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Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
(Spanish: Países Bajos españoles; Dutch: Spaanse Nederlanden; French: Pays-Bas espagnols, German: Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714. This region comprised most of modern Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, part of southern Netherlands, and western Germany. The capital was Brussels. The Imperial fiefs of the former Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
had been inherited by the Austrian House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
from the extinct House of Valois-Burgundy upon the death of Mary of Burgundy
Mary of Burgundy
in 1482. The Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
formed the core of the Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
which passed to the Spanish Habsburgs upon the abdication of Emperor Charles V in 1556. When part of the Netherlands
Netherlands
separated to form the autonomous Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in 1581, the remainder of the area stayed under Spanish rule until the War of the Spanish Succession.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Charles V 1.2 Eighty Years' War 1.3 French conquests

2 Provinces 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

History[edit] A common administration of the Netherlandish fiefs, centred in the Duchy of Brabant, already existed under the rule of the Burgundian duke Philip the Good
Philip the Good
with the implementation of a stadtholder and the first convocation of the States General of the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1437. His granddaughter Mary had confirmed a number of privileges to the States by the Great Privilege
Great Privilege
signed in 1477. After the government takeover by her husband Archduke Maximilian I of Austria, the States insisted on their privileges, culminating in a Hook rebellion in Holland and Flemish revolts. Maximilian prevailed with the support of Duke Albert III of Saxony and his son Philip the Handsome could assume the rule over the Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
in 1493. Charles V[edit] Philip as well as his son and successor Charles V retained the title of a "Duke of Burgundy" referring to their Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries
Low Countries
and the Free County of Burgundy
County of Burgundy
in the Holy Roman Empire. The Habsburgs often used the term Burgundy to refer to their hereditary lands (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Burgundian Circle established in 1512), actually until 1795, when the Austrian Netherlands
Netherlands
were lost to the French Republic. In 1522 Emperor Charles V concluded a partition treaty with his younger brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Habsburg, whereby the House of Habsburg split into an Austrian and a Spanish branch. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, Charles declared the Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
a united and undivisible Habsburg dominion. The division was consummated when he resignedly announced his abdication and left the Spanish branch heritage to his only surviving son Philip II of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor. The Seventeen Provinces, de jure still fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, from that time on de facto were ruled by the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs as part of the Burgundian heritage. Eighty Years' War[edit] Philip's despotism and his stern Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
measures sparked the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
in the mainly Calvinist Netherlandish provinces, which led to the outbreak of the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
in 1568. In January 1579 the seven northern provinces formed the Protestant Union of Utrecht, which declared independence from the so-called Spanish branch of the Habsburgs as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
Netherlands
by the 1581 Act of Abjuration. The Spanish branch of the Habsburgs could only retain the rule over the partly Catholic Southern Netherlands, completed after the Fall of Antwerp
Fall of Antwerp
in 1585.

Jeton with portraits of the Archdukes Albert VII, Archduke of Austria and Infanta Isabella of Spain, struck in Antwerp 1612. Obv: Portraits of Albert and Isabella. Rev: Eagle holding balance, date 1612.

Better times came, when in 1598 the Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
passed to Philip's daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Clara Eugenia
and her husband Archduke Albert VII of Austria.The couple's rule brought a period of much-needed peace and stability to the economy, which stimulated the growth of a separate South Netherlandish identity and consolidated the authority of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
reconciling previous anti-Spanish sentiments. In the early 17th century, there was a flourishing court at Brussels. Among the artists who emerged from the court of the "Archdukes", as they were known, was Peter Paul Rubens. Under Isabella and Albert, the Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
actually had formal independence from Spain, but always remained unofficially within the Spanish sphere of influence, and with Albert's death in 1621 they returned to formal Spanish control, although childless Isabella remained on as Governor until her death in 1633. The failing wars intended to regain the 'heretical' northern Netherlands
Netherlands
meant significant loss of (still mainly Catholic) territories in the north, which was consolidated in 1648 in the Peace of Westphalia, and given the peculiar, inferior status of Generality Lands (jointly ruled by the United Republic, not admitted as member provinces): Zeelandic Flanders
Zeelandic Flanders
(south of the river Scheldt), the present Dutch province of Noord-Brabant
Noord-Brabant
and Maastricht
Maastricht
(in the present-day Dutch province of Limburg). French conquests[edit] As Spanish branch of the Habsburg power waned in the latter decades of the 17th century, the territory of the Netherlands
Netherlands
under Habsburg rule was repeatedly invaded by the French and an increasing portion of the territory came under French control in successive wars. By the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659 the French annexed Artois
Artois
and Cambrai, and Dunkirk was ceded to the English. By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (ending the War of Devolution
War of Devolution
in 1668) and Nijmegen (ending the Franco-Dutch War
Franco-Dutch War
in 1678), further territory up to the current Franco-Belgian border was ceded, including Walloon Flanders, as well as half of the county of Hainaut (including Valenciennes). Later, in the War of the Reunions
War of the Reunions
and the Nine Years' War, France
France
annexed other parts of the region. During the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1706 the Habsburg Netherlands
Netherlands
became an Anglo-Dutch condominium for the remainder of the conflict.[2] By the peace treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt in 1713/14 ending the war, the Southern Netherlands
Netherlands
fell back to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
forming the Austrian Netherlands.

History of the Low Countries

Frisii

Belgae

Cana- nefates Chamavi, Tubanti

Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
(55 BC – 5th c. AD) Germania Inferior
Germania Inferior
(83 – 5th c.)

Salian Franks

Batavii

unpopulated (4th–5th c.) Saxons Salian Franks (4th–5th c.)

Frisian Kingdom (6th c.–734)

Frankish Kingdom
Frankish Kingdom
(481–843)— Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(800–843)

Austrasia
Austrasia
(511–687)

Middle Francia
Middle Francia
(843–855) West Francia (843–)

Kingdom of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
(855– 959) Duchy of Lower Lorraine
Lower Lorraine
(959–)

Frisia

Frisian Freedom (11–16th century)

County of Holland (880–1432)

Bishopric of Utrecht (695–1456)

Duchy of Brabant (1183–1430)

Duchy of Guelders (1046–1543) County of Flanders (862–1384)

County of Hainaut (1071–1432)

County of Namur (981–1421)

P.-Bish. of Liège

(980–1794)

Duchy of Luxem- bourg (1059–1443)

 

Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
(1384–1482)

Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
(1482–1795) ( Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
after 1543)

 

Dutch Republic (Seven United Netherlands) (1581–1795)

Spanish Netherlands (1556–1714)  

 

Austrian Netherlands (1714–1795)

 

United States of Belgium (1790)

R. Liège (1789–'91)

 

   

Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
(1795–1801) Batavian Commonwealth (1801–1806) Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Holland
(1806–1810)

associated with French First Republic
French First Republic
(1795–1804) part of First French Empire
First French Empire
(1804–1815)

   

Princip. of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1813–1815)  

United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1815–1830)

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1839–)

Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium
(1830–)

Gr D. L. (1839–)

Gr D. of Luxem- bourg (1890–)

Provinces[edit] From 1581 the Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
consisted of the following territories, all part of modern Belgium
Belgium
unless otherwise stated:

the Duchy of Brabant, except for North Brabant
North Brabant
part of the Generality Lands of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in 1648, including the former Margraviate of Antwerp (now mostly Belgium, some in Netherlands) the Duchy of Limburg, except for Limburg of the States part of the Dutch Generality Lands
Generality Lands
from 1648 the Duchy of Luxembourg, a sovereign state from 1815 (parts in modern Belgium, France
France
and Germany) the Upper Quarter (Bovenkwartier) of the Duchy of Guelders
Guelders
(Now Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany: the area around Venlo
Venlo
and Roermond, in the present Dutch province of Limburg, and the town of Geldern
Geldern
in the present German district of Kleve) the County of Artois, ceded to France
France
by the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees (now in France) the County of Flanders, except for Zeelandic Flanders
Zeelandic Flanders
part of the Dutch Generality Lands
Generality Lands
from 1648, Walloon Flanders
Walloon Flanders
ceded to France
France
by the 1678 Peace of Nijmegen (now in Belgium
Belgium
and France
France
French Flanders) the County of Namur the County of Hainaut, southern part with Valenciennes
Valenciennes
ceded to France by the 1678 Peace of Nijmegen (now in Belgium
Belgium
and France) the Lordship of Mechelen[note 1] the Tournaisis the Prince-Bishopric of Cambrai, not part of the Seventeen Provinces, incorporated by King Philip II in 1559, ceded to France
France
by the 1678 Peace of Nijmegen (now France: roughly the département Nord and the northern half of Pas-de-Calais)

See also[edit]

History of Spain List of governors of the Habsburg Netherlands

Notes[edit]

^ A seignory comes closest to the concept of a heerlijkheid; there is no equivalent in English for the Dutch-language term. In its earliest history, Mechelen was a heerlijkheid of the Bishopric (later Prince-Bishopric) of Liège that exercised its rights through the Chapter of Saint Rumbold though at the same time the Lords of Berthout and later the Dukes of Brabant
Dukes of Brabant
also exercised or claimed separate feudal rights.

References[edit]

^ Demographics of the Netherlands, Jan Lahmeyer. Retrieved on 20 February 2014. ^ Bromley, J S (editor) 1970, The New Cambridge Modern History Volume 6: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia, 1688-1715/25, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521075244 (p. 428)

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Lost

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New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

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Other civil topics

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Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

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