The Info List - Southwestern Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia
or Southwest Asia
is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East), the main difference usually being the exclusion of the majority of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa) and the inclusion of the Caucasus. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt. As a geographic concept, Western Asia
includes the Levant, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Iran, the Armenian Highlands, the South Caucasus, the Arabian peninsula as well as the Sinai Peninsula, making Egypt
a transcontinental country. Although the term "Western Asia" is mostly used as a convenient division of contemporary sovereign states into a manageable number of world regions for statistical purposes, it is sometimes used instead of the more geopolitical term "Middle East", for example by the Government
of Canada.[1] The term is used pragmatically and has no "correct" or generally agreed-upon definition. The National Geographic Style Manual as well as Maddison's The World Economy: Historical Statistics
(2003) by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) only includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Palestinian territories (called West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza in the latter), Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE, and Yemen
as West Asian countries.[2][3] In contrast to this definition, the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) in its 2015 yearbook also includes Armenia
and Azerbaijan, and excludes Israel
(as Other) and Turkey
(as Europe).[4] Unlike the UNIDO, the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) excludes Iran
from Western Asia
and include Turkey, Georgia, and Cyprus
in the region.[5] In the United Nation's geopolitical Eastern European Group, Armenia
and Georgia are included in Eastern Europe, whereas Cyprus
and East Thracian Turkey
are in Southern Europe. These three nations are listed in the European category of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). National members of West Asian sports governing bodies are limited to Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.[6][7][8] The Olympic Council of Asia's multi-sport event West Asian Games are contested by athletes representing these thirteen countries. Among the region's sports organisations are the West Asia
Basketball Association, West Asian Billiards and Snooker Federation, West Asian Football Federation, and the West Asian Tennis Federation.


1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Geology

2.1.1 Plate tectonics 2.1.2 Water

2.2 Climate 2.3 Topography

3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Statistical data 6 Sports 7 Map of Western Asia 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] See also: History of the Middle East, Ancient Near East, History of the Ottoman Empire, Treaty of Gulistan, Treaty of Turkmenchay, and Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire "Western Asia" was in use as a geographical term in the early 19th century, even before "Near East" became current as a geopolitical concept.[9] In the context of the history of classical antiquity, "Western Asia" could mean the part of Asia
known in classical antiquity, as opposed to the reaches of "interior Asia", i.e. Scythia, and "Eastern Asia" the easternmost reaches of geographical knowledge in classical authors, i.e. Transoxania
and India.[10][11][12] In the 20th century, "Western Asia" was used to denote a rough geographical era in the fields of archaeology and ancient history, especially as a shorthand for "the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
excluding Ancient Egypt" for the purposes of comparing the early civilizations of Egypt
and the former.[13] Use of the term in the context of contemporary geopolitics or world economy appears to date from at least the mid-1960s.[14] Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Asia Western Asia
is located directly south of Eastern Europe. The region is surrounded by seven major seas; the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. To the north, the region is delimited from Europe
by the Caucasus Mountains, to the southwest, it is delimited from Africa
by the Isthmus of Suez, while to the east, the region adjoins Central Asia and South Asia. The Dasht-e Kavir
Dasht-e Kavir
and Dasht-e Lut
Dasht-e Lut
deserts in eastern Iran
naturally delimit the region somewhat from Asia
itself. Geology[edit] Plate tectonics[edit] Three major tectonic plates converge on Western Asia, including the African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. The boundaries between the tectonic plates make up the Azores-Gibraltar Ridge, extending across North Africa, the Red Sea, and into Iran.[15] The Arabian Plate
Arabian Plate
is moving northward into the Anatolian plate (Turkey) at the East Anatolian Fault,[16] and the boundary between the Aegean and Anatolian plate in eastern Turkey
is also seismically active.[15] Water
resources[edit] Several major aquifers provide water to large portions of Western Asia. In Saudi Arabia, two large aquifers of Palaeozoic
and Triassic origins are located beneath the Jabal Tuwayq
Jabal Tuwayq
mountains and areas west to the Red Sea.[17] Cretaceous
and Eocene-origin aquifers are located beneath large portions of central and eastern Saudi Arabia, including Wasia and Biyadh which contain amounts of both fresh water and saline water.[17] Flood or furrow irrigation, as well as sprinkler methods, are extensively used for irrigation, covering nearly 90,000 km² across Western Asia
for agriculture.[18] Also, the Tigris
and Euphrates
rivers contribute very well. Climate[edit]

A Lebanese cedar forest in winter.

Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
map of West Asia.

See also: Climate of Asia Western Asia
is primarily arid and semi-arid, and can be subject to drought, but it also contains vast expanses of forest and fertile valleys. The region consists of grasslands, rangelands, deserts, and mountains. Water
shortages are a problem in many parts of West Asia, with rapidly growing populations increasing demands for water, while salinization and pollution threaten water supplies.[19] Major rivers, including the Tigris
and Euphrates, provide sources for irrigation water to support agriculture. There are two wind phenomena in Western Asia: the sharqi and the shamal. The sharqi (or sharki) is a wind that comes from the south and southeast. It is seasonal, lasting from April to early June, and comes again between late September and November. The winds are dry and dusty, with occasional gusts up to 80 kilometers per hour (50 miles per hour) and often kick up violent sand and dust storms that can carry sand a few thousand meters high, and can close down airports for short periods of time. These winds can last for a full day at the beginning and end of the season, and for several days during the middle of the season. The shamal is a summer northwesterly wind blowing over Iraq
and the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
states (including Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), often strong during the day, but decreasing at night. This weather effect occurs anywhere from once to several times a year.[20] Topography[edit] Western Asia
contains large areas of mountainous terrain. The Anatolian Plateau
Anatolian Plateau
is sandwiched between the Pontus Mountains
and Taurus Mountains
in Turkey. Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
in Turkey
rises to 5,137 meters. The Zagros Mountains
are located in Iran, in areas along its border with Iraq. The Central Plateau of Iran
is divided into two drainage basins. The northern basin is Dasht-e Kavir
Dasht-e Kavir
(Great Salt Desert), and Dasht-e-Lut
is the southern basin. In Yemen, elevations exceed 3,700 meters in many areas, and highland areas extend north along the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast and north into Lebanon. A fault-zone also exists along the Red Sea, with continental rifting creating trough-like topography with areas located well-below sea level.[21] The Dead Sea, located on the border between the West Bank, Israel, and Jordan, is situated at 418 m (1371 ft) below sea level, making it the lowest point on the surface of the Earth.[22] Rub' al Khali, one of the world's largest sand deserts, spans the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
in Saudi Arabia, parts of Oman, the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Yemen. Jebel al Akhdar is a small range of mountains located in northeastern Oman, bordering the Gulf of Oman. Demographics[edit] The population of Western Asia
was estimated at 272 million as of 2008, projected to reach 370 million by 2030 by Maddison (2007; the estimate excludes the Caucasus
and Cyprus). This corresponds to an annual growth rate of 1.4% (or a doubling time of 50 years), well above the world average of 0.9% (doubling time 75 years). The population of Western Asia
is estimated at about 4% of world population, up from about 39 million at the beginning of the 20th century, or about 2% of world population at the time.[23] The most populous countries in the region are Turkey
and Iran
and, each with around 79 million people, followed by Iraq
and Saudi Arabia with around 33 million people each. Numerically, Western Asia
is predominantly Arab, Persian, Turkish, and the dominating languages are correspondingly Arabic, Persian and Turkish, each with of the order of 70 million speakers, followed by smaller communities of Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Hebrew, Armenian and Eastern Aramaic. The dominance of Arabic
and Turkish is the result of the medieval Arab and Turkic invasions beginning with the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD, which displaced the formerly dominant Aramaic
and Hebrew
in the Levant, and Greek in Anatolia, although Hebrew
is once again the dominant language in Israel, and Aramaic (spoken largely by Assyrians) and Greek both remain present in their respective territories as minority languages. Other significant native minorities include Assyrians, Druze, Jews, Mandeans, Maronites, Shabaks, Syriac Arameans, Lurs
and Yezidis. Economy[edit] See also: Economy
of Western Asia The economy of Western Asia
is diverse and the region experiences high economic growth. Turkey
has the largest economy in the region, followed by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Iran. Petroleum
is the major industry in the regional economy, as more than half of the world's oil reserves and around 40 percent of the world's natural gas reserves are located in the region. Statistical data[edit]

Country, with flag Area (km²) Population[24] (2016) Density (per km²) Capital Nominal GDP[25] (2012) Per capita[26] (2012) Currency Government Official languages


 Turkey1 783,562 79,512,426 94.1 Ankara $788.042 billion $10,523 Turkish lira Parliamentary republic Turkish

Arabian Peninsula:

 Bahrain 665 1,425,171 1,646.1 Manama $30.355 billion $26,368 Bahraini dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic

 Kuwait 17,820 4,052,584 167.5 Kuwait
City $184.540 billion $48,761 Kuwaiti dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic

 Oman 212,460 4,424,762 9.2 Muscat $78.290 billion $25,356 Omani rial Absolute monarchy Arabic

 Qatar 11,437 2,569,804 123.2 Doha $192.402 billion $104,756 Qatari riyal Absolute monarchy Arabic

 Saudi Arabia 2,149,690 32,275,687 12 Riyadh $733.956 billion $25,139 Saudi riyal Absolute monarchy Arabic

 United Arab Emirates 82,880 9,269,612 97 Abu Dhabi $383.799 billion $43,774 UAE dirham Federal Constitutional monarchy Arabic

 Yemen 527,970 27,584,213 44.7 Sana'a
(Houthi-led government) Aden
(Seat of government) $35.05 billion $1,354 Yemeni rial Provisional Presidential republic Arabic

South Caucasus:

 Abkhazia5 8,660 242,862 28 Sukhumi $500 million N/A Georgian lari Semi-presidential republic Abkhaz Russian

 Armenia 29,800 2,924,816 108.4 Yerevan $9.950 billion $3,033 Armenian dram Semi-presidential republic Armenian

 Artsakh5 11,458 150,932 N/A Stepanakert $1.6 billion $2,581 Artsakh dram Armenian dram Presidential republic Armenian

 Azerbaijan 86,600 9,725,376 105.8 Baku $68.700 billion $7,439 Azerbaijani manat Presidential republic Azerbaijani

 Georgia 69,700 3,925,405 68.1 Tbilisi $15.847 billion $3,523 Georgian lari Semi-presidential republic Georgian

 South Ossetia5 3,900 53,532 13 Tskhinvali $500 million N/A Georgian lari Semi-presidential republic Ossetian Russian

Fertile Crescent:

 Iraq 438,317 37,202,572 73.5 Baghdad $216.044 billion $6,410 Iraqi dinar Parliamentary republic Arabic, Kurdish

 Israel 20,770 8,191,828 365.3 Jerusalem $257.62 billion $33,451 Israeli new shekel Parliamentary republic Hebrew, Arabic

 Jordan 92,300 9,455,802 68.4 Amman $30.98 billion $4,843 Jordanian dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic

 Lebanon 10,452 6,006,668 404 Beirut $42.519 billion $10,425 Lebanese pound Parliamentary republic Arabic

 Palestinian National Authority 6,220 4,790,705 667 Ramallah3 $6.6 billion $1,600 Egyptian pound, Jordanian dinar, Israeli new shekel Semi-presidential republic Arabic

 Syria 185,180 18,430,453 118.3 Damascus n/a n/a Syrian pound Presidential republic Arabic

Iranian Plateau:

 Iran 1,648,195 80,277,428 45 Tehran $548.590 billion $7,207 Iranian rial Islamic republic Persian

Mediterranean Sea:

 Cyprus 9,250 1,170,125 117 Nicosia $22.995 billion $26,377 Euro Presidential republic Greek, Turkish

 Northern Cyprus5 3,355 313,626 93 North Nicosia $4.032 billion $15,109 Turkish lira Semi-presidential republic Turkish

Sinai Peninsula:

2 60,000 850,000 82 Cairo $262.26 billion $3,179 Egyptian pound Presidential republic Arabic

Notes: 1 The figures for Turkey
includes East Thrace, which is not a part of Anatolia. 2 The area and population figures for Egypt
only include the Sinai Peninsula. 3 Ramallah
is the actual location of the government, whereas the proclaimed capital of Palestine is Jerusalem, which is disputed. 4 Jerusalem
is the proclaimed capital of Israel
and the actual location of the Knesset, Israeli Supreme Court, etc. Due to its disputed status, most embassies are in Tel Aviv. 5 Unrecognised state


The West Asian Tennis Federation
West Asian Tennis Federation
regulates the championships and leagues in the region. The West Asian Billiards & Snooker Federation
regulates the championships related to billiards and snooker, amongst which an annual tournament. The West Asian Games have been held in 1997, 2002 and 2005. The West Asian Football Federation
West Asian Football Federation
was founded in 2001 and is one of the regional federations of the Asian Football Federation. They organize the WAFF Championship. The West Asia
Basketball Association organizes the WABA Championship since 1999.

Map of Western Asia[edit]

Arm. Azerbaijan Bah. Cyprus Egypt Georgia Iran Iraq Isr. Jordan Kuwait Leb. (Az.) Oman Pal. Pal. Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey UAE Yemen Aegean Sea Arabian Sea Aral Sea Black Sea Caspian Sea Gulf of Aden Gulf of Oman Mediterranean Sea Persian Gulf Red Sea Sea of Azov


See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia

Cinema of West Asia List of World Heritage Sites in Western Asia West Asian Games West Asian Basketball League West Asia
Basketball Association West Asian Billiards & Snooker Federation West Asian Tennis Federation West Asian Football Federation


^ "Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population
of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census". Statistics
Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on March 8, 2009.  ^ Miller, David. "West Asia
Map". National Geographic Style Manual. National Geographic Society.  ^ Maddison, Angus (2004). The World Economy: Historical Statistics (Print)format= requires url= (help). Development Centre Studies. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (published 2003). ISBN 92-64-10412-7. LCCN 2004371607. OCLC 53465560.  ^ United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
Vienna (UNIDO) (2005). International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics
2015. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 14.  ^ "Standard Country
or Area Codes for Statistical Use". Millenniumindicators.un.org. Retrieved 2012-08-25. The UNSD notes that the "assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is merely for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories."  ^ "WABSF Member Countries".  ^ "The West Asian Games". Topend Sports.  ^ "WAFF Member Associations". The-Waff.com.  ^ e.g. James Rennell, A treatise on the comparative geography of western Asia, 1831. ^ James Rennell, The Geographical System of Herodotus Examined and Explained, 1800, p. 210. ^ Hugh Murray, Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Asia (1820). ^ Samuel Whelpley, A compend of history, from the earliest times, 1808, p. 9. ^ e.g. Petrus Van Der Meer, The Chronology of Ancient Western Asia
and Egypt, 1955. Karl W. Butzer, Physical Conditions in Eastern Europe, Western Asia
and Egypt
Before the Period of Agricultural and Urban Settlement, 1965. ^ The Tobacco Industry of Western Asia, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, 1964. ^ a b Beaumont (1988), p. 22 ^ Muehlberger, Bill. "The Arabian Plate". NASA, Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original on 2007-07-06.  ^ a b Beaumont (1988), p. 86 ^ "Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO)".  ^ "Chapter 7: Middle East
Middle East
and Arid Asia". IPCC Special
Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2001.  ^ Taru Bahl; M H Syed, eds. (2003). Encyclopaedia of the Muslim World. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-261-1419-1. Retrieved 1 February 2009.  ^ Sweeney, Jerry J.; William R. Walter (December 1, 1998). " Region
#4 — Red Sea
Red Sea
Continental Rift Zone" (PDF). Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. p. 8.  ^ "ASTER Image Gallery: The Dead Sea". NASA.  ^ Data for "15 West Asian countries", from Maddison (2003, 2007).Angus Maddison, 2003, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Vol. 2, OECD, Paris, ISBN 92-64-10412-7. Statistical Appendix (2007, ggdc.net) "The historical data were originally developed in three books: Monitoring the World Economy
1820-1992, OECD, Paris 1995; The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, OECD Development Centre, Paris 2001; The World Economy: Historical Statistics, OECD Development Centre, Paris 2003. All these contain detailed source notes." Estimates for 2008 by country (in millions): Turkey
(71.9), Iran (70.2), Iraq
(28.2), Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(28.1), Yemen
(23.0), Syria
(19.7), Israel
(6.5), Jordan
(6.2), Palestine (4.1), Lebanon
(4.0), Oman (3.3), United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(2.7), Kuwait
(2.6), Qatar
(0.9), Bahrain (0.7). ^ "World Population
Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population
Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "GDP". IMF. Retrieved 2014-04-16.  ^ "GDP per capita". IMF. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutWestern Asiaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Stanford's Map of Western Asia
from 1885 by Edward Stanford

Places adjacent to Western Asia

Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
· Black Sea  Russia Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
·  Turkmenistan

Mediterranean Sea

Western Asia


· Red Sea Red Sea
Red Sea
· Gulf of Aden Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
·  Pakistan

v t e

Asia articles



Indian Ocean
trade Silk Road Imperialism Decolonisation

By topic






metropolitan areas tallest buildings

Countries and territories

by population

Extreme points Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers


Asia-Pacific Central Asia East Asia Eurasia Inner Asia North Asia Northeast Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Tropical Asia Western Asia


Heads of government Heads of state Elections

political parties

Human rights Law Military


Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
Initiative (BIMSTEC) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(CCASG / GCC) Mekong–Ganga Cooperation (MGC) Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
(RCEP) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation


Countries by GDP (PPP) Countries by HDI Currencies Stock exchanges Technology

renewable energy


airports high-speed rail


Bond markets Property markets


Demographics Education Etiquette Health Languages People

ethnic groups


Art Cinema Cuisine Literature Music Philosophy Religion Sport


Asian Century

Chinese Century Indian Century Pacific Century

Outline Index

Book Category Portal Maps

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland


Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean

Comoros Islands

North Africa


Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa


Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands


North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay


Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic
is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia


Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee



Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail


Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram

Siachen Glacier


Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin


Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau


Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass


Greater Middle East


Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan
Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti- Lebanon
Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus


Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt


Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley


Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt



Indochina Malay Peninsula


Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe


Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands


Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia


Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group


Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt


Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America


Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth


Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie


South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States


Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt


Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania


Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia


Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula


Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu


Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island


Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America


Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado


Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta


Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula



Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions


Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands


Alaska British Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas


Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea