9659081871 (Hebrew). ^ a b "Triticum spelta". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States
United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ Smithers, Rebecca (15 May 2014). " Spelt
Spelt
flour 'wonder grain' set for a price hike as supplies run low". The Guardian, London, UK. Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ a b Blatter, R.H.; Jacomet, S.; Schlumbaum, A. (January 2004). "About the Origin of European Spelt
Spelt
( Triticum spelta L.): Allelic Differentiation of the HMW Glutenin B1-1 and A1-2 Subunit Genes". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 108 (2): 360–367. doi:10.1007/s00122-003-1441-7. PMID 14564390.  ^ Ehsanzadeh, Parviz (December 1998). "Agronomic and Growth Characteristics of Spring Spelt
Spelt
Compared to Common Wheat
Wheat
(thesis)" (PDF). ecommons.usask.ca. National Library of Canada. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ a b c Cubadda, Raimondo; Marconi, Emanuele (2002). " Spelt
Spelt
Wheat
Wheat
in Pseudocereals and Less Common Cereals: Grain Properties and Utilization Potential (eds. Belton, Peter S.; Taylor, John R.N.)".  ^ Akeret, Ö. (2005). " Plant
Plant
Remains From a Bell Beaker Site in Switzerland, and the Beginnings of Triticum spelta (spelt) Cultivation in Europe".  ^ Nesbitt, Mark (2001). " Wheat
Wheat
Evolution: Integrating Archaeological and Biological Evidence" (PDF). . ^ "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28, Full Report (All Nutrients): 20141, Spelt, Cooked". United States Department of Agriculture. 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2015.  ^ a b Tovoli F., Masi C., Guidetti E.; et al. (March 16, 2015). "Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Gluten
Gluten
Related Disorders". World Journal of Clinical Cases. 3 (3): 275–284. doi:10.12998/wjcc.v3.i3.275. PMC 4360499 . PMID 25789300. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Wieser H. (2001). "Comparative Investigations of Gluten
Gluten
Proteins from Different Wheat
Wheat
Species". European Food Research and Technology. 213 (3): 183–186. doi:10.1007/s002170100365.  ^ Schober, T.J., Bean, S.R., Kuhn, M. (2006). " Gluten
Gluten
Proteins from Spelt
Spelt
(Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) Cultivars: A Rheological and Size-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Study" (pdf). Journal of Cereal
Cereal
Science. 44 (2): 161–173. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2006.05.007. Retrieved 21 November 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J. (2008). "Nutritional Value and Baking
Baking
Applications of Spelt
Spelt
Wheat" (pdf). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria. 7 (3): 5–14. Retrieved 21 November 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ John N. Peragine (30 November 2010). The Complete Guide to Growing Your Own Hops, Malts, and Brewing Herbs. Atlantic Publishing Company. p. 128. Retrieved 1 September 2012.  ^ Dinkelbier, German Beer
Beer
Institute, retrieved November 2009. ^ Den Mulder, beer from Huisbrouwerij Den Tseut in Oosteeklo, retrieved September 2013. ^ Кристина Смирнова (24 March 2009). "Что такое полба?". Shkolazhizni.ru.  ^ "Александр Сергеевич Пушкин. Сказка о попе и о работнике его Балде". lib.ru.  ^ Exodus 9:31.

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Triticum spelta

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spelt.

Look up spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Recipe: 2000-year-old bread from Pompeii with Spelt

v t e

Wheat

Types

Common Durum Einkorn Emmer Khorasan Marquis Norin 10 Red Fife Spelt Winter wheat

Agronomy

Wheat
Wheat
diseases

list

Wheat
Wheat
mildew Hessian fly

Trade

Australian Wheat
Wheat
Board Canadian Wheat
Wheat
Board Corn exchange Exports International Wheat
Wheat
Council Peak wheat Production statistics Protein
Protein
premium Wheat
Wheat
pools in Canada

Plant
Plant
parts and their uses

Stalk Straw Seed Bran Germ Chaff
Chaff
(husk) Endosperm

Gluten

Basic preparation

None Berries or groats Milling Farina Flour Middlings Semolina Parboiling Bulgur

As an ingredient

Bread Couscous Cracker Flatbread Pasta Wheat
Wheat
beer Wheat
Wheat
germ oil Wheat
Wheat
gluten

Associated human diseases

Anaphylaxis Gluten-related disorders

coeliac disease non-celiac gluten sensitivity wheat allergy dermatitis herpetiformis ataxia

Related concepts

Bread
Bread
riot Plant
Plant
breeding Refined grains Staple food Wheatpaste Whole grain Shattering Tell Abu Hureyra Tell Aswad

Category

v t e

Cereals and pseudocereals

Cereals

Gramineae

Barley Fonio Job's tears Maize
Maize
(Corn) Millets Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Teff Triticale Zizania

Wheat
Wheat
(Triticum)

Bread Durum Khorasan Red Fife Norin 10 Winter

Farro

Einkorn Emmer Spelt

Pseudocereals

Polygonaceae

Buckwheat Tartary buckwheat

Amaranthaceae

Amaranth

A. caudatus A. cruentus A. hypochondriacus Celosia

Chenopodiaceae

Quinoa Pitseed goosefoot Cañihua

Lamiaceae

Chia

Fabaceae

Wattleseed

See also Triticeae Neolithic founder crops Neolithic Revolution History of agriculture Natufian culture Fertile Crescent Tell Abu Hureyra Tell Aswad Domestication Green Revolution Genetic engineering Selective breeding Crop wild relative

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q158767 APDB: 52201 EoL: 1115243 EPPO: TRZSP GBIF: 2706402 GrassBase: imp10694 GRIN: 40617 iNaturalist: 122840 IPNI: 259744-2 ITIS: 42243 NCBI: 58933 Plant
Plant
List: kew-449032 PLANTS: TRSP3 Tropicos: 255

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