The Info List - Spanish Civil War

Nationalist victory

End of the Second Spanish Republic Establishment of a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco



Spanish Republican Army Popular Front CNT-FAI UGT Generalitat de Catalunya Euzko Gudarostea
Euzko Gudarostea

Supported by:

Communist International  Soviet Union  Mexico International Brigades


FET y de las JONS (from 1937) FE de la JONS (1936–37) CT (1936–37) CEDA (1936–37) RE (1936–37)

Supported by:

Italy Germany Portugal Foreign volunteers

Commanders and leaders

Republican leaders

Manuel Azaña Julián Besteiro Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Indalecio Prieto Vicente Rojo Lluch José Miaja Juan Modesto Juan Hernández Saravia Carlos Romero Giménez Buenaventura Durruti † Lluís Companys José Antonio Aguirre

Nationalist leaders

José Sanjurjo † Emilio Mola † Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Juan Yagüe Miguel Cabanellas † Manuel Goded Llopis † Manuel Hedilla Manuel Fal Conde Mohamed Meziane


1938 strength:[1]

450,000 infantry 350 aircraft 200 tanks

1938 strength:[2]

600,000 infantry 600 aircraft 290 tanks

Casualties and losses

175,000 killed in action[3] 100 - 130,000 civilians killed inside the Francoist zone[4] 110,000 killed in action[3] 50,000 civilians killed inside the Republican zone[5]

250,000–1,000,000 total killed.[6]

v t e

Spanish Civil War


July 1936 uprising

Melilla Seville 1st Barcelona Cuartel de la Montaña Gijón Oviedo Cuartel de Loyola


German intervention Guadarrama Alcázar Extremadura Convoy de la victoria Almendralejo Sigüenza Mérida Badajoz Majorca Sierra Guadalupe Córdoba Gipuzkoa Monte Pelado Talavera Irún Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza Cerro Muriano Cape Espartel Seseña Madrid Ciudad Universitaria 1st Corunna Road Villarreal Ursula Aceituna Lopera 2nd Corunna Road


3rd Corunna Road Málaga Jarama Cape Machichaco Guadalajara Pozoblanco War in the North Biscay Durango Jaén Guernica 2nd Barcelona Deutschland Almería Segovia Huesca Bilbao Albarracín Brunete Santander Zaragoza 1st Belchite Asturias El Mazuco Cape Cherchell Sabiñánigo Teruel


Alfambra Cape Palos Aragon 2nd Belchite 3rd Barcelona Caspe Lérida 1st Gandesa Segre Levante Balaguer Los Blázquez Alicante Granollers Bielsa Merida pocket Ebro 2nd Gandesa Cantabria Cabra Sant Vicenç de Calders


Catalonia Valsequillo Xàtiva La Garriga Menorca Cartagena Olite Final offensive

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Events leading to World War II

Treaty of Versailles 1919

Treaty of Trianon 1920

Treaty of Rapallo 1920

March on Rome 1922

Corfu incident 1923

Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925

Pacification of Libya 1923–1932

Dawes Plan 1924

Locarno Treaties 1925

Chinese Civil War 1927–1936

Young Plan 1929

Great Depression 1929–1941

Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931

Nazis rise to power in Germany 1933

Franco-Soviet-Czech Pact 1935

Second Italo-Ethiopian War 1935–36

Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936

Spanish Civil War 1936–39

Anti- Comintern
Pact 1936

Second Sino-Japanese War 1937

Anschluss Mar. 1938

Munich crisis Sep. 1938

German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939

German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939

British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939

Invasion of Albania Apr. 1939

Pact of Steel May 1939

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939

Invasion of Poland Sep. 1939

Battle of Britain May. 1940

Invasion of the Soviet Union Jun. 1941

Attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 1941

v t e

The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(Spanish: Guerra Civil Española),[nb 1] widely known in Spain
simply as The Civil War (Spanish: La Guerra Civil) or The War (Spanish: La Guerra), took place from 1936 to 1939. The Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, left-leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic, in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, a Falangist, Carlist, Catholic, and largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco. The war has often been portrayed as a struggle between democracy and fascism, particularly due to the political climate and timing surrounding it, but it can more accurately be described as a struggle between leftist revolution and rightist counter-revolution similar to the Finnish Civil War, the Russian Civil War, and the wars fought over the formation of the Hungarian and Slovak Soviet republics [7]. In early 1939, the Nationalists won, and Franco ruled over all of Spain
until his death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento (a declaration of military opposition) against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces, originally under the leadership of José Sanjurjo. The government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President
Manuel Azaña.[8][9] The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, or CEDA), monarchists such as the religious conservative (Roman Catholic) Carlists, and the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FE y de las JONS), a fascist political party.[nb 2][10] Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists. The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Zaragoza, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, and Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao, and Málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain
was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy, while the Republican (Loyalist) side received support from the Communist Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and leftist populist Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States
United States
continued to recognize the Republican government but otherwise followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict. They fought mostly in the pro-Republican International Brigades which also included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937. They also besieged Madrid
and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia
was captured in 1938 and 1939, and Madrid was cut off from Barcelona, it was obvious to everyone that Republican military position was hopeless. Once Madrid
and Barcelona
were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards
fled to refugee camps in southern France. Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime.[10] The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organized purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime.[11] A significant number of killings also took place in areas controlled by the Republicans.[12] The extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied.[13][14]


1 Background 2 Military coup

2.1 Preparations 2.2 Beginning of the coup 2.3 Outcome

3 Combatants

3.1 Republicans 3.2 Nationalists 3.3 Other factions

4 Foreign involvement

4.1 Support for the Nationalists

4.1.1 Germany 4.1.2 Italy 4.1.3 Portugal 4.1.4 Others

4.2 Support for the Republicans

4.2.1 International Brigades 4.2.2 Soviet Union 4.2.3 Mexico 4.2.4 France

5 Course of the war

5.1 1936 5.2 1937 5.3 1938 5.4 1939

6 Evacuation of children 7 Death toll 8 Atrocities

8.1 Nationalists 8.2 Republicans

9 Social revolution 10 Art and propaganda 11 Timeline 12 People 13 Political parties and organizations 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Notes 15.2 Citations 15.3 Bibliography and books by noted authors

16 Further reading 17 External links

17.1 Films, images and sounds 17.2 Miscellaneous documents 17.3 Diverse references and citations 17.4 Academics and governments 17.5 Archives

Background[edit] Main article: Background of the Spanish Civil War The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain. Those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain
and to establish a liberal state. The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII
King Ferdinand VII
dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal
Trienio Liberal
government.[15] Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874.[15] Until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was primarily based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful; a small number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions.[16] In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II
Queen Isabella II
of the House of Bourbon. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military (led by General Joan Prim) concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, and the short-lived First Spanish Republic
First Spanish Republic
was proclaimed.[17][18] After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874,[19] Carlists
and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy.[20][21] Alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was particularly acute.[22] Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona
in 1909.[23]

On April 2, 1931, the Republicans won the elections and the Spanish Second Republic was proclaimed. King Alfonso XIII resigns and goes into exile.

was neutral in World War I. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, and military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuccessful.[24] Popular perception of communism as a major threat significantly increased during this period.[25] In 1923 a military coup brought Miguel Primo de Rivera to power; as a result, Spain
transitioned to government by military dictatorship.[26] Support for the Rivera regime gradually faded, and he resigned in January 1930. He was replaced by General Dámaso Berenguer, who was in turn himself replaced by Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas; both men continued a policy of rule by decree. There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. Consequently, King Alfonso XIII gave in to popular pressure for the establishment of a republic in 1931 and called municipal elections for 12 April of that year. The socialist and liberal republicans won almost all the provincial capitals, and following the resignation of Aznar's government, King Alfonso XIII fled the country.[27] At this time, the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
was formed and would remain in power until the culmination of the Spanish Civil War.[28] The revolutionary committee headed by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
became the provisional government, with Alcalá-Zamora as president and head of state.[29] The republic had broad support from all segments of society.[30] In May, an incident where a taxi driver was attacked outside a monarchist club sparked anti-clerical violence throughout Madrid
and south-west Spain. The government's slow response disillusioned the right and reinforced their view that the Republic was determined to persecute the church. In June and July the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
(CNT) called several strikes, which led to a violent incident between CNT members and the Civil Guard and a brutal crackdown by the Civil Guard and the army against the CNT in Seville. This led many workers to believe the Spanish Second Republic was just as oppressive as the monarchy and the CNT announced their intention of overthrowing it via revolution.[31] Elections in June 1931 returned a large majority of Republicans and Socialists.[32] With the onset of the Great Depression, the government attempted to assist rural Spain
by instituting an eight-hour day and redistributing land tenure to farm workers.[33][34]

The Church was a frequent target of the revolutionary left in the Republic and in the War. Only during the Civil War revolutionaries destroyed/burned some 20,000 churches -including several cathedrals-, also church ornamentation (artworks, paintings, tombs), books, archives, and palaces.[35][36] Big amount of the affected buildings are today defunct.

remained a reactive threat, helped by controversial reforms to the military.[37] In December a new reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution was declared. It included strong provisions enforcing a broad secularization of the Catholic country, which included the abolishing of Catholic schools and charities, which many moderate committed Catholics opposed.[38] Republican Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
became prime minister of a minority government in October 1931.[39][40] In 1933 the parties of the right won the general elections, largely owing to the anarchists' abstention from the vote,[41] increased right-wing resentment of the incumbent government caused by a controversial decree implementing land reform,[42] the Casas Viejas incident,[43] and the formation of a right-wing alliance, Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (CEDA). The recent enfranchisement of women, most of whom voted for centre-right parties, was also a contributing factor.[44] Events in the period following November 1933, called the "black two years", seemed to make a civil war more likely.[45] Alejandro Lerroux of the Radical Republican Party
Radical Republican Party
(RRP) formed a government, reversing changes made under the previous administration[46] and granting amnesty to the collaborators of the unsuccessful uprising by General José Sanjurjo
José Sanjurjo
in August 1932.[47][48] Some monarchists joined with the then fascist-nationalist Falange Española y de las JONS ("Falange") to help achieve their aims.[49] Open violence occurred in the streets of Spanish cities, and militancy continued to increase,[50] reflecting a movement towards radical upheaval, rather than peaceful democratic means as solutions.[51] On 5 October 1934, the Acción Republicana and the Socialists (PSOE) and Communists attempted a general left-wing rebellion. The rebellion had a temporary success in Asturias
and Barcelona, but was over in two weeks. Azaña was in Barcelona
that day, and the Lerroux-CEDA government tried to implicate him. He was arrested and charged with complicity in the rebellion. [52] In the last months of 1934, two government collapses brought members of the CEDA into the government.[53][54] Farm workers' wages were cut in half, and the military was purged of Republican members.[54] A popular front alliance was organized,[54] which narrowly won the 1936 elections.[55] Azaña led a weak minority government, but soon replaced Zamora as president in April.[56] Prime Minister Santiago Casares Quiroga ignored warnings of a military conspiracy involving several generals, who decided that the government had to be replaced to prevent the dissolution of Spain.[57] Military coup[edit] Main article: Spanish coup of July 1936 Preparations[edit]

They shall not pass! Republican banner in Madrid
reading "Fascism wants to conquer Madrid. Madrid
shall be fascism's grave." during the siege of 1936–39

Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1936 The Republican government acted to remove suspect generals from influential posts. Franco was sacked as chief of staff and transferred to command of the Canary Islands.[58] Manuel Goded Llopis
Manuel Goded Llopis
was removed as inspector general and was made general of the Balearic Islands. Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
was moved from head of the Army of Africa to military commander of Pamplona
in Navarre.[58] This, however, allowed Mola to direct the mainland uprising. General José Sanjurjo
José Sanjurjo
became the figurehead of the operation and helped reach an agreement with the Carlists.[58] Mola was chief planner and second in command.[59] José Antonio Primo de Rivera was put in prison in mid-March in order to restrict the Falange.[58] However, government actions were not as thorough as they might have been, and warnings by the Director of Security and other figures were not acted upon.[60] On 12 June, Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General Juan Yagüe, who falsely convinced Casares of his loyalty to the republic.[61] Mola began serious planning in the spring.[59] Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as the man who suppressed the Asturian miners' strike of 1934.[59] He was well respected in the Army of Africa, the Army's toughest troops.[62] He wrote a cryptic letter to Casares on 23 June, suggesting that the military was disloyal, but could be restrained if he were put in charge. Casares did nothing, failing to arrest or buy off Franco.[62] With the help of the British Secret Intelligence Service agents Cecil Bebb
Cecil Bebb
and Major Hugh Pollard, the rebels chartered a Dragon Rapide aircraft to transport Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco.[63] The plane flew to the Canaries on 11 July, and Franco arrived in Morocco on 19 July.[64] On 12 July 1936, Falangists
in Madrid
murdered a police officer, Lieutenant José Castillo of the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard). Castillo was a Socialist party member who, among other activities, was giving military training to the UGT youth. Castillo had led the Assault Guards that violently suppressed the riots after the funeral of Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes. (Los Reyes had been shot by anarchists during the 14 April military parade commemorating the five years of the Republic.)[64] Assault Guard Captain Fernando Condés was a close personal friend of Castillo. The next day, he led his squad to arrest José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, founder of CEDA, as a reprisal for Castillo's murder. But he was not at home, so they went to the house of José Calvo Sotelo, a leading Spanish monarchist and a prominent parliamentary conservative.[65] Luis Cuenca, a member of the arresting group and a Socialist, summarily executed Calvo Sotelo by shooting him in the back of the neck.[65] Hugh Thomas concludes that Condés intended to arrest Sotelo, and that Cuenca acted on his own initiative, although he acknowledges other sources dispute this finding.[66] Massive reprisals followed.[65] The killing of Calvo Sotelo with police involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government's opponents on the right.[67] Although the nationalist generals were already in the advanced stages of a planned uprising, the event provided a catalyst and a public justification for their coup.[65] The Socialists and Communists, led by Indalecio Prieto, demanded that arms be distributed to the people before the military took over. The prime minister was hesitant.[65] Beginning of the coup[edit]

General map of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War

  Initial Nationalist zone – Jul 1936   Nationalist advance to Sep 1936   Nationalist advance to Oct 1937   Nationalist advance to Nov 1938   Nationalist advance to Feb 1939   Last area under Republican control     Main Nationalist centres     Main Republican centres Land battles Naval battles Bombed cities Concentration camps Massacres       Refugee camps

The uprising's timing was fixed at 17 July, at 17:01, agreed to by the leader of the Carlists, Manuel Fal Conde.[68] However, the timing was changed—the men in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco
Spanish protectorate in Morocco
were to rise up at 05:00 on 18 July and those in Spain
proper a day later so that control of Spanish Morocco could be achieved and forces sent back to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
to coincide with the risings there.[69] The rising was intended to be a swift coup d'état, but the government retained control of most of the country.[70] Control over Spanish Morocco was all but certain.[71] The plan was discovered in Morocco on 17 July, which prompted the conspirators to enact it immediately. Little resistance was encountered. In total, the rebels shot 189 people.[72] Goded and Franco immediately took control of the islands to which they were assigned.[59] On 18 July, Casares Quiroga refused an offer of help from the CNT and Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), leading the groups to proclaim a general strike—in effect, mobilizing. They opened weapons caches, some buried since the 1934 risings.[71] The paramilitary security forces often waited to see the outcome of militia action before either joining or suppressing the rebellion. Quick action by either the rebels or anarchist militias was often enough to decide the fate of a town.[73] General Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
managed to secure Seville for the rebels, arresting a number of other officers.[74] Outcome[edit]

Francoists killed by the Civil Guard and Madrilenian civilians during the Montaña siege (Madrid). It was the first massacre made by Republicans. The coup of July 1936, which began the Civil War, failed to succeed in Madrid, which led to the failure of the military uprising in the center of Spain.

The rebels failed to take any major cities with the critical exception of Seville, which provided a landing point for Franco's African troops, and the primarily conservative and Catholic areas of Old Castile and León, which fell quickly.[70] Cádiz
was taken for the rebels, with the help of the first troops from the Army of Africa.[75] The government retained control of Málaga, Jaén, and Almería. In Madrid, the rebels were hemmed into the Cuartel de la Montaña siege, which fell with considerable bloodshed. Republican leader Casares Quiroga was replaced by José Giral, who ordered the distribution of weapons among the civilian population.[76] This facilitated the defeat of the army insurrection in the main industrial centres, including Madrid, Barcelona, and Valencia, but it allowed anarchists to take control of Barcelona
along with large swathes of Aragón
and Catalonia.[77] General Goded surrendered in Barcelona
and was later condemned to death.[78] The Republican government ended up controlling almost all of the east coast and central area around Madrid, as well as most of Asturias, Cantabria
and part of the Basque Country in the north.[79] The rebels termed themselves Nacionales, normally translated "Nationalists", although the former implies "true Spaniards" rather than a nationalistic cause.[80] The result of the coup was a nationalist area of control containing 11 million of Spain's population of 25 million.[81] The Nationalists had secured the support of around half of Spain's territorial army, some 60,000 men, joined by the Army of Africa, made up of 35,000 men,[82] and a little under half of Spain's militaristic police forces, the Assault Guards, the Civil Guards, and the Carabineers.[83] Republicans controlled under half of the rifles and about a third of both machine guns and artillery pieces.[82][84] The Spanish Republican Army
Spanish Republican Army
had just 18 tanks of a sufficiently modern design, and the Nationalists took control of 10.[85] Naval capacity was uneven, with the Republicans retaining a numerical advantage, but with the Navy's top commanders and two of the most modern ships, heavy cruisers Canarias —captured at the Ferrol shipyard—and Baleares, in Nationalist hands.[86] The Spanish Republican Navy
Spanish Republican Navy
suffered from the same problems as the army—many officers had defected or had been killed after trying to do so.[85] Two-thirds of air capability was retained by the government—however, the whole of the Republican Air Force was very outdated.[87] Combatants[edit]

The military uprising in Barcelona
was repelled by anarchists led by Leonese Buenaventura Durruti, since them Anarchists rule over Barcelona
and supplanted every kinds of rulling of Catalan government and Spanish state. From Barcelona
they will start the Offensive to Aragon.[88]

The war was cast by Republican sympathizers as a struggle between tyranny and freedom, and by Nationalist supporters as communist and anarchist "red hordes" versus "Christian civilization".[89] Nationalists also claimed they were bringing security and direction to an ungoverned and lawless country.[89] Spanish politics, especially on the left, was quite fragmented, since socialists and communists supported the republic. During the republic, anarchists had mixed opinions, but both major groups opposed the Nationalists during the Civil War. The Nationalists, in contrast, were united by their fervent opposition to the Republican government and presented a more unified front.[90]

Republican and Nationalist conscription age limits

The coup divided the armed forces fairly evenly. One historical estimate suggests that there were some 87,000 troops loyal to the government and some 77,000 joining the insurgency,[91] though some historians suggest that the Nationalist figure should be revised upwards and that it probably amounted to some 95,000.[92] During the first few months both armies were joined in high numbers by volunteers, Nationalists by some 100,000 men and Republicans by some 120,000.[93] From August both sides launched their own, similarly scaled conscription schemes, resulting in further massive growth of their armies. Finally, the final months of 1936 saw the arrival of foreign troops, International Brigades
International Brigades
joining the Republicans and Italian CTV, German Legion Condor and Portuguese Viriatos
joining the Nationalists. The result was that in April 1937 there were some 360,000 soldiers in the Republican ranks and some 290,000 in the Nationalist ones.[94]

Republican forces during the battle of Irún
in 1936

The armies kept growing. The principal source of manpower was conscription; both sides continued and expanded their schemes, the Nationalists drafting somewhat more aggressively, and there was little room left for volunteering. Foreigners contributed little to further growth; on the Nationalist side the Italians scaled down their engagement, while on the Republican side the influx of new interbrigadistas did not cover losses suffered by these units on the front. At the turn of 1937/1938 both armies achieved numerical parity and equalled about 700,000 each.[95] Throughout 1938 the principal if not exclusive source of new men was a draft; at this stage it was the Republicans who conscripted more aggressively. In the middle of the year, just prior to the Battle of Ebro, the Republicans achieved their all-time high, commanding an army of slightly above 800,000; this was already no match for the Nationalists, who numbered 880,000.[96] The Battle of Ebro, fall of Catalonia
and collapsing discipline produced a massive shrinking of the Republican troops. In late February 1939 their army was 400,000[97] compared to more than double that number of Nationalists. In the moment of their final victory, the latter commanded over 900,000 troops.[98] The total number of Spaniards
serving in the Republican forces was officially stated as 917,000; later scholarly work estimated the number as "well over 1 million men",[99] though earlier studies claimed a Republican total of 1.75m (including non-Spaniards).[100] The total number of Spaniards
serving in the Nationalist units is estimated at "nearly 1 million men",[99] though earlier works claimed a total of 1.26m Nationalists (including non-Spaniards).[101] Republicans[edit] Main article: Republican faction (Spanish Civil War)

Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
was the intelectual leader of the Second Republic and headman of the Republican-side during most of the Civil War.

Flags of the Popular Front (left) and CNT/FAI (right). The slogan of the CNT/FAI anarchists was "Ni dios, ni estado, ni patrón" (Neither god, Nor state, Nor boss), widespread by the Spanish anarchists since 1910.

Only two countries openly and fully supported the Republic: Mexico
and the USSR. From them, especially the USSR, the Republic received diplomatic support, volunteers, and the ability to purchase weapons. Other countries remained neutral, this neutrality faced serious opposition from the intelligentsia in the United States
United States
and United Kingdom, and to a lesser extent in other European countries and Marxists worldwide. This led to formation of the International Brigades, thousands of foreigners of all nationalities who voluntarily went to Spain
to aid the Republic in the fight; they meant a great deal to morale but militarily were not very significant. The Republic's supporters within Spain
ranged from centrists who supported a moderately-capitalist liberal democracy to revolutionary anarchists who opposed the Republic but sided with it against the coup forces. Their base was primarily secular and urban but also included landless peasants and was particularly strong in industrial regions like Asturias, the Basque country, and Catalonia.[102] This faction was called variously leales "Loyalists" by supporters, "Republicans", the "Popular Front", or "the government" by all parties; and/or los rojos "the Reds" by their opponents.[103] Republicans were supported by urban workers, agricultural labourers, and parts of the middle class.[104]

Republican volunteers at Teruel, 1936

The conservative, strongly Catholic Basque country, along with Catholic Galicia and the more left-leaning Catalonia, sought autonomy or independence from the central government of Madrid. The Republican government allowed for the possibility of self-government for the two regions,[105] whose forces were gathered under the People's Republican Army (Ejército Popular Republicano, or EPR), which was reorganized into mixed brigades after October 1936.[106] A few well-known people fought on the Republican side, such as English novelist George Orwell
George Orwell
(who wrote Homage to Catalonia
(1938), an account of his experiences in the war)[107] and Canadian thoracic surgeon Norman Bethune, who developed a mobile blood-transfusion service for front-line operations.[108] Simone Weil
Simone Weil
added herself for a while to the anarchist columns of Buenaventura Durruti, though fellow fighters feared she might inadvertently shoot them because she was short-sighted, and tried to avoid taking her on missions. By the account of her biographer Simone Petrement, Weil was evacuated from the front after a matter of weeks because of an injury sustained in a cooking accident.[109] Nationalists[edit] Main article: Nationalist faction
Nationalist faction
(Spanish Civil War)

Flags of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (left) and the Carlist
Requetés (right)

The Nacionales or Nationalists—also called "insurgents", "rebels", or, by opponents, Franquistas or "fascists" (see: the Nationalist faction)—feared national fragmentation and opposed the separatist movements. They were chiefly defined by their anti-communism, which galvanized diverse or opposed movements like falangists and monarchists. Their leaders had a generally wealthier, more conservative, monarchist, landowning background.[103] The Nationalist side included the Carlists
and Alfonsists, Spanish nationalists, the fascist Falange, and most conservatives and monarchist liberals. Virtually all Nationalist groups had strong Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy.[103] The Nationals included the majority of the Catholic clergy and practitioners (outside of the Basque region), important elements of the army, most large landowners, and many businessmen.[89]

Italian troops manning a 10 cm howitzer at Guadalajara, 1937

One of the rightists' principal motives was to confront the anti-clericalism of the Republican regime and to defend the Catholic Church,[103] which had been targeted by opponents, including Republicans, who blamed the institution for the country's ills. The Church was against the Republicans' liberal principles, which were fortified by the Spanish Constitution of 1931.[110] Prior to the war, during the Asturian miners' strike of 1934, religious buildings were burnt and at least 100 clergy, religious civilians, and pro-Catholic police were killed by revolutionaries.[111][112] Franco had brought in the mercenaries of Spain's colonial Army of Africa (Spanish: Ejército de África or Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí) and reduced the miners to submission by heavy artillery attacks and bombing raids. The Spanish Legion
Spanish Legion
committed atrocities—many men, women and children were killed, and the army carried out summary executions of leftists. The repression in the aftermath was brutal. In Asturias, prisoners were tortured.[113] Articles 24 and 26 of the 1931 constitution had banned the Society of Jesus. This proscription deeply offended many within the conservative fold. The revolution in the Republican zone at the outset of the war, in which 7,000 clergy and thousands of lay people were killed, deepened Catholic support for the Nationalists.[114][115] The Moroccan Fuerzas Regulares
Indígenas joined the rebellion and played a significant role in the civil war.[116] Other factions[edit] Catalan and Basque nationalists were not univocal. Left-wing
Catalan nationalists sided with the Republicans, while Conservative
Catalan nationalists were far less vocal in supporting the government due to anti-clericalism and confiscations occurring in areas within its control. Basque nationalists, heralded by the conservative Basque Nationalist Party, were mildly supportive of the Republican government, although some in Navarre
sided with the uprising for the same reasons influencing conservative Catalans. Notwithstanding religious matters, Basque nationalists, who were for the most part Catholic, generally sided with the Republicans, although the PNV, Basque nationalist party, was reported passing the plans of Bilbao defenses to the nationalists, in an attempt to reduce the duration and casualties of siege.[117] Foreign involvement[edit] Main articles: Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War
Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War
and International relations (1919–1939) The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
exposed political divisions across Europe. The right and the Catholics supported the Nationalists as a way to stop the expansion of Bolshevism. On the left, including labor unions, students and intellectuals, the war represented a necessary battle to stop the spread of fascism. Anti-war and pacifist sentiment was strong in many countries, leading to warnings that the Civil War had the potential of escalating into a second world war.[118] In this respect, the war was an indicator of the growing instability across Europe.[119] The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
involved large numbers of non-Spanish citizens who participated in combat and advisory positions. Britain and France led a political alliance of 27 nations that promised non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War, including an embargo on all arms to Spain. The United States
United States
unofficially went along. Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
signed on officially, but ignored the embargo. The attempted suppression of imported materiel was largely ineffective, however, and France
especially was accused of allowing large shipments to Republican troops.[120] The clandestine actions of the various European powers were, at the time, considered to be risking another world war, alarming antiwar elements across the world.[121] The League of Nations' reaction to the war was influenced by a fear of communism,[122] and was insufficient to contain the massive importation of arms and other war resources by the fighting factions. Although a Non-Intervention Committee was formed, its policies accomplished little and its directives were ineffective.[123] Support for the Nationalists[edit] Germany[edit] Main article: German involvement in the Spanish Civil War

Members of the Condor Legion, a unit composed of volunteers from the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and from the German Army (Heer).

General Moscardó showing Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
the ruins of the Alcázar

German involvement began days after fighting broke out in July 1936. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
quickly sent in powerful air and armored units to assist the Nationalists. The war provided combat experience with the latest technology for the German military. However, the intervention also posed the risk of escalating into a world war for which Hitler was not ready. He therefore limited his aid, and instead encouraged Benito Mussolini to send in large Italian units.[124] Nazi Germany's actions included the formation of the multitasking Condor Legion, a unit composed of volunteers from the Luftwaffe
and the German Army (Heer) from July 1936 to March 1939. The Condor Legion proved to be especially useful in the 1936 Battle of the Toledo. Germany moved the Army of Africa to mainland Spain
in the war's early stages.[125] German operations slowly expanded to include strike targets, most notably – and controversially – the bombing of Guernica
which, on 26 April 1937, killed 200 to 300 civilians.[126] Germany also used the war to test out new weapons, such as the Luftwaffe
Stukas and Junkers Ju-52 transport Trimotors (used also as Bombers), which showed themselves to be effective.[127] German involvement was further manifested through undertakings such as Operation Ursula, a U-boat
undertaking, and contributions from the Kriegsmarine. The Legion spearheaded many Nationalist victories, particularly in aerial combat,[128] while Spain
further provided a proving ground for German tank tactics. The training which German units provided to the Nationalist forces would prove valuable. By the War's end, perhaps 56,000 Nationalist soldiers, encompassing infantry, artillery, aerial and naval forces, had been trained by German detachments.[125] A total of approximately 16,000 German citizens fought in the war, with approximately 300 killed,[129] though no more than 10,000 participated at any one time. German aid to the Nationalists amounted to approximately £43,000,000 ($215,000,000) in 1939 prices,[129][nb 3] 15.5 percent of which was used for salaries and expenses and 21.9 percent for direct delivery of supplies to Spain, while 62.6 percent was expended on the Condor Legion.[129] In total, Germany provided the Nationalists with 600 planes and 200 tanks.[130] Italy[edit] After Francisco Franco's request and with encouragement from Hitler, Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
joined the war. While the conquest of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
made Italy confident in its power, a Spanish ally would nonetheless help secure Italian control of the Mediterranean Theater of Operations.[131] The Royal Italian Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) played a substantial role in the Mediterranean blockade, and ultimately Italy supplied machine guns, artillery, aircraft, tankettes, the Aviazione Legionaria, and the Corpo Truppe Volontarie (CTV) to the Nationalist cause.[132] The Italian CTV would, at its peak, supply the Nationalists with 50,000 men.[132] Italian warships took part in breaking the Republican navy's blockade of Nationalist-held Spanish Morocco and took part in naval bombardment of Republican-held Málaga, Valencia, and Barcelona.[133] In total, Italy provided the Nationalists with 660 planes, 150 tanks, 800 artillery pieces, 10,000 machine guns, and 240,000 rifles.[134] Portugal[edit] The Estado Novo regime of Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar played an important role in supplying Franco's forces with ammunition and logistical help.[135] Despite its discreet direct military involvement  – restrained to a somewhat "semi-official" endorsement, by its authoritarian regime, of a volunteer force of up to 20,000,[136][137] so-called "Viriatos"  – for the whole duration of the conflict, Portugal was instrumental in providing the Nationalists with organizational skills and reassurance from the Iberian neighbour to Franco and his allies that no interference would hinder the supply traffic directed to the Nationalist cause.[138] Others[edit] The Conservative
government of the UK maintained a position of strong neutrality and was supported by elites and the media, while the left mobilized aid to the Republic.[139] The government refused to allow arms shipments and sent warships to try to stop shipments. It was theoretically a crime to volunteer to fight in Spain, but about 4,000 went anyway. Intellectuals strongly favoured the Republicans. Many visited Spain, hoping to find authentic anti-fascism. They had little impact on the government, and could not shake the strong public mood for peace.[140] The Labour Party was split, with its Catholic element favouring the Nationalists. It officially endorsed the boycott and expelled a faction that demanded support for the Republican cause; but it finally voiced some support to Loyalists.[141] Romanian volunteers were led by Ion Moța, deputy-leader of the Iron Guard ("Legion of the Archangel Michael"), whose group of Seven Legionaries visited Spain
in December 1936 to ally their movement with the Nationalists.[142] Despite the Irish government's prohibition against participating in the war, around 600 Irishmen, followers of the Irish political activist and co-founder of the recently-created political party of Fine Gael (unofficially called "The Blue Shirts"), Eoin O'Duffy, known as the "Irish Brigade", went to Spain
to fight alongside Franco.[136] The majority of the volunteers were Catholics, and according to O'Duffy had volunteered to help the Nationalists fight against communism.[143][144] Support for the Republicans[edit] International Brigades[edit]

The Etkar André battalion of the International Brigades.

Polish volunteers in the International Brigades

Main article: International Brigades Many non-Spaniards, often affiliated with radical communist or socialist entities, joined the International Brigades, believing that the Spanish Republic was a front line in the war against fascism. The units represented the largest foreign contingent of those fighting for the Republicans. Roughly 40,000 foreign nationals fought with the Brigades, though no more than 18,000 were in the conflict at any given time. They claimed to represent 53 nations.[145] Significant numbers of volunteers came from in the French Third Republic (10,000), Nazi Germany, the Federal State of Austria
Federal State of Austria
(5,000) and the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
(3,350). More than 1000 each came from the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Second Polish Republic, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Kingdom of Hungary and Canada.[145] The Thälmann Battalion, a group of Germans, and the Garibaldi Battalion, a group of Italians, distinguished their units during the Siege of Madrid. Americans fought in units such as the XV International Brigade ("Abraham Lincoln Brigade"), while Canadians joined the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion.[146] Over 500 Romanians fought on the Republican side, including Romanian Communist Party members Petre Borilă
Petre Borilă
and Valter Roman.[147] About 145 men[148] from Ireland
formed the Connolly Column, which was immortalized by Irish folk musician Christy Moore
Christy Moore
in the song "Viva la Quinta Brigada". Some Chinese joined the Brigades; the majority of them eventually returned to China, but some went to prison or to French refugee camps, and a handful remained in Spain.[149] Soviet Union[edit]

Review of Soviet armored fighting vehicles used to equip the Republican Populist Army during the Spanish Civil War

Though General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
had signed the Non-Intervention Agreement, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
contravened the League of Nations
League of Nations
embargo by providing material assistance to the Republican forces, becoming their only source of major weapons. Unlike Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin tried to do this covertly.[150] Estimates of materiel provided by the USSR to the Republicans vary between 634 and 806 aircraft, 331 and 362 tanks and 1,034 to 1,895 artillery pieces.[151] Stalin also created Section X of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
military to head the weapons shipment operation, called Operation X. Despite Stalin's interest in aiding the Republicans, the quality of arms was inconsistent.[152][153] Many rifles and field guns provided were old, obsolete or otherwise of limited use (some dated back to the 1860s) but the T-26
and BT-5
tanks were modern and effective in combat.[152] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
supplied aircraft that were in current service with their own forces but the aircraft provided by Germany to the Nationalists proved superior by the end of the war.[153] The process of shipping arms from Russia to Spain
was extremely slow. Many shipments were lost or arrived only partially matching what had been authorized.[154] Stalin ordered shipbuilders to include false decks in the design of ships and while at sea, Soviet captains employed deceptive flags and paint schemes to evade detection by the Nationalists.[155] The Republic paid for Soviet arms with official Bank of Spain
gold reserves, 176 tonnes of which was transferred through France.[156] The USSR sent 2,000–3,000 military advisers to Spain; while the Soviet commitment of troops was fewer than 500 men at a time, Soviet volunteers often operated Soviet-made tanks and aircraft, particularly at the beginning of the war.[157][158][159][145] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
directed Communist parties around the world to organize and recruit the International Brigades.[160] Another significant Soviet involvement was the activity of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) inside the Republican rearguard. Communist figures including Vittorio Vidali ("Comandante Contreras"), Iosif Grigulevich, Mikhail Koltsov
Mikhail Koltsov
and, most prominently, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Orlov
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Orlov
led operations that included the murders of Catalan anti-Stalinist Communist politician Andrés Nin, the socialist journalist Mark Rein, and the independent left-wing activist José Robles.[161] Another NKVD-led operation was the shooting down (in December 1936) of the French aircraft in which the delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC), Georges Henny, carried extensive documentation on the Paracuellos massacres to France.[162] Mexico[edit] Unlike the United States
United States
and major Latin American governments, such as the ABC nations
ABC nations
and Peru, Mexico
supported the Republicans.[163][164] Mexico
refused to follow the French-British non-intervention proposals,[163] furnishing $2,000,000 in aid and material assistance, which included 20,000 rifles and 20 million cartridges.[163] Mexico's most important contributions to the Spanish Republic was its diplomatic help, as well as the sanctuary the nation arranged for Republican refugees, including Spanish intellectuals and orphaned children from Republican families. Some 50,000 took refuge, primarily in Mexico
City and Morelia, accompanied by $300 million in various treasures still owned by the Left.[165] France[edit] Fearing it might spark a civil war inside France, the leftist "Popular Front" government in France
did not send direct support to the Republicans. French Prime Minister Léon Blum
Léon Blum
was sympathetic to the republic,[166] fearing that the success of Nationalist forces in Spain would result in the creation of an ally state of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy, an alliance that would nearly encircle France.[166] Right-wing politicians opposed any aid and attacked the Blum government.[167] In July 1936, British officials convinced Blum not to send arms to the Republicans and, on 27 July, the French government declared that it would not send military aid, technology or forces to assist the Republican forces.[168] However, Blum made clear that France
reserved the right to provide aid should it wish to the Republic: "We could have delivered arms to the Spanish Government [Republicans], a legitimate government... We have not done so, in order not to give an excuse to those who would be tempted to send arms to the rebels [Nationalists]."[169] On 1 August 1936 a pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum, demanding that he send aircraft to the Republicans, at the same time as right-wing politicians attacked Blum for supporting the Republic and being responsible for provoking Italian intervention on the side of Franco.[169] Germany informed the French ambassador in Berlin that Germany would hold France
responsible if it supported "the manoeuvres of Moscow" by supporting the Republicans.[170] On 21 August 1936, France
signed the Non-Intervention Agreement.[170] However, the Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans through covert means with Potez 540
Potez 540
bomber aircraft (nicknamed the "Flying Coffin") by Spanish Republican pilots),[171] Dewoitine aircraft, and Loire 46 fighter aircraft being sent from 7 August 1936 to December of that year to Republican forces.[172] The French also sent pilots and engineers to the Republicans.[173] Also, until 8 September 1936, aircraft could freely pass from France
into Spain
if they were bought in other countries.[174] French novelist André Malraux
André Malraux
was a strong supporter of the republican cause; he tried to organise a volunteer air force (Escadrile Espana) on the republican side but as a practical organiser and squadron leader he was somewhat idealistic and inefficient. The Regular Spanish Air force commander Andrés García La Calle
Andrés García La Calle
was openly critical of Malraux's military efficiency but recognized his usefulness as a propagandist. His novel L' Espoir
and the film version he produced and directed (Espoir: Sierra de Teruel) were a great help for the Republican cause in France. Even after covert support by France
to the Republicans ended in December 1936, the possibility of French intervention against the Nationalists remained a serious possibility throughout the war. German intelligence reported to Franco and the Nationalists that the French military was engaging in open discussions about intervention in the war through French military intervention in Catalonia
and the Balearic Islands.[175] In 1938 Franco feared an immediate French intervention against a potential Nationalist victory in Spain
through French occupation of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and Spanish Morocco.[176] Course of the war[edit] 1936[edit]

Map showing Spain
in September 1936:   Area under Nationalist control   Area under Republican control

Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1936

Surrender of Republican soldiers in the Somosierra area, 1936

A large air and sealift of Nationalist troops in Spanish Morocco was organized to the southwest of Spain.[177] Coup leader Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash on 20 July,[178][179] leaving an effective command split between Mola in the North and Franco in the South.[59] This period also saw the worst actions of the so-called "Red" and "White Terrors" in Spain.[180][181] On 21 July, the fifth day of the rebellion, the Nationalists captured the central Spanish naval base, located in Ferrol, Galicia.[182] A rebel force under Colonel Alfonso Beorlegui Canet, sent by General Mola and Colonel Esteban García, undertook the Campaign of Gipuzkoa from July to September. The capture of Gipuzkoa
isolated the Republican provinces in the north. On 5 September, the Nationalists closed the French border to the Republicans in the battle of Irún.[183] On 15 September San Sebastián, home to a divided Republican force of anarchists and Basque nationalists, was taken by Nationalist soldiers.[138] The Republic proved ineffective militarily, relying on disorganized revolutionary militia. The Republican government under Giral resigned on 4 September, unable to cope with the situation, and was replaced by a mostly Socialist organization under Francisco Largo Caballero.[184] The new leadership began to unify central command in the republican zone.[185] On the Nationalist side, Franco was chosen as chief military commander at a meeting of ranking generals at Salamanca
on 21 September, now called by the title Generalísimo.[59][186] Franco won another victory on 27 September when his troops relieved the siege of the Alcázar in Toledo,[186] which had been held by a Nationalist garrison under Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte
José Moscardó Ituarte
since the beginning of the rebellion, resisting thousands of Republican troops, who completely surrounded the isolated building. Moroccans and elements of the Spanish Legion came to the rescue.[187] Two days after relieving the siege, Franco proclaimed himself Caudillo
("chieftain", the Spanish equivalent of the Italian Duce
and the German Führer
-meaning: 'director') while forcibly unifying the various and diverse falangist, Royalist and other elements within the Nationalist cause.[184] The diversion to Toledo gave Madrid
time to prepare a defense, but was hailed as a major propaganda victory and personal success for Franco.[188] On 1 October 1936, General Franco was confirmed head of state and armies in Burgos. A similar dramatic success for the Nationalists occurred on 17 October, when troops coming from Galicia relieved the besieged town of Oviedo, in Northern Spain.[189][190] In October, the Francoist troops launched a major offensive toward Madrid,[191] reaching it in early November and launching a major assault on the city on 8 November.[192] The Republican government was forced to shift from Madrid
to Valencia, outside the combat zone, on 6 November.[193] However, the Nationalists' attack on the capital was repulsed in fierce fighting between 8 and 23 November. A contributory factor in the successful Republican defense was the effectiveness of the Fifth Regiment[194] and later the arrival of the International Brigades, though only an approximate 3,000 foreign volunteers participated in the battle.[195] Having failed to take the capital, Franco bombarded it from the air and, in the following two years, mounted several offensives to try to encircle Madrid, beginning the three-year Siege of Madrid. The Second Battle of the Corunna Road, a Nationalist offensive to the northwest, pushed Republican forces back, but failed to isolate Madrid. The battle lasted into January.[196] 1937[edit] Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1937

Map showing Spain
in October 1937:   Area under Nationalist control   Area under Republican control

With his ranks swelled by Italian troops and Spanish colonial soldiers from Morocco, Franco made another attempt to capture Madrid
in January and February 1937, but was again unsuccessful. The Battle of Málaga started in mid-January, and this Nationalist offensive in Spain's southeast would turn into a disaster for the Republicans, who were poorly organised and armed. The city was taken by Franco on 8 February.[197] The consolidation of various militias into the Republican Army had started in December 1936.[198] The main Nationalist advance to cross the Jarama
and cut the supply to Madrid by the Valencia
road, termed the Battle of Jarama, led to heavy casualties (6,000–20,000) on both sides. The operation's main objective was not met, though Nationalists gained a modest amount of territory.[199] A similar Nationalist offensive, the Battle of Guadalajara, was a more significant defeat for Franco and his armies. This was the only publicised Republican victory of the war. Franco used Italian troops and blitzkrieg tactics; while many strategists blamed Franco for the rightists' defeat, the Germans believed it was the former at fault for the Nationalists' 5,000 casualties and loss of valuable equipment.[200] The German strategists successfully argued that the Nationalists needed to concentrate on vulnerable areas first.[201]

Ruins of Guernica.

The "War in the North" began in mid-March,[202] with the Biscay Campaign.[203] The Basques suffered most from the lack of a suitable air force.[204] On 26 April, the Condor Legion
Condor Legion
bombed the town of Guernica, killing 200–300 and causing significant damage. The destruction had a significant effect on international opinion.[205] The Basques retreated.[206] April and May saw the May Days, infighting among Republican groups in Catalonia. The dispute was between an ultimately victorious government –Communist forces and the anarchist CNT. The disturbance pleased Nationalist command, but little was done to exploit Republican divisions.[207] After the fall of Guernica, the Republican government began to fight back with increasing effectiveness. In July, it made a move to recapture Segovia, forcing Franco to delay his advance on the Bilbao
front, but for only two weeks. A similar Republican attack, the Huesca Offensive, failed similarly.[208] Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on 3 June, in an airplane accident.[209] In early July, despite the earlier loss at the Battle of Bilbao, the government launched a strong counter-offensive to the west of Madrid, focusing on Brunete. The Battle of Brunete, however, was a significant defeat for the Republic, which lost many of its most accomplished troops. The offensive led to an advance of 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi), and left 25,000 Republican casualties.[210] A Republican offensive against Zaragoza
was also a failure. Despite having land and aerial advantages, the Battle of Belchite, a place lacking any military interest, resulted in an advance of only 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and the loss of much equipment.[211] Franco invaded Aragón
and took the city of Santander in Cantabria
in August.[212] With the surrender of the Republican army in the Basque territory came the Santoña Agreement.[213] Gijón
finally fell in late October in the Asturias
Offensive.[214] Franco had effectively won in the north. At November's end, with Franco's troops closing in on Valencia, the government had to move again, this time to Barcelona.[215] 1938[edit]

Map showing Spain
in July 1938:   Area under Nationalist control   Area under Republican control

Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1938–39 The Battle of Teruel
Battle of Teruel
was an important confrontation. The city, which had formerly belonged to the Nationalists, was conquered by Republicans in January. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by 22 February, but Franco was forced to rely heavily on German and Italian air support.[216] On 7 March, Nationalists launched the Aragon
Offensive, and by 14 April they had pushed through to the Mediterranean, cutting the Republican-held portion of Spain
in two. The Republican government attempted to sue for peace in May,[217] but Franco demanded unconditional surrender, and the war raged on. In July, the Nationalist army pressed southward from Teruel
and south along the coast toward the capital of the Republic at Valencia, but was halted in heavy fighting along the XYZ Line, a system of fortifications defending Valencia.[218] The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to reconnect their territory in the Battle of the Ebro, from 24 July until 26 November, where Franco personally took command.[219] The campaign was unsuccessful, and was undermined by the Franco-British appeasement of Hitler in Munich. The agreement with Britain effectively destroyed Republican morale by ending hope of an anti-fascist alliance with Western powers.[220] The retreat from the Ebro all but determined the final outcome of the war.[219] Eight days before the new year, Franco threw massive forces into an invasion of Catalonia.[221] 1939[edit] Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1938–39

Map showing Spain
in February 1939:   Area under Nationalist control   Area under Republican control

Franco's troops conquered Catalonia
in a whirlwind campaign during the first two months of 1939. Tarragona
fell on 15 January,[222] followed by Barcelona
on 26 January[223] and Girona
on 2 February.[224] On 27 February, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France
recognized the Franco regime.[225] Only Madrid
and a few other strongholds remained for the Republican forces. On 5 March 1939 the Republican army, led by the Colonel Segismundo Casado
Segismundo Casado
and the politician Julián Besteiro, rose against the prime minister Juan Negrín
Juan Negrín
and formed the National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa or CND) to negotiate a peace deal.[226] Negrín fled to France
on 6 March,[227] but the Communist troops around Madrid
rose against the junta, starting a brief civil war within the civil war.[228] Casado defeated them, and began peace negotiations with the Nationalists, but Franco refused to accept anything less than unconditional surrender.[229] On 26 March, the Nationalists started a general offensive, on 28 March the Nationalists occupied Madrid
and, by 31 March, they controlled all Spanish territory.[230] Franco proclaimed victory in a radio speech aired on 1 April, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.[231] After the end of the war, there were harsh reprisals against Franco's former enemies.[232] Thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and at least 30,000 executed.[233] Other estimates of these deaths range from 50,000[234] to 200,000, depending on which deaths are included. Many others were put to forced labour, building railways, draining swamps, and digging canals.[234]

Franco arriving in San Sebastian in 1939

Franco declares the end of the war. However, small pockets of Republicans fought on.

Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, with some 500,000 fleeing to France.[235] Refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs
Camp Gurs
or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions. In his capacity as consul in Paris, Chilean poet and politician Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
organized the immigration to Chile
of 2,200 Republican exiles in France
using the ship SS Winnipeg.[236] Of the 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs, farmers and others who could not find relations in France
were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Franquist government, to return to Spain. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Franquist authorities in Irún.[237] From there, they were transferred to the Miranda de Ebro camp for "purification" according to the Law of Political Responsibilities. After the proclamation by Marshal Philippe Pétain of the Vichy regime, the refugees became political prisoners, and the French police attempted to round up those who had been liberated from the camp. Along with other "undesirable" people, the Spaniards
were sent to the Drancy internment camp
Drancy internment camp
before being deported to Nazi Germany. About 5,000 Spaniards
died in the Mauthausen concentration camp.[237] After the official end of the war, guerrilla warfare was waged on an irregular basis by the Spanish Maquis
Spanish Maquis
well into the 1950s, gradually reduced by military defeats and scant support from the exhausted population. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, who also fought in the French resistance
French resistance
against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran
Val d'Aran
in northwest Catalonia, but were defeated after 10 days.[238] Evacuation of children[edit] Main article: Evacuation of children in the Spanish Civil War

Children preparing for evacuation, some giving the Republican salute. The Republicans showed a raised fist whereas the Nationalists gave the Roman salute.[239]

The Republicans oversaw the evacuation of 30,000–35,000 children from their zone,[240] starting with Basque areas, from which 20,000 were evacuated. Their destinations included the United Kingdom[241] and the USSR, and many other locations in Europe, along with Mexico.[240] On 21 May 1937, around 4,000 Basque children were taken to the UK on the aging steamship SS Habana from the Spanish port of Santurtzi. This was against initial opposition from both the government and charitable groups, who saw the removal of children from their native country as potentially harmful. On arrival two days later in Southampton, the children were dispersed all over England, with over 200 children accommodated in Wales.[242] The upper age limit was initially set at 12, but raised to 15.[243] By mid-September, all of los niños, as they became known, had found homes with families. Most were repatriated to Spain
after the war, but some 250 still remained in Britain by the end of the Second World War in 1945.[244] Death toll[edit]

Civil War death toll

range estimate

+2m 2,000,000[245]

+1m 1,000,000[246]

+ 900,000 900,000[247]

+ 800,000 800,000[248]

+ 700,000 750,000,[249] 745,000,[250] 700,000[251]

+ 600,000 665.300,[252] 650,000,[253] 623,000,[254] 613,000,[255] 611,000,[256] 600,000[257]

+ 500,000 580,000,[258] 560,000,[259] 540,000,[260] 500,000[261]

+ 400,000 462,000,[262] 450,000,[263] 443,000,[264] 420,000[265] 410,000,[266] 405,000,[267] 400,000[268]

+ 300,000 380,000,[269] 365,000,[270] 350,000,[271] 346,000,[272] 344,000,[273] 330,000,[274] 300,000[275]

+ 200,000 290,000,[276] 270,000,[277] 265,000,[278] 255,000,[279] 250,000,[280] 231,000[281]

The death toll of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
is far from clarified and remains – especially in part related to war and post-war repression – a very controversial issue. Many general historiographic works – notably in Spain
– refrain from advancing any figures; massive historical series,[282] encyclopedias[283] or dictionaries[284] might not provide any numbers or at best propose vague general descriptions;[285] also more detailed general history accounts produced by expert Spanish scholars often remain silent on the issue.[286] Foreign scholars, especially Anglo-Saxon historians, are more eager to offer some general estimates, though some have revised their projections, usually downwards,[287] and the figures could vary from 1 million to 250,000. Apart from bias/ill will, incompetence or changing access to sources, the differences result chiefly from categorization and methodology issues.

Women pleading with Nationalists for the lives of prisoners, Constantina, 1936

The totals advanced usually include or exclude various categories. Scholars who focus on killings or "violent deaths" most typically list 1) combat and combat-related deaths; figures in this rubric might range from 100,000[288] to 700,000;[289] 2) rearguard terror, both judicial and extra-judicial, recorded until the end of the Civil War: 103,000[290] to 235,000;[291] 3) civilian deaths from military action, typically air raids: 10,000[292] to 15,000.[293] These 3 categories combined might point to totals from 235,000[294] to 715,000.[295] Many authors opt for a broader view and calculate "death toll" by adding also 4) above-the-norm deaths caused by malnutrition, hygiene shortcomings, cold, illness, etc recorded until the end of the Civil War: 30,000[296] to 200,000.[297] It is not unusual to encounter war statistics which include 5) post-war terror related to Civil War, at times up to the year of 1961: 23,000[298] to 200,000.[299] Some authors might add also 6) foreign combat and combat-related deaths: 3,000[300] to 25,000,[301] 7) Spaniards
killed in World War II: 6,000,[302] 8) deaths related to post-war guerilla, typically the Valle de Arán invasion: 4,000[303], 9) above-the-norm deaths caused by malnutrition etc recorded after the Civil War but related to the Civil War sufferings: 160,000[304] to 300,000.[305] Entirely different approach is pursued by demographers; instead of adding up deaths from different categories, they try to gauge the difference between the total number of deaths recorded during the war and the total which would have resulted from applying annual death averages from the 1926-1935 period; this difference is considered excess death resulting from the war. The figure they arrive at for the 1936-1939 period is 346,000; the figure for 1936-1942, covering also the years of post-war deaths resulting from terror and war sufferings, is 540,000.[306] Finally, there are scholars who go even further and calculate "population loss" or "demographic impact" of the war; in this case they might include also 10) migration abroad: 160,000[307] to 730,000[308] and 11) decrease in birth rate: 500,000[309] to 570,000.[310] Atrocities[edit]

Twenty-six republicans were assassinated by Franco's Nationalists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, between August and September 1936. This mass grave is located at the small town of Estépar, in Burgos
Province. The excavation occurred in July–August 2014.

Death totals remain debated. British historian Antony Beevor
Antony Beevor
wrote in his history of the Civil War that Franco's ensuing "white terror" resulted in the deaths of 200,000 people and that the "red terror" killed 38,000.[311] Julius Ruiz contends that, "Although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone, with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain".[312]

Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
grave sites. Location of known burial places. Colors refer to the type of intervention that has been carried out. Green: No Interventions Undertaken so far. White: Missing grave. Yellow: Transferred to the Valle de los Caídos. Red: Fully or Partially Exhumed. Blue star: Valle de los Caídos. Source: Ministry of Justice of Spain

In 2008 a Spanish judge, Baltasar Garzón, opened an investigation into the executions and disappearances of 114,266 people between 17 July 1936 and December 1951. Among the executions investigated was that of the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca, whose body has never been found.[313] Mention of García Lorca's death was forbidden during Franco's regime.[314] Recent research has started to locate mass graves, using a combination of witness testimony, remote sensing and forensic geophysics techniques.[315] The view of historians, including Helen Graham,[316] Paul Preston,[317] Antony Beevor,[318] Gabriel Jackson[319] and Hugh Thomas,[320] is that the mass executions behind the Nationalists lines were organized and approved by the Nationalist rebel authorities, while the executions behind the Republican lines were the result of the breakdown of the Republican state and anarchy:

Though there was much wanton killing in rebel Spain, the idea of the limpieza, the "cleaning up", of the country from the evils which had overtaken it, was a disciplined policy of the new authorities and a part of their programme of regeneration. In republican Spain, most of the killing was the consequence of anarchy, the outcome of a national breakdown, and not the work of the state, although some political parties in some cities abetted the enormities, and some of those responsible ultimately rose to positions of authority. – Hugh Thomas[320]

Nationalists[edit] See also: White Terror (Spain)

Nationalist SM.81 aircraft bomb Madrid
in late November 1936.

Children take refuge during the Francoist bombing over Madrid (1936-1937). In spite of that Republicans managed to repulse this siege.

Nationalist atrocities, which authorities frequently ordered so as to eradicate any trace of "leftism" in Spain, were common. The notion of a limpieza (cleansing) formed an essential part of the rebel strategy, and the process began immediately after an area had been captured.[321] According to historian Paul Preston, the minimum number of those executed by the rebels is 130,000,[322] and is likely to have been far higher, with other historians placing the figure at 200,000 dead.[323] The violence was carried out in the rebel zone by the military, the Civil Guard and the Falange in the name of the regime.[324] Many such acts were committed by reactionary groups during the first weeks of the war.[324] This included the execution of schoolteachers,[325] because the efforts of the Second Spanish Republic to promote laicism and displace the Church from schools by closing religious educational institutions were considered by the Nationalists as an attack on the Roman Catholic Church. Extensive killings of civilians were carried out in the cities captured by the Nationalists,[326] along with the execution of unwanted individuals. These included non-combatants such as trade-unionists, Popular Front politicians, suspected Freemasons, Basque, Catalan, Andalusian, and Galician Nationalists, Republican intellectuals, relatives of known Republicans, and those suspected of voting for the Popular Front.[324][327][328][329][330]

Bombing in Barcelona, 1938

Nationalist forces massacred civilians in Seville, where some 8,000 people were shot; 10,000 were killed in Cordoba; 6,000–12,000 were killed in Badajoz
[331] after more than one thousand of landowners and conservatives were killed by the revolutionaries. In Granada, where working-class neighborhoods were hit with artillery and right-wing squads were given free rein to kill government sympathizers,[332] at least 2,000 people were murdered.[325] In February 1937, over 7,000 were killed after the capture of Málaga.[333] When Bilbao
was conquered, thousands of people were sent to prison. There were fewer executions than usual, however, because of the effect Guernica
left on Nationalists' reputations internationally.[334] The numbers killed as the columns of the Army of Africa devastated and pillaged their way between Seville
and Madrid
are particularly difficult to calculate.[335] Nationalists also murdered Catholic clerics. In one particular incident, following the capture of Bilbao, they took hundreds of people, including 16 priests who had served as chaplains for the Republican forces, to the countryside or graveyards and murdered them.[336][337] Franco's forces also persecuted Protestants, including murdering 20 Protestant ministers.[338] Franco's forces were determined to remove the "Protestant heresy" from Spain.[339] The Nationalists also persecuted Basques, as they strove to eradicate Basque culture.[212] According to Basque sources, some 22,000 Basques were murdered by Nationalists immediately after the Civil War.[340] The Nationalist side conducted aerial bombing of cities in Republican territory, carried out mainly by the Luftwaffe
volunteers of the Condor Legion
Condor Legion
and the Italian air force volunteers of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie: Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Guernica, Durango, and other cities were attacked. The Bombing of Guernica
Bombing of Guernica
was the most controversial.[341] Republicans[edit] See also: Red Terror (Spain)

"Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Sacred Heart of Jesus
by Communist militiamen. The photograph in the London Daily Mail
Daily Mail
had the caption "Spanish Reds' war on religion".[342]

According to the Nationalists, an estimated 55,000 civilians died in Republican-held territories. This is considered excessive by Antony Beevor. However, it was much less than the half a million claimed during the war.[343] The deaths would form the prevailing outside opinion of the republic up until the bombing of Guernica.[343] The Republican government was anticlerical, and supporters attacked and murdered Roman Catholic clergy in reaction to the news of military revolt.[337] In his 1961 book, Spanish archbishop Antonio Montero Moreno, who at the time was director of the journal Ecclesia, wrote that 6,832 were killed during the war, including 4,184 priests, 2,365 monks and friars, and 283 nuns, in addition to 13 bishops, a figure accepted by historians, including Beevor.[338][344][345] Some sources claim that by the conflict's end, 20 percent of the nation's clergy had been killed,[346][nb 4] The "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Communist militiamen at Cerro de los Ángeles
Cerro de los Ángeles
near Madrid, on 7 August 1936, was the most infamous of widespread desecration of religious property.[347] In dioceses where the Republicans had general control, a large proportion – often a majority – of secular priests were killed.[348] Like clergy, civilians were executed in Republican territories. Some civilians were executed as suspected Falangists.[349] Others died in acts of revenge after Republicans heard of massacres carried out in the Nationalist zone.[350] Air raids committed against Republican cities were another driving factor.[351] Shopkeepers and industrialists were shot if they did not sympathize with the Republicans, and were usually spared if they did.[352] Fake justice was sought through a commission, known in Russia as checas.[349]

The Puente Nuevo
Puente Nuevo
bridge, Ronda. Both Nationalists and Republicans are claimed to have thrown prisoners from the bridge to their deaths in the canyon.[353]

As pressure mounted with the increasing success of the Nationalists, many civilians were executed by councils and tribunals controlled by competing Communist and anarchist groups.[349] Some members of the latter were executed by Soviet-advised communist functionaries in Catalonia,[353] as recounted by George Orwell's description of the purges in Barcelona
in 1937 in Homage to Catalonia, which followed a period of increasing tension between competing elements of the Catalan political scene. Some individuals fled to friendly embassies, which would house up to 8,500 people during the war.[350] In the Andalusian town of Ronda, 512 suspected Nationalists were executed in the first month of the war.[353] Communist Santiago Carrillo Solares was accused of the killing of Nationalists in the Paracuellos massacre near Paracuellos de Jarama.[354] Pro-Soviet Communists committed numerous atrocities against fellow Republicans, including other Marxists: André Marty, known as the Butcher of Albacete, was responsible for the deaths of some 500 members of the International Brigades.[355] Andrés Nin, leader of the POUM
(Workers' Party of Marxist Unification), and many other prominent POUM
members, were murdered by the Communists, with the help of the USSR's NKVD.[356] Thirty-eight thousand people were killed in the Republican zone during the war, 17,000 of whom were killed in Madrid
or Catalonia
within a month of the coup. Whilst the Communists were forthright in their support of extrajudicial killings, much of the Republican side was appalled by the murders.[357] Azaña came close to resigning.[350] He, alongside other members of Parliament and a great number of other local officials, attempted to prevent Nationalist supporters being lynched. Some of those in positions of power intervened personally to stop the killings.[357] Social revolution[edit] Main article: Spanish Revolution
of 1936

Women at the Siege of the Alcázar
Siege of the Alcázar
in Toledo, 1936

In the anarchist-controlled areas, Aragon
and Catalonia, in addition to the temporary military success, there was a vast social revolution in which the workers and peasants collectivised land and industry and set up councils parallel to the paralyzed Republican government.[358] This revolution was opposed by the Soviet-supported communists who, perhaps surprisingly, campaigned against the loss of civil property rights.[358] As the war progressed, the government and the communists were able to exploit their access to Soviet arms to restore government control over the war effort, through diplomacy and force.[356] Anarchists and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification
Workers' Party of Marxist Unification
(Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista, POUM) were integrated into the regular army, albeit with resistance. The POUM
Trotskyists were outlawed and falsely denounced as an instrument of the fascists.[356] In the May Days of 1937, many thousands of anarchist and communist Republican soldiers fought for control of strategic points in Barcelona.[207] The pre-war Falange was a small party of some 3–40,000 members.[359] It also called for a social revolution that would have seen Spanish society transformed by National Syndicalism.[360] Following the execution of its leader, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, by the Republicans, the party swelled in size to several hundred thousand members.[361] The leadership of the Falange suffered 60 percent casualties in the early days of the civil war, and the party was transformed by new members and rising new leaders, called camisas nuevas ("new shirts"), who were less interested in the revolutionary aspects of National Syndicalism.[362] Subsequently, Franco united all fighting groups into the Traditionalist Spanish Falange and the National Syndicalist Offensive Juntas (Spanish: Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista, FET y de las JONS).[363] The 1930s also saw Spain
become a focus for pacifist organizations, including the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the War Resisters League, and the War Resisters' International. Many people including, as they are now called, the "insumisos" ("defiant ones", conscientious objectors) argued and worked for non-violent strategies. Prominent Spanish pacifists, such as Amparo Poch y Gascón
Amparo Poch y Gascón
and José Brocca, supported the Republicans. Brocca argued that Spanish pacifists had no alternative but to make a stand against fascism. He put this stand into practice by various means, including organizing agricultural workers to maintain food supplies, and through humanitarian work with war refugees.[nb 5] Art and propaganda[edit]

In Catalonia, a square near the Barcelona
waterfront named Plaça George Orwell.

Throughout the course of the Spanish Civil War, people all over the world were exposed to the goings-on and effects of it on its people not only through standard art, but also through propaganda. Motion pictures, posters, books, radio programs, and leaflets are a few examples of this media art that was so influential during the war. Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards
a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. A film co-produced by famous early-twentieth century authors such as Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
and Lillian Hellman
Lillian Hellman
was used as a way to advertise Spain's need for military and monetary aid. This film, The Spanish Earth, premiered in America in July 1937. In 1938, George Orwell's Homage to Catalonia, a personal account of his experiences and observations in the war, was published in the United Kingdom. Leading works of sculpture include Alberto Sánchez Pérez's El pueblo español tiene un camino que conduce a una estrella ("The Spanish People Have a Path that Leads to a Star"), a 12.5 m monolith constructed out of plaster representing the struggle for a socialist utopia;[364] Julio González's La Montserrat, an anti-war work which shares its title with a mountain near Barcelona, is created from a sheet of iron which has been hammered and welded to create a peasant mother carrying a small child in one arm and a sickle in the other. and Alexander Calder's Fuente de mercurio (Mercury Fountain) a protest work by the American against the Nationalist forced control of Almadén and the mercury mines there.[365] Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
painted Guernica
in 1937, taking inspiration from the bombing of Guernica, and in Leonardo da Vinci's Battle of Anghiari. Guernica, like many important Republican masterpieces, was featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris. The work's size (11 ft by 25.6 ft) grabbed much attention and cast the horrors of the mounting Spanish civil unrest into a global spotlight.[366] The painting has since been heralded as an anti-war work and a symbol of peace in the 20th century.[367] Joan Miró
Joan Miró
created El Segador (The Reaper), formally titled El campesino catalán en rebeldía (Catalan peasant in revolt), which spans some 18 feet by 12 feet[368] and depicted a peasant brandishing a sickle in the air, to which Miró commented that "The sickle is not a communist symbol. It is the reaper's symbol, the tool of his work, and, when his freedom is threatened, his weapon."[369] This work, also featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris, was shipped back to the Spanish Republic's capital in Valencia
following the Exhibition, but has since gone missing or has been destroyed.[368] Timeline[edit]

Date Event

1868 Overthrow of Queen Isabella II
Queen Isabella II
of the House of Bourbon

1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicates throne ending the short-lived First Spanish Republic

1874 (December) Restoration of the Bourbons

1909 Tragic Week in Barcelona

1923 Military coup brings Miguel Primo de Rivera
Miguel Primo de Rivera
to power

1930 (January) Miguel Primo de Rivera
Miguel Primo de Rivera

1931 (12 April) Municipal elections, King Alfonso XIII abdicates.

1931 (14 April) Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
is formed with Niceto Alcala-Zamora as President
and Head of State

1931 (June) Elections return large majority of Republicans and Socialists

1931 (October) Republican Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
becomes prime minister of a minority government

1931 (December) New reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution is declared

1932 (August) Unsuccessful uprising by General José Sanjurjo

1933 Beginning of the "black two years"

1934 Asturias

1936 (April) Popular Front alliance wins election and Azaña replaces Zamora as president

1936 (14 April) During a military parade commemorating the 5 years of the second republic, Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes is shot in the back by anarchist/socialist agitators. Riots break out at the funeral

1936 (12 June) Prime Minister Casares Quiroga meets General Joan Yague

1936 (5 July) Aircraft chartered to take Franco from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
to Morocco

1936 (12 July) Assault Guard Lieutenant Jose Castillo is murdered after he violently put down the riots that broke out at the funeral of Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes

1936 (13 July) Opposition leader Jose Calvo Sotelo is arrested and murdered by the socialist Assault Guards (Guardia de Asalto), freemason police officer Burillo also blamed.

1936 (14 July) Franco arrives in Morocco

1936 (17 July) Military coup gains control over Spanish Morocco

1936 (17 July) Official beginning of the war

1936 (20 July) Coup leader Sanjurjo is killed in a plane crash

1936 (21 July) Nationalists capture the central Spanish naval base

1936 (7 August) "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Sacred Heart of Jesus
by Communist militiamen at Cerro de los Angeles in Getafe

1936 (4 September) The Republican government under Giral resigns, and is replaced by a mostly Socialist organization under Largo Caballero

1936 (5 September) Nationalists take Irun

1936 (15 September) Nationalists take San Sebastian

1936 (21 September) Franco chosen as chief military commander at Salamanca

1936 (27 September) Franco's troops relieve the Alcazar in Toledo

1936 (29 September) Franco proclaims himself Caudillo

1936 (17 October) Nationalists from Galicia relieve the besieged town of Oviedo

1936 (November) Bombing of Madrid

1936 (8 November) Franco launches major assault on Madrid
that is unsuccessful

1936 (6 November) Republican government is forced to move to Valencia
from Madrid

1937 Nationalists capture most of Spain's northern coastline

1937 (6 February) Battle of Jarama
Battle of Jarama

1937 (8 February) Malaga falls to Franco's forces

1937 (March) War in the North
War in the North

1937 (8 March) Battle of Guadalajara
Battle of Guadalajara

1937 (26 April) Bombing of Guernica

1937 (21 May) 4,000 Basque children taken to the UK

1937 (3 June) Mola, Franco's second-in-command, is killed

1937 (July) Republicans move to recapture Segovia

1937 (6 July) Battle of Brunete
Battle of Brunete

1937 (August) Franco invades Aragon
and takes the city of Santander

1937 (24 August) Battle of Belchite begins

1937 (October) Gijon falls to Franco's troops

1937 (November) Republican government forced to move to Barcelona
from Valencia

1938 Nationalists capture large parts of Catalonia

1938 (January) Battle of Teruel, conquered by Republicans

1938 (22 February) Franco recovers Teruel

1938 (7 March) Nationalists launch the Aragon

1938 (16 March) Bombing of Barcelona

1938 (May) Republican sue for peace, Franco demands unconditional surrender

1938 (24 July) Battle of the Ebro
Battle of the Ebro

1938 (24 December) Franco throws massive force into invasion of Catalonia

1939 Beginning of Franco's rule

1939 (15 January) Tarragona
falls to Franco

1939 (26 January) Barcelona
falls to Franco

1939 (2 February) Girona
falls to Franco

1939 (27 February) UK and France
recognize the Franco regime

1939 (6 March) Prime minister Juan Negrin flees to France

1939 (28 March) Nationalists occupy Madrid

1939 (31 March) Nationalists control all Spanish territory

1939 (1 April) Last Republican forces surrender

1939 (1 April) Official ending of the war

1975 Ending of Franco's rule with his death on 20 November in La Paz hospital, Madrid
and Juan Carlos I of Spain
becomes King


José Antonio Primo de Rivera
José Antonio Primo de Rivera
the founder of the Falange Española, executed by Republicans in November 1936 in Alicante.

In pre-war climate, after moderate measures were produced, Francisco Largo Caballero sentence "The working class must take over the political power, we must go to the revolution".

In pre-war climate, José Calvo Sotelo
José Calvo Sotelo
sentence "Would be crazy the militaryman who was not willing to revolt against the anarchy if this were to occur", was killed by Guardia Civil militiamen in 1936.

See also: List of people of the Spanish Civil War

Figures identified with the Republican side

Politicians or military

Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
(Republican) Santiago Carrillo
Santiago Carrillo
(Communist) Julio Álvarez del Vayo
Julio Álvarez del Vayo
(Socialist) Valentín González ("El Campesino") (Communist) Dolores Ibárruri
Dolores Ibárruri
("La Pasionaria") (Communist) Francisco Largo Caballero
Francisco Largo Caballero
(Socialist) Diego Martínez Barrio
Diego Martínez Barrio
(Republican) Lluís Companys
Lluís Companys
(Republican and federalist) Juan Negrín
Juan Negrín
(Socialist) Andrés Nin
Andrés Nin
(Communist) Indalecio Prieto
Indalecio Prieto
(Socialist) Buenaventura Durruti
Buenaventura Durruti

Others identified with the Republican side (including volunteers)

W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
(poet) Robert Capa
Robert Capa
(photojournalist) Dezső Révai
Dezső Révai
(photojournalist) Pablo Casals
Pablo Casals
(cellist, conductor) Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca
(poet, dramatist – assassinated) Martha Gellhorn
Martha Gellhorn
(writer, journalist) Egon Erwin Kisch
Egon Erwin Kisch
(writer, journalist) Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
(painter, sculptor) Rafael Alberti
Rafael Alberti
(poet, communist) Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
(author, journalist) John Dos Passos
John Dos Passos
(novelist) José Robles
José Robles
(academic, activist) Laurie Lee
Laurie Lee
(poet, novelist, screenwriter) George Orwell
George Orwell
(novelist, journalist) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(filmmaker) Miguel Hernández
Miguel Hernández
(poet) Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
(poet) Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez (journalist, philosopher) Žikica Jovanović Španac
Žikica Jovanović Španac

Figures identified with the Nationalist side


Millán Astray (Spain) Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
(Spain) Miguel Cabanellas
Miguel Cabanellas
(Spain) José Sanjurjo
José Sanjurjo
(Spain) Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
(Spain) Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
(Spain, received money from UK embassy to lobby against Spain
joining the Axis in World War II) Juan Yagüe
Juan Yagüe
(Spain) Hugo Sperrle
Hugo Sperrle
(Germany) Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma
Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma
(Germany) Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen
Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen
(Germany) Mario Roatta
Mario Roatta
(Italy) Ettore Bastico
Ettore Bastico


Pedro Muñoz Seca
Pedro Muñoz Seca
(playwright – assassinated) Ramón Serrano Suñer
Ramón Serrano Suñer
(politician, Franco's brother in law, favorable to Germans) Roy Campbell (poet, South Africa)

Political parties and organizations[edit]

Political parties and organizations in the Spanish Civil War

The Popular Front (Republican) Supporters of the Popular Front (Republican) Nationalists (Francoist)

The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in 1936, in which the alliance won a majority of seats.

UR (Unión Republicana - Republican Union): Led by Diego Martínez Barrio, formed in 1934 by members of the PRR, who had resigned in objection to Alejandro Lerroux's coalition with the CEDA. It drew its main support from skilled workers and progressive businessmen. IR (Izquierda Republicana - Republican Left): Led by former Prime Minister Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
after his Republican Action party merged with Santiago Casares Quiroga's Galician independence party and the Radical Socialist Republican Party (PRRS). It drew its support from skilled workers, small businessmen, and civil servants. Azaña led the Popular Front and became president of Spain. The IR formed the bulk of the first government after the Popular Front victory with members of the UR and the ERC. ERC (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya - Republican Left of Catalonia): Created from the merging of the separatist Estat Català (Catalan State) and the Catalan Republican Party in 1931. It controlled the autonomous government of Catalonia
during the republican period. Throughout the war it was led by Lluís Companys, also president of the Generalitat of Catalonia. PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español - Spanish Socialist Workers' Party): Formed in 1879, its alliance with Acción Republicana in municipal elections in 1931 saw a landslide victory that led to the King's abdication and the creation of the Second Republic. The two parties won the subsequent general election, but the PSOE left the coalition in 1933. At the time of the Civil War, the PSOE was split between a right wing under Indalecio Prieto
Indalecio Prieto
and Juan Negrín, and a left wing under Largo Caballero. Following the Popular Front victory, it was the second largest party in the Cortes, after the CEDA. It supported the ministries of Azaña and Quiroga, but did not actively participate until the Civil War began. It had majority support amongst urban manual workers.

UGT ( Unión General de Trabajadores
Unión General de Trabajadores
- General Union of Workers): The socialist trade union. The UGT was formally linked to the PSOE, and the bulk of the union followed Caballero. Federacion de Juventudes Socialistas (Federation of Socialist Youth)

PSUC (Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya - Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia): An alliance of various socialist parties in Catalonia, formed in the summer of 1936, controlled by the PCE. JSU (Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas - Unified Socialist Youth): Militant youth group formed by the merger of the Socialist and the Communist youth groups. Its leader, Santiago Carrillo, came from the Socialist Youth, but had secretly joined the Communist Youth prior to merger, and the group was soon dominated by the PCE. PCE (Partido Comunista de España - Communist Party of Spain): Led by José Díaz in the Civil War, it had been a minor party during the early years of the Republic, but grew in importance during the war. POUM
(Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista - Worker's Party of Marxist Unification): An anti-Stalinist revolutionary communist party of former Trotskyists formed in 1935 by Andreu Nin.

JCI (Juventud Comunista Ibérica - Iberian Communist Youth): the POUM's youth movement.

PS (Partido Sindicalista - Syndicalist Party): a moderate splinter group of CNT.

Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (Republican Anti-fascist Military Union): Formed by military officers in opposition to the Unión Militar Española. Anarchist groups. The anarchists boycotted the 1936 Cortes election and initially opposed the Popular Front government, but joined during the Civil War when Largo Caballero became Prime Minister.

CNT ( Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
- National Confederation of Labour): The confederation of anarcho-syndicalist trade unions. FAI ( Federación Anarquista Ibérica
Federación Anarquista Ibérica
- Iberian Anarchist Federation): The federation of anarchist groups, very active in the Republican militias. Mujeres Libres
Mujeres Libres
(Free Women): The anarchist feminist organisation. FIJL (Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias - Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth)

Catalan nationalists.

Estat Català
Estat Català
(Catalan State): Catalan separatist party created back in 1922. Founding part of ERC in 1931, it sided with the Republican faction during the war.

Basque nationalists.

PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco - Basque Nationalist Party): A Catholic Christian Democrat party under José Antonio Aguirre, which campaigned for greater autonomy or independence for the Basque region. Held seats in the Cortes and supported the Popular Front government before and during the Civil War. Put its religious disagreement with the Popular Front aside for a promised Basque autonomy. ANV (Acción Nacionalista Vasca - Basque Nationalist Action): A leftist Socialist party, which at the same time campaigned for independence of the Basque region. STV (Solidaridad de Trabajadores Vascos - Basque Workers' Solidarity): A trade union in the Basque region, with a Catholic clerical tradition combined with moderate socialist tendencies.

SRI (Socorro Rojo Internacional - International Red Aid): Communist organization allied with the Comintern
that provided considerable aid to Republican civilians and soldiers. International Brigades: pro-Republican military units made up of anti-fascist Socialist, Communist and anarchist volunteers from different countries.

Virtually all Nationalist groups had very strong Roman Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy.

Unión Militar Española (Spanish Military Union) - a conservative political organisation of officers in the armed forces, including outspoken critics of the Republic like Francisco Franco. Formed in 1934, the UME secretly courted fascist Italy from its inception. Already conspiring against the Republic in January 1936, after the electoral victory of the Popular Front in February it plotted a coup with monarchist and fascist groups in Spain. In the run-up to the Civil War, it was led by Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
and José Sanjurjo, and latterly Franco. Alfonsist Monarchist - supported the restoration of Alfonso XIII. Many army officers, aristocrats, and landowners were Alfonsine, but there was little popular support.

Renovación Española
Renovación Española
(Spanish Restoration) - the main Alfonsine political party. Acción Española
Acción Española
(Spanish Action) - an integral nationalist party led by José Calvo Sotelo, formed in 1933 around a journal of the same name edited by political theorist and journalist Ramiro de Maeztu.

Bloque Nacional (National Block) - the militia movement founded by Calvo Sotelo.

Monarchist - supported Alfonso Carlos I de Borbón y Austria-Este's claim to the Spanish throne and saw the Alfonsine line as having been weakened by Liberalism. After Alfonso Carlos died without issue, the Carlists
split - some supporting Carlos' appointed regent, Francisco-Xavier de Borbón-Parma, others supporting Alfonso XIII or the Falange. The Carlists
were clerical hard-liners led by the aristocracy, with a populist base amongst the farmers and rural workers of Navarre
providing the militia.

Comunión Tradicionalista
Comunión Tradicionalista
(Traditionalist Communion) - the Carlist political party

(Volunteers) - militia movement. Pelayos - militant youth movement, named after Pelayo of Asturias. Margaritas - women's movement, named after Margarita de Borbón-Parma, wife of Carlist
pretender Charles VII (1868-1909).

Falange (Phalanx):

FE (Falange Española de las JONS) - created by a merger in 1934 of two fascist organisations, Primo de Rivera's Falange (Phalanx), founded in 1933, and Ramiro Ledesma's Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Assemblies of National-Syndicalist Offensive), founded in 1931. It became a mass movement when it was joined by members of Acción Popular and by Acción Católica, led by Ramón Serrano Súñer.

OJE (Organización Juvenil Española) - militant youth movement. Sección Femenina (Feminine Section) - women's movement in labour of Social Aid.

Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS
Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS
- created by a merger in 1937 of the FE and the Carlist
party, bringing the remaining political and militia components of the Nationalist side under Franco's ultimate authority.

CEDA - coalition party founded by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones whose ideology ranged from Christian democracy to conservative. Although they supported Franco's rebellion, the party was dissolved in 1937, after most members and militants joined FE and Gil-Robles went to exile.

Juventudes de Acción Popular, also known as the JAP. The fascistised youth wing of the CEDA. In 1936 they suffered a drain of militants, who joined the Falange.

See also[edit]

List of foreign ships wrecked or lost in the Spanish Civil War Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic The Falling Soldier Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War List of war films and TV specials# Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(1936–1939) List of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War List of surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Polish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War European Civil War Spain
in World War II SS Cantabria
(1919) Pacifism in Spain Spanish Republican Armed Forces Art and culture in Francoist Spain Revisionism (Spain)

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Soviet Union
portal Spain
portal War portal

portal Fascism
portal Communism
portal Conservatism portal Liberalism
portal Socialism

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Also known as The Crusade (Spanish: La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist
War (Spanish: Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (Spanish: La Rebelión) or Uprising (Spanish: Sublevación) among Republicans. ^ Known in Spanish as the Falange Española de las JONS. ^ Westwell (2004) gives a figure of 500 million Reichmarks. ^ Since Beevor (2006). p. 82. suggests 7,000 members of some 115,000 clergy were killed, the proportion could well be lower. ^ See variously: Bennett, Scott, Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 2003; Prasad, Devi, War is A Crime Against Humanity: The Story of War Resisters' International, London, WRI, 2005. Also see Hunter, Allan, White Corpsucles in Europe, Chicago, Willett, Clark & Co., 1939; and Brown, H. Runham, Spain: A Challenge to Pacifism, London, The Finsbury Press, 1937.


^ Thomas (1961). p. 491. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 488. ^ a b Sandler, Stanley (2002). Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 160.  ^ Manuel Álvaro Dueñas, 2009, p. 126. ^ Casanova 1999 ^ see Death toll section ^ Payne (2012). p. 231. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 43 ^ Preston (2006). p. 84. ^ a b Payne (1973). pp. 200–203. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 88. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 86–87. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 260–271. ^ Julius Ruiz. El Terror Rojo (2011). pp. 200–211. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 7. ^ Preston (2006). p. 19. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 13. ^ Preston (2006). p. 21. ^ Preston (2006). p. 22. ^ Preston (2006). p. 24. ^ Fraser (1979). pp. 38–39. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 24–26. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 15. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 32–33. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 15. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 16. ^ Beevor (2006) p. 20-22. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 20. ^ Beevor (2006) p. 23. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 38–39. ^ Beevor (2006) p.26. ^ Preston (2006). p. 50. ^ Preston (2006). p. 42. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 22. ^ Mariano boza Puerta, Miguel Ángel Sánchez Herrador, El martirio de los libros: Una aproximación a la destrucción bibliográfica durante la Guerra Civil (PDF)  ^ Juan García Durán, Sobre la Guerra Civil, su gran producción bibliografía y sus pequeñas lagunas de investigación.  ^ Preston (2006). pp. 45–48. ^ Preston (2006). p. 53. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 47. ^ Preston (2006). p. 61. ^ Casanova (2010). p. 90. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 54–55. ^ Hansen, Edward C. (2 January 1984). "The Anarchists of Casas Viejas ( Book
Review)". Ethnohistory. 31 (3): 235–236. doi:10.2307/482644. Retrieved 13 August 2015.  ^ Beevor (2006). p. 27. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 66–67. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 67–68. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 63–65. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 62. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 69–70. ^ Preston (2006). p. 70. ^ Preston (2006). p. 83. ^ Beevor, Antony (2006). The Battle for Spain: the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. New York: Penguin Books. pp. 27–30. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 78. ^ a b c Preston (2006). p. 81. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 82–83. ^ Payne (1973). p. 642. ^ Preston (2006). p. 93. ^ a b c d Preston (2006). p. 94. ^ a b c d e f Preston (1983). pp. 4–10. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 94–95. ^ Preston (2006). p. 95. ^ a b Preston (2006). p. 96. ^ Alpert, Michael BBC History Magazine April 2002 ^ a b Preston (2006). p. 98. ^ a b c d e Preston (2006), p. 99. ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 196–198, 309 ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 196–198, 309. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 126. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 55–56. ^ a b Preston (2006). p. 102. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 56. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 56–57. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 58–59. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 59. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 60–61. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 62. ^ Chomsky (1969). ^ Beevor (2006). p. 69. ^ Beevor (2001) pp. 55-61 ^ Preston (2006). pp. 102–3. ^ Westwell (2004). p. 9. ^ a b Howson (1998). p. 28. ^ Westwell (2004). p. 10. ^ Howson (1998). p. 20. ^ a b Howson (1998). p. 21. ^ Alpert, Michael (2008). La guerra civil española en el mar. Barcelona: Crítica. ISBN 978-84-8432-975-6.  ^ Howson (1998). pp. 21–22. ^ Hugh Thomas (2001). The Spanish Civil War.  ^ a b c Beevor (2006). Chapter 21. ^ Beevor (1982). pp. 42–43. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1970), The Spanish Revolution, OCLC 54588, p. 315 ^ Payne (1970), p. 315 ^ James Matthews, Our Red Soldiers': The Nationalist Army's Management of its Left-Wing Conscripts in the Spanish Civil War
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and the great powers in the twentieth century. London, UK; New York, USA: Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-415-18078-8.  ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 938–939. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 116, 133, 143, 148, 174, 427. ^ a b Thomas (1961). p. 635. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 198. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 116. ^ David Deacon, British News Media and the Spanish Civil War
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(2008) p 171 ^ Richard Overy, The Twilight Years: The Paradox of Britain Between the Wars (2009) pp 319–40 ^ A. J. P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (1965) pp 393–98 ^ Othen (2008). p. 102. ^ Casanova (2010). p. 225. ^ Mittermaier (2010). p. 195. ^ a b c Thomas (1961). p. 637. ^ Thomas (1961). pp. 638–639. ^ Deletant (1999). p. 20. ^ "Review of O'Riordan's memoir".  ^ Benton, Pieke (1998). p. 215. ^ Howson (1998). p. 125. ^ Payne (2004). p. 156. ^ a b Payne (2004). pp. 156–157. ^ a b Beevor (2006). pp. 152–153. ^ Howson (1998). pp. 126–129. ^ Howson (1998). p. 134. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 153–154. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 163. ^ Graham (2005). p. 92. ^ Thomas (2003). p. 944. ^ Richardson (2015). pp. 31–40 ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 273, 246. ^ VIDAL, Cesar. La guerra que gano Franco. Madrid, 2008. p.256 ^ a b c Beevor (2006). pp. 139–14. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 291. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 412–413. ^ a b Alpert (1994). p. 14. ^ Alpert (1994). pp. 14–15. ^ Alpert (1994). pp. 20, 23. ^ a b Alpert (1994). p. 41. ^ a b Alpert (1994). p. 43. ^ "Potez 540/542". Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.  ^ Alpert (1994). pp. 46–47. ^ Werstein (1969). p. 139. ^ Alpert (1994). p. 47. ^ Payne (2008). p. 28. ^ Lukeš, Goldstein (1999). p. 176. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 71. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 96. ^ Thomas (1961). p. 162. ^ Red: Beevor (2006). pp. 81–87. ^ White: Beevor (2006). pp. 88–94. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 73–74. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 116–117. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 144 ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 146–147. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 143 ^ Timmermans, Rodolphe. 1937. Heroes of the Alcazar. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York ^ Beevor (2006). p. 121 ^ Casanova (2010). p. 109. ^ Cleugh (1962). p. 90. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 150 ^ Beevor (2006). p. 177 ^ Beevor (2006). p. 171. ^ Comín Colomer, Eduardo (1973); El 5º Regimiento de Milicias Populares. Madrid. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 177–183. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 191–192. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 200–201. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 202. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 208–215. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 216–221. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 222. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 223–226. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 228. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 229. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 231–232. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 233. ^ a b Beevor (2006). pp. 263–273. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 277. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 235. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 277–284. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 296–299. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 237. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 237–238. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 302. ^ Payne (1973). ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 315–322. ^ Thomas (2003). pp. 820–821. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 346–7. ^ a b Beevor (2006). pp. 349–359. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 362. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 374. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 376. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 378. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 380. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 386. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 391–392. ^ Thomas (2003), pp. 879–882. ^ Beevor (2001). p. 256 ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 394–395. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 396–397. ^ Derby (2009). p. 28. ^ Professor Hilton (27 October 2005). "Spain: Repression under Franco after the Civil War". Cgi.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2009.  ^ Tremlett, Giles (1 December 2003). " Spain
torn on tribute to victims of Franco". London: Guardian. Retrieved 24 June 2009.  ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 405. ^ Caistor, Nick (28 February 2003). " Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
fighters look back". BBC News. Retrieved 24 June 2009.  ^ Winnipeg, el poema que cruzó el Atlántico (in Spanish) ^ a b Film documentary on the website of the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration (in French) ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 421–422. ^ "The Roman salute
Roman salute
characteristic of Italian fascism was first adopted by the PNE and the JONS, later spreading to the Falange and other extreme right groups, before it became the official salute in Franco's Spain. The JAP salute, which consisted of stretching the right arm horizontally to touch the left shoulder enjoyed only relatively little acceptance. The gesture of the raised fist, so widespread among left-wing workers' groups, gave rise to more regimented variations, such as the salute with the fist on one's temple, characteristic of the German Rotfront, which was adopted by the republican Popular Army". The Splintering of Spain, p. 36–37 ^ a b Daniel Kowalsky. "The Evacuation of Spanish Children to the Soviet Union". Gutenburg E. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 16 August 2011.  ^ "History of the arrival of the Basque Children to England in 1937". BasqueChildren.org. Basque Children of '37 Association. Retrieved 16 August 2011.  ^ "Wales and the refugee children of the Basque country". BBC Wales. 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2016-05-27.  ^ Buchanan (1997). pp. 109–110. ^ "Los Niños of Southampton". The Dustbin of History. Retrieved 2016-05-29.  ^ highest considered estimate; "la guerra civil fue una espantosa calamidad en la que todas las clases y todos los partidos perdieron. Además del millión o dos milliones de muertos, la salud del pueblo se ha visto minada por su secuela de hambre y enfermedades", Brennan, Gerald (1978), El laberinto español. Antecedentes sociales y políticos de la guerra civil, ISBN 9788485361038, p. 20 ^ quoted as "usual estimate", Lee, Stephen J. (2000), European Dictatorships, 1918-1945, ISBN 9780415230452, p. 248; "a reasonable estimate, and a rather conservative one", Howard Griffin, John, Simon, Yves René (1974), Jacques Maritain: Homage in Words and Pictures, ISBN 9780873430463, p. 11; military casualties only, Ash, Russell (2003), The Top 10 of Everything 2004, ISBN 9780789496591, p. 68; lowest considered estimate, Brennan (1978), p. 20. The phrase of "one million dead" became a cliche since the 1960s, and many older Spaniards
might repeat that "yo siempre había escuchado lo del millon de muertos", compare burbuja service, available here. This is so due to extreme popularity of a 1961 novel Un millón de muertos by José María Gironella, even though the author many times declared that he had in mind those "muerto espiritualmente", referred after Nicolas, Juan Diez (1985), La mortalidad en la Guerra Civil Española, [in:] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica III/1, p. 42. Scholars claim also that the figure of "one million deaths" was continuously repeated by Francoist authorities "to drive home the point of having saved the country form ruin", Encarnación, Omar G. (2008), Spanish Politics: Democracy
After Dictatorship, ISBN 9780745639925, p. 24, and became one of the "mitos principales del franquismo", referred as "myth no. 9" in Reig Tapia, Alberto (2017), La crítica de la crítica: Inconsecuentes, insustanciales, impotentes, prepotentes y equidistantes, ISBN 9788432318658 ^ Nadeau, Jean-Benoit, Barlow, Julie (2013), The Story of Spanish, ISBN 9781250023162, p. 283 ^ maximum considered estimate, Griffin, Julia Ortiz, Griffin, William D. (2007), Spain
and Portugal: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present, ISBN 9780816074761, p. 49 ^ "the war cost about 750,000 Spanish lives", A Dictionary of World History (2006), ISBN 9780192807007, p. 602 ^ Coatsworth, John, Cole, Juan, Hanagan, Michael P., Perdue, Peter C., Tilly, Charles, Tilly, Louise (2015), Global Connections, ISBN 9780521761062, p. 379; divided into 700,000 died "in battle", 30,000 executed and 15,000 of air raids, Dupuy, R. Ernest, Dupuy, Trevor N. (1977), The Encyclopedia of Military History, ISBN 0060111399, p. 1032, the same breakdown in The Encyclopedia of World History (2001), ISBN 9780395652374, p. 692, and in Teed, Peter (1992),A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century History, ISBN 0192852078, p. 439 ^ 600,000 killed during the war + 100,000 executed afterwards, Tucker, Spencer C. (2016), World War II: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection, ISBN 9781851099696, p. 1563 ^ Jeanes, Ike (1996), Forecast and Solution: Grappling with the Nuclear, a Trilogy for Everyone, ISBN 9780936015620, p. 131 ^ Del Amo, Maria (2006), Cuando La Higuera Este Brotando..., ISBN 9781597541657, p. 28 ^ including war-related executions until 1961, death above average due to illness etc, Salas Larrazabal, Ramón (1977), Pérdidas de la guerra, ISBN 8432002852, pp. 428-429 ^ including 285,000 KIA, 125,000 civilians "due to war directed causes", 200,000 malnutrition., Sandler, Stanley (2002), Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, vol. 1, ISBN 9781576073445, p. 160 ^ Nash, Jay Robert (1976), Darkest Hours, ISBN 9781590775264, p. 775 ^ 285,000 in combat, 125,000 executed, 200,000 of malnutrition, Thomas, Hugh (1961), The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(and other initial editions), referred after Clodfelter, Micheal (2017), Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, ISBN 9780786474707, p. 339 ^ 100,000 in combat, 220,000 rearguard terror, 10,000 in air raids, 200,000 after-war terror, 50,000 malnutrition etc; Jackson, Gabriel (1965), The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931-1939, ISBN 9780691007571, referred after Clodfelter (2017), p. 338; including 50,000 of post-war terror, Smele, Jonathan D. (2015), Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926, ISBN 9781442252813, p. 253 ^ Gallo, Max (1974), Spain
under Franco: a history, ISBN 9780525207504, p. 70 ^ delta between the total number of deaths recorded in 1936-1942 and the total which would have resulted from extrapolating average annual death total from the 1926-1935 period, Ortega, José Antonio, Silvestre, Javier (2006), Las consecuencias demográficas, [in:] Aceńa, Pablo Martín (ed.), La economía de la guerra civil, ISBN 9788496467330, p. 76 ^ approximate, excluding post-war terror; Hepworth, Andrea (2017), Site of memory and dismemory: the Valley of the Fallen in Spain, [in:] Gigliotti, Simone, The Memorialization of Genocide, ISBN 9781317394167, p. 77; highest considered estimate, Seidman, Michael (2011), The Victorious Counterrevolution: The Nationalist Effort in the Spanish Civil War, ISBN 9780299249632, p. 172; Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2008), ISBN 9781593394929, p. 1795; 200,000 in combat, 125,000 executed, 175,000 of malnutrition, Thomas, Hugh (1977), The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(and later editions), referred after Clodfelter (2017), p. 339; Nowa encyklopedia powszechna PWN (1995), vol. 2, ISBN 830111097X, p. 778; „probably over..’’ and including 300,000 KIA, Palmer, Alan (1990), Penguin Dictionary of Twentieth-Century History, ISBN 0140511881, p. 371; KIA + victims of terror only, Lowe, Norman (2013), Mastering modern history, London 2013, ISBN 9781137276940, p. 345; at least, "lost their lives", Palmowski, Jan (2008), The Dictionary of Contemporary World History, ISBN 9780199295678, p. 643 ^ at most 300,000 "violent deaths" + 165,000 above average deaths, Payne, Stanley G. (1987), The Franco Regime, ISBN 9780299110741, pp. 219-220 ^ highest considered estimate, Du Souich, Felipe (2011), Apuntes de Historia de Espana Para Los Amigos, ISBN 9781447527336, p. 62; "at least", "killed", Quigley, Caroll (2004), Tragedy and Hope. A History of the World in our Time, ISBN 094500110X, p. 604 ^ De Miguel, Amando (1987), Significación demográfica de la guerra civil, [in:] Santos Juliá Díaz (ed.), Socialismo y guerra civil, ISBN 8485691350, p. 193 ^ 200,000 KIA, 200,000 executed, 20,000 executed after the war, excluding "unknown numbers" of civilians killed in military action and "many more" died of malnutrition etc., Preston, Paul (2012), The Spanish holocaust, ISBN 9780393239669, p. xi ^ Batchelor, Dawho hn (2011), The Mystery on Highway 599, ISBN 9781456734756, p. 57 ^ highest considered estimate, Jackson, Gabriel (2005), La Republica Espanola y la Guerra Civil, ISBN 8447336336, p. 14 ^ Chislett, William (2013), Spain: What Everyone Needs to Know?, ISBN 9780199936458, p. 42; "probably", Spielvogel, Jackon J. (2013), Western Civilization: A Brief History, ISBN 9781133606765, p. 603; Mourre, Michel (1978), Dictionaire Encyclopedique d’Histoire, vol. 3, ISBN 204006513X, p. 1636; broken down into 200,000 KIA and 200,000 executed, Bradford, James. C (2006), International Encyclopedia of Military History, vol. 2, ISBN 0415936616, p. 1209 ^ highest considered estimate, Bowen, Wayne H. (2006), Spain
During World War II, ISBN 9780826265159, p. 113 ^ White, Matthew (2011), Atrocitology: Humanity's 100 Deadliest Achievements, ISBN 9780857861252, p. LXIX; broken down into 200,000 KIA, 130,000 executed, 25,000 of malnutrition and 10,000 of air raids, Johnson, Paul (1984), A History of the Modern World, ISBN 0297784757, p. 339 ^ Julia, Santos, (1999), Victimas de la guerra, ISBN 9788478809837, referred after Richards, Michael (2006), El régimen de Franco y la política de memoria de la guerra civil española, [in:] Aróstegui, Julio, Godicheau, François (eds.), Guerra Civil: mito y memoria, ISBN 9788496467125, p. 173; Richards, Michael (2013), After the Civil War: Making Memory and Re-Making Spain
Since 1936, ISBN 9780521899345, p. 6; Renshaw, Layla (2016), Exhuming Loss: Memory, Materiality and Mass Graves of the Spanish Civil War, ISBN 9781315428680, p. 22 ^ delta between the total number of deaths recorded in 1936-1939 and the total which would have resulted from extrapolating average annual death total from the 1926-1935 period, Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 76 ^ does not include post-war losses, Payne, Stanley G. (2012), The Spanish Civil War, ISBN 9780521174701, p. 245 ^ lowest considered estimate, Du Souich (2011), p. 62; lowest considered estimate, Jackson (2005), p. 14 ^ "at least", Hart, Stephen M. (1998), "!No Pasarán!": Art, Literature and the Spanish Civil War, ISBN 9780729302869, p. 16, Preston, Paul (2003), The Politics of Revenge: Fascism
and the Military in 20th-century Spain, ISBN 9781134811137, p. 40; lowest considered estimate, Seidman, Michael (2011), The Victorious Counterrevolution: The Nationalist Effort in the Spanish Civil War, ISBN 9780299249632, p. 172; Camps, Pedro Montoliú (2005), Madrid en la Posguerra, ISBN 9788477371595, p. 375, 'at most", excluding deaths from malnutrition etc, The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2017), vol. 11, ISBN 9781593392925, p. 69; of which 140,000 in combat, Большая Российская энциклопедия, (2008), vol. 12, ISBN 9785852703439, p. 76 ^ highest considered estimate, 150,000 in combat and 140,000 executed, Moa, Pio (2015), Los mitos del franquismo, ISBN 9788490603741, p. 44 ^ "at least", Hitchcock, William L. (2008), The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent 1945 to the Present, ISBN 9780307491404, p. 271 ^ 100,000 in combat, 136,000 executed, 30,000 other causes,. Muñoz, Miguel A. (2009), Reflexiones en torno a nuestro pasado, ISBN 9788499231464, p. 375 ^ lowest considered estimate, 145,000 in combat and 110,000 executed, Moa (2015), p. 44 ^ lowest considered estimate, Bowen (2006), p. 113 ^ 103,000 executed during the war, 28,000 executed afterwards, around 100,000 KIA, Martínez de Baños Carrillo, Fernando, Szafran, Agnieszka (2011), El general Walter, ISBN 9788492888061, p. 324 ^ see e.g. the monumental Historia de España Menéndez Pidal, (2005), vol. XL, ISBN 8467013060 ^ Encyclopedia de Historia de España (1991), vol. 5, ISBN 8420652415 ^ Diccionario Espasa Historia de España y América (2002), ISBN 8467003162 ^ "provocó un número de caidós en combate sin precedentes,casi tantos como los muertos y desaparecidos en la retaguardia", Diccionario de historia y política del siglo XX (2001), ISBN 843093703X, p. 316 ^ Tusell, Javier, Martín, José Luis, Shaw, Carlos (2001), Historia de España: La edad contemporánea, vol. 2, ISBN 9788430604357, Pérez, Joseph (1999), Historia de España, ISBN 9788474238655, Tusell, Javier (2007), Historia de España en el siglo XX, vol. 2, ISBN 9788430606306 ^ e.g. Stanley G. Payne reduced his earlier estimate of 465,000 (at most 300,000 "violent deaths" with 165,000 deaths from malnutrition which "must be added", Payne (1987), p. 220) to 344,000 (also "violent deaths" and malnutrition victims, Payne (2012), p. 245); Hugh Thomas in The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
editions from the 1960s opted for 600,000 (285,000 KIA, 125,000 executed, 200,000 malnutrition), in editions from the 1970s he reduced the figure to 500,000 (200,000 KIA, 125,000 executed, 175,000 malnutrition), referred after Clodfeler (2017), p. 383 and with slight revisions kept reproducing the figure also in last editions published before his death, compare Thomas, Hugh (2003), La Guerra Civil Española, vol. 2, ISBN 8497598229, p. 993; Gabriel Jackson went down from 580,000 (including 420,000 victims of war and post-war terror), see Jackson (1965) to a range of 405,000-330,000 (including 220,000 to 170,000 victims of war and post-war terror), Jackson (2005), p. 14 ^ Jackson (1965), p. 412, Muñoz (2009), p. 375 ^ Dupuy, Dupuy (1977), p. 1032, Teed (1992), 439 ^ Martínez de Baños, Szafran (2011), p. 324 ^ Jackson (1965), p. 412 ^ Jackson (1965), p. 412 ^ Dupuy, Dupuy (1977), p. 1032 ^ Moa (2015), p. 44 ^ Tucker (2016), p. 1563, ^ Muñoz (2009), p. 375 ^ Thomas (1961) ^ Larrazabal (1977), pp. 428-429 ^ Jackson (1965), p. 412 ^ Sandler (2002), p. 160 ^ Larrazabal (1977), pp. 428-429 ^ Larrazabal (1977), pp. 428-429 ^ Larrazabal (1977), pp. 428-429 ^ Larrazabal (1977), pp. 428-429 ^ highest considered estimate, Payne (2012), p. 245 ^ Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 76; slightly different figures, 344,000 and 558,000, in earlier study completed using the same method, see Nicolas (1985), p. 48 ^ only those who did not return to Spain, Payne (1987), p. 220 ^ Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 80; the number of migrants usually quoted is 450,000, which refers only to these who crossed to France
in the first months of 1939, López, Fernando Martínez (2010), París, ciudad de acogida: el exilio español durante los siglos XIX y XX, ISBN 9788492820122, p. 252 ^ "a deficit of approximately a half million births resulted", Payne (1987), p. 218 ^ delta between actual birth totals for 1936-1942 and birth totals which would have resulted from extrapolating average annual birth totals from the 1926-1935 period, Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 67 ^ "Men of La Mancha". The Economist. 22 June 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2011.  ^ Julius Ruiz (2007). "Defending the Republic: The García Atadell Brigade in Madrid, 1936". Journal of Contemporary History. 42 (1): 97. doi:10.1177/0022009407071625.  ^ "Spanish judge opens case into Franco's atrocities". New York Times. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2009.  ^ Beevor (2006). p. 92. ^ Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Martínez-Velasco, Antxoka; Pringle, Jamie K.; Aguilera, Hector-David. "Discovery of a mass grave from the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
using Ground Penetrating Radar and forensic archaeology". Forensic Science International. 267: e10–e17. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.05.040.  ^ Graham (2005). p. 30. ^ Preston (2006). p. 307. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 86–87. ^ Jackson (1967). p. 305. ^ a b Thomas (2001). p. 268. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 98 ^ Paul Preston
Paul Preston
(19 January 2008). " Paul Preston
Paul Preston
lecture: The Crimes of Franco" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2011.  ^ Beevor (2006). p. 94. ^ a b c Beevor (2006). pp. 88–89. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 89. ^ Preston (2007). p. 121. ^ Jackson (1967). p. 377. ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 253–255. ^ Santos et al. (1999). p. 229. ^ Preston (2006). pp. 120–123. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 91. ^ Balfour, Sebastian. " Spain
from 1931 to the Present". Spain: a History. Ed. Raymond Carr. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 257. Print. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 93. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 236–237. ^ Preston (2006). p. 302. ^ Bieter, Bieter (2003). p. 91. ^ a b Beevor (2006). pp. 82–83. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 82. ^ Seidman (2011). p. 205. ^ Wieland (2002). p. 47. ^ Westwell (2004). p. 31. ^ "Shots of War: Photojournalism During the Spanish Civil War". Orpheus.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 24 June 2009.  ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 81. ^ Antonio Montero Moreno, Historia de la persecucion religiosa en Espana 1936–1939 (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1961) ^ Payne (1973). p. 649. ^ Bowen (2006). p. 22. ^ Ealham, Richards (2005). pp. 80, 168. ^ Hubert Jedin; John Dolan (1981). History of the Church. Continuum. p. 607. ISBN 978-0-86012-092-6.  ^ a b c Beevor (2006). p. 84. ^ a b c Beevor (2006). p. 85. ^ Preston (2006). ^ Beevor (2006). p. 83. ^ a b c Thomas (1961). p. 176. ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 172–173. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 161. ^ a b c Beevor (2006). pp. 272–273. ^ a b Beevor (2006). p. 87. ^ a b Beevor (2006). pp. 102–122. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 40. ^ Payne (1999). p. 151. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 253. ^ Arnaud Imatz, "La vraie mort de Garcia Lorca" 2009 40 NRH, 31–34, pp. 32–33. ^ Beevor (2006). p. 255. ^ Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, El pueblo español tiene un camino que conduce a una estrella (maqueta) (There Is a Way for the Spanish People That Leads to a Star [Maquette]). ^ Museum of Modern Art. ^ Pablo Picasso. ^ SUNY Oneota, Picasso's Guernica. ^ a b Stanley Meisler, For Joan Miro, Painting and Poetry Were the Same. ^ TATE, 'The Reaper': Miró's Civil War protest.

Bibliography and books by noted authors[edit]

Alpert, Michael (2004) [1994]. A New International History of the Spanish Civil War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1171-1. OCLC 155897766.  Alpert, Michael (2013). The Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02873-9.  Beevor, Antony (2001) [The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(1982)]. The Spanish Civil War. London: Penguin Group. ISBN 0-14-100148-8.  Beevor, Antony (2006) [The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(1982)]. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
1936–1939. London: Weidenfield & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84832-1.  Benton, Gregor; Pieke, Frank N. (1998). The Chinese in Europe. Macmillan. p. 390. ISBN 0-333-66913-4. Retrieved 14 July 2010.  Bieter, John; Bieter, Mark (2003). An Enduring Legacy: The Story of Basques in Idaho. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-568-4.  Bolloten, Burnett (1979). The Spanish Revolution. The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. University of North Carolina. ISBN 1-84212-203-7.  Borkenau, Franz (1937). The Spanish Cockpit : an Eye-Witness Account of the Political and Social Conflicts of the Spanish Civil War. London: Faber and Faber.  Bowen, Wayne H (2006). Spain
During World War II. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1658-8.  Brenan, Gerald (1993) [1943]. The Spanish Labyrinth: an account of the social and political background of the Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39827-5. OCLC 38930004.  Buchanan, Tom (1997). Britain and the Spanish Civil War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45569-3.  Casanova, Julián (2010). The Spanish Republic and Civil War. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73780-7.  Cleugh, James (1962). Spanish Fury: The Story of a Civil War. London: Harrap. OCLC 2613142.  Cohen, Yehuda (2012). The Spanish: Shadows of Embarrassment. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-392-8.  Coverdale, John F. (2002). Uncommon faith: the early years of Opus Dei, 1928–1943. New York: Scepter. ISBN 978-1-889334-74-5.  Cox, Geoffrey (1937). The Defence of Madrid. London: Victor Gollancz. OCLC 4059942.  Dawson, Ashley (2013). The Routledge Concise History of Twentieth-century British Literature. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57245-3.  Derby, Mark (2009). Kiwi Companeros: New Zealand and the Spanish Civil War. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. ISBN 978-1-877257-71-1.  Ealham, Chris; Richards, Michael (2005). The Splintering of Spain. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511497025. ISBN 978-0-521-82178-0.  Graham, Helen (2005). The Spanish Civil War: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/actrade/9780192803771.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-280377-1.  Hemingway, Ernest (1938). The Fifth Column. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-0-684-10238-2.  Hemingway, Ernest (1940). For Whom The Bell Tolls. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80335-7.  Howson, Gerald (1998). Arms for Spain. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-24177-1. OCLC 231874197.  Jackson, Gabriel (1965). The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931–1939. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00757-8. OCLC 185862219.  Jackson, Gabriel (1974). The Cruel Years: The Story of the Spanish Civil War. New York: John Day.  Kisch, Egon Erwin (1939). The three cows (translated from the German by Stewart Farrar). London: Fore Publications.  Koestler, Arthur (1983). Dialogue with death. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-34776-5. OCLC 16604744.  Kowalsky, Daniel (2008). Stalin and the Spanish Civil War. New York: Columbia University Press.  Lukeš, Igor; Goldstein, Erik, eds. (1999). The Munich Crisis, 1938: Prelude to World War II. London, UK; Portland, Oregon, USA: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-8056-9.  Majfud, Jorge (2016). "Rescuing Memory: the Humanist Interview with Noam Chomsky". The Humanist.  Mittermaier, Ute Anne (2010). "Charles Donnelly, 'Dark Star' of Irish Poetry and Reluctant Hero of the Irish Left". In Clark, David; Álavez, Rubén Jarazo. 'To Banish Ghost and Goblin': New Essays on Irish Culture. Oleiros (La Coruña): Netbiblo. pp. 191–200. ISBN 978-0-521-73780-7.  Orwell, George (2000) [1938]. Homage to Catalonia. London: Penguin, Martin Secker & Warburg. ISBN 0-14-118305-5. OCLC 42954349.  Othen, Christopher (2008). Franco's International Brigades: Foreign Volunteers and Fascist Dictators in the Spanish Civil War. London: Reportage Press.  Payne, Stanley G. (2012). The Spanish Civil War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-17470-1.  Payne, Stanley G. (2004). The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism. New Haven; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10068-X. OCLC 186010979.  Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain
and Portugal (Print Edition): chapters 25 & 26". University of Wisconsin Press. Library of Iberian resources online. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2007.  Payne, Stanley G. (1999). Fascism
in Spain, 1923–1977. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16564-7.  Payne, Stanley G. (2008). Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12282-4.  Preston, Paul (1978). The Coming of the Spanish Civil War. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-23724-2. OCLC 185713276.  Preston, Paul (1996) [1986]. A Concise history of the Spanish Civil War. London: Fontana. ISBN 978-0-00-686373-1. OCLC 231702516.  Preston, Paul (2006). The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution, and Revenge. New York: WW. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-32987-9.  Radosh, Ronald; Habeck, Mary; Sevostianov, Grigory (2001). Spain betrayed: the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the Spanish Civil War. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08981-3. OCLC 186413320.  Richardson, R. Dan (2015) [1982]. Comintern
Army: The International Brigades and the Spanish Civil War. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-6437-3.  O'Riordan, Michael (2005). The Connolly Column. Pontypool, Wales: Warren & Pell.  Rust, William (2003) [1939]. Britons in Spain: A History of the British Battalion of the XV International Brigade
XV International Brigade
(reprint). Pontypool, Wales: Warren & Pell.  Santos, Juliá; Casanova, Julián; Solé I Sabaté, Josep Maria; Villarroya, Joan; Moreno, Francisco (1999). Victimas de la guerra civil (in Spanish). Madrid: Temas de Hoy.  Seidman, Michael (2011). The Victorious Counter-revolution: The Nationalist Effort in the Spanish Civil War. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-24964-6.  Stoff, Laurie (2004). Spain. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.  Taylor, F. Jay (1971) [1956]. The United States
United States
and the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. New York: Bookman Associates. ISBN 978-0-374-97849-5.  Thomas, Hugh (2003) [1961, 1987, 2001]. The Spanish Civil War. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-101161-0. OCLC 248799351.  Werstein, Irving (1969). The Cruel Years: The Story of the Spanish Civil War. New York: Julian Messner.  Westwell, Ian (2004). Condor Legion: The Wehrmacht's Training Ground. Ian Allan. 

Further reading[edit]

Brouè, Pierre (1988). The Revolution
and the Civil War in Spain. Chicago: Haymarket. OCLC 1931859515.  Carr, Sir Raymond (2001) [1977]. The Spanish Tragedy: The Civil War in Perspective. Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-203-7.  Doyle, Bob (2006). Brigadista: an Irishman's fight against fascism. Dublin: Currach Press. ISBN 1-85607-939-2. OCLC 71752897.  Francis, Hywel (2006). Miners against Fascism: Wales and the Spanish Civil War. Pontypool, Wales (NP4 7AG): Warren and Pell.  Graham, Helen (2002). The Spanish republic at war, 1936–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45932-X. OCLC 231983673.  Graham, Helen (1988). "The Spanish Socialist Party in Power and the Government of Juan Negrín, 1937–9". European History Quarterly. 18 (2): 175–206. doi:10.1177/026569148801800203. . Ibarruri, Dolores (1976). They Shall Not Pass: the Autobiography of La Pasionaria (translated from El Unico Camino). New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0468-2. OCLC 9369478.  Jellinek, Frank (1938). The Civil War in Spain. London: Victor Gollanz (Left Book
Club).  Kowalsky, Daniel (2004). La Union Sovietica y la Guerra Civil Espanola. Barcelona: Critica. ISBN 84-8432-490-7. OCLC 255243139.  Low, Mary; Juan Breá (1979) [1937]. Red Spanish Notebook. San Francisco: City Lights Books (originally by Martin Secker & Warburg). ISBN 0-87286-132-5. OCLC 4832126.  Monteath, Peter (1994). The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
in literature, film, and art: an international Bibliography of secondary literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29262-0.  Pérez de Urbel, Justo (1993). Catholic Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939, trans. by Michael F. Ingrams. Kansas City, MO: Angelus Press. ISBN 0-935952-96-9 Preston, Paul (2012) [2012]. The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain. London: Harper Press. ISBN 978-0-00-255634-7.  Puzzo, Dante Anthony (1962). Spain
and the Great Powers, 1936–1941. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press (originally Columbia University Press, N.Y.). ISBN 0-8369-6868-9. OCLC 308726.  Southworth, Herbert Rutledge (1963). El mito de la cruzada de Franco [The Myth of Franco's crusade] (in Spanish). Paris: Ruedo Ibérico. ISBN 84-8346-574-4.  Wheeler, George; Jack Jones (2003). Leach, David, ed. To Make the People Smile Again: a Memoir of the Spanish Civil War. Newcastle upon Tyne: Zymurgy Publishing. ISBN 1-903506-07-7. OCLC 231998540.  Wilson, Ann (1986). Images of the Civil War. London: Allen & Unwin.  De Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro Franco and the Spanish Civil War, Routledge, London, 2001

External links[edit] Films, images and sounds[edit] Films

The Spanish Civil War Battleground for Idealists Tierra Española (The Spanish Earth) by Joris Ivens, 1937


by Pablo Picasso The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
by Robert Capa, Magnum Photos Aircraft of the Spanish Civil War Imperial War Museum Collection of Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
Posters hosted online by Libcom.org Posters of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
from UCSD's Southworth collection About the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
– Illinois English Department at the University of Illinois


Valley of Jarama
– song by Woody Guthrie
Woody Guthrie
(see: Jarama) Anthems and songs 11 Songs of the Spanish Civil War Spanish Bombs – song by The Clash

Miscellaneous documents[edit]

About the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
– Illinois English Department at the University of Illinois

Diverse references and citations[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Condecoraciones otorgadas por Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
a Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
y a Adolf Hitler

Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
History Project at the University of South Florida ¡No Pasarán! Speech Dolores Ibárruri's famous rousing address for the defense of the Second Republic "Trabajadores: The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
through the eyes of organised labour", a digitised collection of more than 13,000 pages of documents from the archives of the British Trades Union Congress
Trades Union Congress
held in the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick Hilton, Ronald. Spain, 1931–36, From Monarchy to Civil War, An Eyewitness Account. Historical text A36rchive. . Low, Mary; Breá, Juan. "Red Spanish Book". Benjamin Peret. . A testimony by two surrealists and trotskytes Lunn, Arnold (1937). Spanish Rehearsal. . Peers, Allison (1936). The Spanish Tragedy. . Weisbord, Albert; Weisbord, Vera. "A collection of essays".  with about a dozen essays written during and about the Spanish Civil War. "Magazines and journals published during the war" (online exhibit). The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. . "Revistas y guerra" [Magazines & war] (in Spanish). Urbana‐Champaign: The University of Illinois. . Roy, Pinaki (January 2013). "Escritores Apasionados del Combate: English and American Novelists of the Spanish Civil War". Labyrinth. 4 (1): 44–53. ISSN 0976-0814. . "La Cucaracha, The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
Diary". Archived from the original on 8 February 2005. , a detailed chronicle of the events of the war " Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
and Revolution" (text archive). The libcom library. . "Southworth Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
Collection". Mandeville Special Collection Library (books and other literature). University of California, San Diego. . "The Spanish Civil War", BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
discussion with Paul Preston, Helen Graham and Mary Vincent (In Our Time, Apr. 3, 2003)

Academics and governments[edit]

A History of the Spanish Civil War, excerpted from a U.S. government country study. "The Spanish Civil War – causes and legacy" on BBC Radio 4's In Our Time featuring Paul Preston, Helen Graham and Dr Mary Vincent (audio) Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
information at Spartacus Educational Interview with Agustín Guillamón, historian of the Spanish Revolution The Anarcho-Statists of Spain
(the anarchists in the Spanish Civil War), George Mason University Fanny, Queen of the Machine Gun (Dutch volunteers) at The Volunteer Jews In The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
– by Martin Sugarman, assistant archivist at the Jewish Military Museum Franco and the Spanish Civil War, paper by Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses, Routledge, London, 2001 Full text in translation of the Collective Letter of the Spanish Bishops, 1937, a pastoral letter of the Spanish bishops which justified Franco's uprising New Zealand and the Spanish Civil War Warships of the Spanish Civil War


Robert E. Burke Collection. 1892–1994. 60.43 cubic feet (68 boxes plus two oversize folders and one oversize vertical file). At the Labor Archives of Washington, University of Washington Libraries Special
Collections. Contains materials collected by Burke on the Spanish Civil War. Anarchy Archives The role of anarchism in the Spanish Revolution Private Collection about German Exile and Spanish Civil War The Archives of Ontario Remembers Children's Art from the Spanish Civil War, online exhibit on Archives of Ontario website

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