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The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic
Antarctic
Ocean[1] or the Austral Ocean,[2][note 4] comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.[6] As such, it is regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean.[7] This ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic
Antarctic
mix with warmer subantarctic waters. By way of his voyages in the 1770s, Captain James Cook
James Cook
proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since then, geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or even existence, considering the waters as various parts of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, instead. However, according to Commodore John Leech of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), recent oceanographic research has discovered the importance of Southern Circulation, and the term Southern Ocean
Ocean
has been used to define the body of water which lies south of the northern limit of that circulation.[8] This remains the current official policy of the IHO, since a 2000 revision of its definitions including the Southern Ocean
Ocean
as the waters south of the 60th parallel has not yet been adopted. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary.[9]

Contents

1 Definitions and use

1.1 Pre-20th-century definitions 1.2 1928 delineation 1.3 1937 delineation 1.4 1953 delineation 1.5 2002 (draft) delineation

2 History of exploration

2.1 Unknown southern land 2.2 South of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence 2.3 South of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle 2.4 First sighting of land 2.5 Antarctic
Antarctic
expeditions 2.6 Recent history

3 Geography

3.1 Sub-divisions of the Southern Ocean 3.2 Natural resources 3.3 Natural hazards

4 Physical oceanography

4.1 Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
and Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence 4.2 Upwelling 4.3 Ross and Weddell Gyres

5 Climate 6 Biodiversity

6.1 Animals 6.2 Birds 6.3 Fish

6.3.1 Icefish

6.4 Mammals 6.5 Invertebrates

6.5.1 Arthropods 6.5.2 Others

7 Environment

7.1 Current issues 7.2 International agreements

8 Economy 9 Ports and harbors 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Definitions and use[edit]

Pulsating pack-ice around Antarctica
Antarctica
reflects the various definitions of the Southern Ocean

Borders and names for oceans and seas were internationally agreed when the International Hydrographic Bureau
International Hydrographic Bureau
(IHB), the precursor to the IHO, convened the First International Conference on 24 July 1919. The IHO then published these in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, the first edition being 1928. Since the first edition, the limits of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
have moved progressively southwards; since 1953, it has been omitted from the official publication and left to local hydrographic offices to determine their own limits. The IHO included the ocean and its definition as the waters south of 60°S in its year 2000 revisions, but this has not been formally adopted, due to continuing impasses over other areas of the text, such as the naming dispute over the Sea
Sea
of Japan. The 2000 IHO definition, however, was circulated in a draft edition in 2002 and is used by some within the IHO and by some other organizations such as the US Central Intelligence Agency[7] and Merriam-Webster.[note 5][10] Australian authorities regard the Southern Ocean
Ocean
as lying immediately south of Australia.[11][12] The National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
does not recognize the ocean,[2] depicting it (if at all) in a typeface different from the other world oceans; instead, it shows the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans extending to Antarctica
Antarctica
on both its print and on line maps.[13][note 6] Map publishers using the term Southern Ocean
Ocean
on their maps include Hema Maps[15] and GeoNova.[16]

The International Hydrographic Organization's delineation of the "Southern Ocean" has moved steadily southwards since the original 1928 edition of its Limits of Oceans and Seas. Australia continues to view the ocean as beginning at its southern coast. The 1953 limits shown are those of Britain, as identified in third edition. Others continue to view the Antarctic Convergence
Antarctic Convergence
as the natural boundary of the Southern Ocean, regardless of political agreements.[6]

Southern Ocean
Ocean
Antarctica
Antarctica
Map.

Pre-20th-century definitions[edit]

"Southern Ocean" as an alternative name for the Aethiopian Ocean
Ocean
in a 1700 map of Africa

"Southern Ocean" is an obsolete name for the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
or South Pacific, coined by Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to discover it, who approached it from the north.[17] The "South Seas" is a less archaic synonym. A 1745 British Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
established a prize for discovering a Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
to "the Western and Southern Ocean
Ocean
of America".[18] Authors using "Southern Ocean" to name the waters encircling the unknown southern polar regions used varying limits. James Cook's account of his second voyage implies New Caledonia
New Caledonia
borders it.[19] Peacock's 1795 Geographical Dictionary said it lay "to the southward of America and Africa";[20] John Payne in 1796 used 40 degrees as the northern limit;[21] the 1827 Edinburgh Gazetteer used 50 degrees.[22] The Family Magazine in 1835 divided the "Great Southern Ocean" into the "Southern Ocean" and the "Antarctick [sic] Ocean" along the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle, with the northern limit of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
being lines joining Cape Horn, the Cape of Good Hope, Van Diemen's Land and the south of New Zealand.[23] The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834
South Australia Act 1834
described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia
South Australia
as "the Southern Ocean". The Colony of Victoria's Legislative Council Act of 1881 delimited part of the division of Bairnsdale
Bairnsdale
as "along the New South Wales boundary to the Southern ocean".[24] 1928 delineation[edit]

1928 First Edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas with original IHO delineation of Southern Ocean
Ocean
abutting land-masses.[25]

In the 1928 first edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas, the Southern Ocean
Ocean
was delineated by land-based limits: Antarctica
Antarctica
to the south, and South America, Africa, Australia, and Broughton Island, New Zealand to the north. The detailed land-limits used were from Cape Horn
Cape Horn
in South America eastwards to Cape Agulhas
Cape Agulhas
in Africa, then further eastwards to the southern coast of mainland Australia to Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. From Cape Leeuwin, the limit then followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria, then southwards across Bass Strait
Bass Strait
to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island, then the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait
Bass Strait
to Cape Grim, Tasmania. The limit then followed the west coast of Tasmania
Tasmania
southwards to the South East Cape
South East Cape
and then went eastwards to Broughton Island, New Zealand, before returning to Cape Horn.[25]

1937 Second Edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas showing IHO's pre-1953 delineation of Southern Ocean
Ocean
moved southwards.[26]

1937 delineation[edit] The northern limits of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
were moved southwards in the IHO's 1937 second edition of the Limits of Oceans and Seas. From this edition, much of the ocean's northern limit ceased to abut land masses. In the second edition, the Southern Ocean
Ocean
then extended from Antarctica
Antarctica
northwards to latitude 40°S between Cape Agulhas
Cape Agulhas
in Africa (long. 20°E) and Cape Leeuwin
Cape Leeuwin
in Western Australia
Western Australia
(long. 115°E), and extended to latitude 55°S between Auckland Island
Auckland Island
of New Zealand (165 or 166°E east) and Cape Horn
Cape Horn
in South America
South America
(67°W).[26] As is discussed in more detail below (see section on '2002 delineation'), prior to the 2002 (draft) edition the limits of oceans explicitly excluded the seas lying within each of them. The Great Australian Bight was unnamed in the 1928 edition, and delineated as shown in the figure above in the 1937 edition. It therefore encompassed former Southern Ocean
Ocean
waters (as designated in 1928) but was technically not inside any of the three adjacent oceans by 1937. In the 2002 draft edition, the IHO have designated 'seas' as being subdivisions within 'oceans', so the Bight would have still been within the Southern Ocean
Ocean
in 1937 if the 2002 convention were in place then. To perform direct comparisons of current and former limits of oceans (for example to compare surface areas) it is necessary to consider, or at least be aware of, how the 2002 change in IHO terminology for 'seas' can affect the comparison. 1953 delineation[edit] The Southern Ocean
Ocean
did not appear in the 1953 third edition and a note in the publication read:

The Antarctic
Antarctic
or Southern Ocean
Ocean
has been omitted from this publication as the majority of opinions received since the issue of the 2nd Edition in 1937 are to the effect that there exists no real justification for applying the term Ocean
Ocean
to this body of water, the northern limits of which are difficult to lay down owing to their seasonal change. The limits of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans have therefore been extended South to the Antarctic
Antarctic
Continent. Hydrographic Offices who issue separate publications dealing with this area are therefore left to decide their own northern limits (Great Britain uses Latitude
Latitude
of 55 South.)

Instead, in the IHO 1953 publication, the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans were extended southward, the Indian and Pacific Oceans (which had not previously touched pre 1953, as per the first and second editions) now abutted at the meridian of South East Cape, and the southern limits of the Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
and the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
were moved northwards.[27]

The Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
as example of terminology concerning seas: the area inside the black line includes the seas included in the Pacific Ocean prior to 2002 and the darker blue areas are its informal current borders, following the recreation of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
and the reinclusion of marginal seas.[28]

2002 (draft) delineation[edit] The IHO readdressed the question of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
in a survey in 2000. Of its 68 member nations, 28 responded, and all responding members except Argentina
Argentina
agreed to redefine the ocean, reflecting the importance placed by oceanographers on ocean currents. The proposal for the name Southern Ocean
Ocean
won 18 votes, beating the alternative Antarctic
Antarctic
Ocean. Half of the votes supported a definition of the ocean's northern limit at 60°S (with no land interruptions at this latitude), with the other 14 votes cast for other definitions, mostly 50°S, but a few for as far north as 35°S. A draft fourth edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas was circulated to IHO member states in August 2002 (sometimes referred to as the "2000 edition" as it summarized the progress to 2000).[29] It has yet to be published due to 'areas of concern' by several countries relating to various naming issues around the world – primarily the Sea
Sea
of Japan naming dispute – and there have been various changes, 60 seas were given new names, and even the name of the publication was changed.[30] A reservation had also been lodged by Australia regarding the Southern Ocean
Ocean
limits.[31] Effectively, the 3rd edition (which did not delineate the Southern Ocean
Ocean
leaving delineation to local hydrographic offices) has yet to be superseded. Despite this, the 4th edition definition has partial de facto usage by many nations, scientists and organisations such as the U.S. (the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
World Factbook
World Factbook
uses "Southern Ocean" but none of the other new sea names within the "Southern Ocean" such as "Cosmonauts Sea") and Merriam-Webster,[7][10][14] scientists and nations – and even by some within the IHO.[32] Some nations' hydrographic offices have defined their own boundaries; the United Kingdom used the 55°S parallel for example.[27] Other organisations favour more northerly limits for the Southern Ocean. For example, the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
describes the Southern Ocean
Ocean
as extending as far north as South America, and confers great significance on the Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence, yet its description of the Indian Ocean contradicts this, describing the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
as extending south to Antarctica.[12][33] Other sources, such as the National Geographic Society, show the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans as extending to Antarctica
Antarctica
on its maps, although articles on the National Geographic web site have begun to reference the Southern Ocean.[14] In Australia, cartographical authorities define the Southern Ocean
Ocean
as including the entire body of water between Antarctica
Antarctica
and the south coasts of Australia and New Zealand, and up to 60°s elsewhere.[34] Coastal maps of Tasmania
Tasmania
and South Australia
South Australia
label the sea areas as Southern Ocean,[35] while Cape Leeuwin
Cape Leeuwin
in Western Australia
Western Australia
is described as the point where the Indian and Southern Oceans meet.[36] A radical shift from past IHO practices (1928–1953) was also seen in the 2002 draft edition when the IHO delineated 'seas' as being subdivisions that lay within the boundaries of 'oceans'. While the IHO are often considered the authority for such conventions, the shift brought them into line with the practices of other publications (e.g. the CIA World Fact Book) which already adopted the principle that seas are contained within oceans. This difference in practice is markedly seen for the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
in the adjacent figure. Thus, for example, previously the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
between Australia and New Zealand
New Zealand
was not regarded by the IHO as being part of the Pacific, but as of the 2002 draft edition it is. The new delineation of seas being subdivisions of oceans has avoided the need to interrupt the northern boundary of the Southern Ocean where intersected by Drake Passage
Drake Passage
which includes all of the waters from South America
South America
to the Antarctic
Antarctic
coast, nor interrupt it for the Scotia Sea, which also extends below the 60th parallel south. The new delineation of seas has also meant that the long-time named seas around Antarctica, excluded from the 1953 edition (the 1953 map did not even extend that far south), are 'automatically' part of the Southern Ocean. History of exploration[edit] Main article: History of Antarctica Unknown southern land[edit] See also: Terra Australis

1564 Typus Orbis Terrarum, a map by Abraham Ortelius
Abraham Ortelius
showed the imagined link between the proposed continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
and South America.

Exploration of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
was inspired by a belief in the existence of a Terra Australis
Terra Australis
– a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Eurasia and North Africa
Africa
– which had existed since the times of Ptolemy. The doubling of the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
in 1487 by Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
first brought explorers within touch of the Antarctic
Antarctic
cold, and proved that there was an ocean separating Africa
Africa
from any Antarctic
Antarctic
land that might exist. Ferdinand Magellan, who passed through the Strait of Magellan in 1520, assumed that the islands of Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
to the south were an extension of this unknown southern land. In 1564, Abraham Ortelius published his first map, Typus Orbis Terrarum, an eight-leaved wall map of the world, on which he identified the Regio Patalis with Locach
Locach
as a northward extension of the Terra Australis, reaching as far as New Guinea.[37][38] European geographers continued to connect the coast of Tierra del Fuego with the coast of New Guinea
New Guinea
on their globes, and allowing their imaginations to run riot in the vast unknown spaces of the south Atlantic, south Indian and Pacific oceans they sketched the outlines of the Terra Australis
Terra Australis
Incognita ("Unknown Southern Land"), a vast continent stretching in parts into the tropics. The search for this great south land was a leading motive of explorers in the 16th and the early part of the 17th centuries. The Spaniard Gabriel de Castilla, who claimed having sighted "snow-covered mountains" beyond the 64° S in 1603, is recognized as the first explorer that discovered the continent of Antarctica, although he was ignored in his time. In 1606, Pedro Fernández de Quirós took possession for the king of Spain all of the lands he had discovered in Australia del Espiritu Santo (the New Hebrides) and those he would discover "even to the Pole". Francis Drake, like Spanish explorers before him, had speculated that there might be an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego. When Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire
Jacob Le Maire
discovered the southern extremity of Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
and named it Cape Horn
Cape Horn
in 1615, they proved that the Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
archipelago was of small extent and not connected to the southern land, as previously thought. Subsequently, in 1642, Abel Tasman showed that even New Holland (Australia)
New Holland (Australia)
was separated by sea from any continuous southern continent.

Portrait of Edmund Halley
Edmund Halley
by Thomas Murray, c. 1687

South of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence[edit] See also: Anthony de la Roché The visit to South Georgia by Anthony de la Roché
Anthony de la Roché
in 1675 was the first ever discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence
Antarctic Convergence
i.e. in the Southern Ocean/Antarctic.[39][40] Soon after the voyage cartographers started to depict ‘Roché Island’, honouring the discoverer. James Cook
James Cook
was aware of la Roché's discovery when surveying and mapping the island in 1775.[41] Edmond Halley's voyage in HMS Paramour for magnetic investigations in the South Atlantic met the pack ice in 52° S in January 1700, but that latitude (he reached 140 mi off the north coast of South Georgia) was his farthest south. A determined effort on the part of the French naval officer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier
Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier
to discover the "South Land" – described by a half legendary "sieur de Gonneyville" – resulted in the discovery of Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island
in 54°10′ S, and in the navigation of 48° of longitude of ice-cumbered sea nearly in 55° S in 1730 . In 1771, Yves Joseph Kerguelen sailed from France
France
with instructions to proceed south from Mauritius
Mauritius
in search of "a very large continent." He lighted upon a land in 50° S which he called South France, and believed to be the central mass of the southern continent. He was sent out again to complete the exploration of the new land, and found it to be only an inhospitable island which he renamed the Isle of Desolation, but which was ultimately named after him.[42] South of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle[edit] See also: James Cook

Famous official portrait of Captain James Cook
James Cook
who proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. "He holds his own chart of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
on the table and his right hand points to the east coast of Australia on it."[43]

Map from 1771, showing "Terres Australes" (sic) label without any charted landmass.

Painting of James Weddell's second expedition in 1823, depicting the brig Jane and the cutter Beaufroy.

The obsession of the undiscovered continent culminated in the brain of Alexander Dalrymple, the brilliant and erratic hydrographer who was nominated by the Royal Society
Royal Society
to command the Transit of Venus expedition to Tahiti
Tahiti
in 1769. The command of the expedition was given by the admiralty to Captain James Cook. Sailing in 1772 with Resolution, a vessel of 462 tons under his own command and Adventure of 336 tons under Captain Tobias Furneaux, Cook first searched in vain for Bouvet Island, then sailed for 20 degrees of longitude to the westward in latitude 58° S, and then 30° eastward for the most part south of 60° S, a lower southern latitude than had ever been voluntarily entered before by any vessel. On 17 January 1773 the Antarctic Circle
Antarctic Circle
was crossed for the first time in history and the two ships reached 67° 15' S by 39° 35' E, where their course was stopped by ice. Cook then turned northward to look for French Southern and Antarctic Lands, of the discovery of which he had received news at Cape Town, but from the rough determination of his longitude by Kerguelen, Cook reached the assigned latitude 10° too far east and did not see it. He turned south again and was stopped by ice in 61° 52′ S by 95° E and continued eastward nearly on the parallel of 60° S to 147° E. On 16 March, the approaching winter drove him northward for rest to New Zealand
New Zealand
and the tropical islands of the Pacific. In November 1773, Cook left New Zealand, having parted company with the Adventure, and reached 60° S by 177° W, whence he sailed eastward keeping as far south as the floating ice allowed. The Antarctic Circle
Antarctic Circle
was crossed on 20 December and Cook remained south of it for three days, being compelled after reaching 67° 31′ S to stand north again in 135° W. A long detour to 47° 50′ S served to show that there was no land connection between New Zealand
New Zealand
and Tierra del Fuego. Turning south again, Cook crossed the Antarctic Circle
Antarctic Circle
for the third time at 109° 30′ W before his progress was once again blocked by ice four days later at 71° 10′ S by 106° 54′ W. This point, reached on 30 January 1774, was the farthest south attained in the 18th century. With a great detour to the east, almost to the coast of South America, the expedition regained Tahiti
Tahiti
for refreshment. In November 1774, Cook started from New Zealand
New Zealand
and crossed the South Pacific without sighting land between 53° and 57° S to Tierra del Fuego; then, passing Cape Horn
Cape Horn
on 29 December, he rediscovered Roché Island renaming it Isle of Georgia, and discovered the South Sandwich Islands (named Sandwich Land by him), the only ice-clad land he had seen, before crossing the South Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
between 55° and 60°. He thereby laid open the way for future Antarctic exploration by exploding the myth of a habitable southern continent. Cook's most southerly discovery of land lay on the temperate side of the 60th parallel, and he convinced himself that if land lay farther south it was practically inaccessible and without economic value.[42] Voyagers rounding Cape Horn
Cape Horn
frequently met with contrary winds and were driven southward into snowy skies and ice-encumbered seas; but so far as can be ascertained none of them before 1770 reached the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle, or knew it, if they did. In a voyage from 1822 to 1824, James Weddell
James Weddell
commanded the 160-ton brig Jane, accompanied by his second ship Beaufoy captained by Matthew Brisbane. Together they sailed to the South Orkneys where sealing proved disappointing. They turned south in the hope of finding a better sealing ground. The season was unusually mild and tranquil, and on 20 February 1823 the two ships reached latitude 74°15' S and longitude 34°16'45″ W the southernmost position any ship had ever reached up to that time. A few icebergs were sighted but there was still no sight of land, leading Weddell to theorize that the sea continued as far as the South Pole. Another two days' sailing would have brought him to Coat's Land (to the east of the Weddell Sea) but Weddell decided to turn back.[44] First sighting of land[edit]

Admiral von Bellingshausen

See also: William Smith (mariner)
William Smith (mariner)
and Fabian von Bellingshausen The first land south of the parallel 60° south latitude was discovered by the Englishman William Smith, who sighted Livingston Island on 19 February 1819. A few months later Smith returned to explore the other islands of the South Shetlands archipelago, landed on King George Island, and claimed the new territories for Britain. In the meantime, the Spanish Navy ship San Telmo sank in September 1819 when trying to cross Cape Horn. Parts of her wreckage were found months later by sealers on the north coast of Livingston Island
Livingston Island
(South Shetlands). It is unknown if some survivor managed to be the first to set foot on these Antarctic
Antarctic
islands. The first confirmed sighting of mainland Antarctica
Antarctica
cannot be accurately attributed to one single person. It can, however, be narrowed down to three individuals. According to various sources,[45][46][47] three men all sighted the ice shelf or the continent within days or months of each other: von Bellingshausen, a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy; Edward Bransfield, a captain in the British navy; and Nathaniel Palmer, an American sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut. It is certain that the expedition, led by von Bellingshausen and Lazarev on the ships Vostok and Mirny, reached a point within 32 km (20 mi) from Princess Martha Coast and recorded the sight of an ice shelf at 69°21′28″S 2°14′50″W / 69.35778°S 2.24722°W / -69.35778; -2.24722[48] that became known as the Fimbul ice shelf. On 30 January 1820, Bransfield sighted Trinity Peninsula, the northernmost point of the Antarctic
Antarctic
mainland, while Palmer sighted the mainland in the area south of Trinity Peninsula
Trinity Peninsula
in November 1820. Von Bellingshausen's expedition also discovered Peter I Island
Peter I Island
and Alexander I Island, the first islands to be discovered south of the circle.

Historical maps showing a southern ocean between Antarctica
Antarctica
and the continents of South America, Africa
Africa
and Australia

1683 map by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet
Alain Manesson Mallet
from his publication Description de L'Univers. Shows a sea below both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at a time when Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
was believed joined to Antarctica. Sea
Sea
is named Mer Magellanique after Ferdinand Magellan. 

Samuel Dunn's 1794 General Map of the World or Terraqeuous Globe shows a Southern Ocean
Ocean
(but meaning what is today named the South Atlantic) and a Southern Icy Ocean. 

A New Map of Asia, from the Latest Authorities, by John Cary, Engraver, 1806, shows the Southern Ocean
Ocean
lying to the south of both the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and Australia. 

Freycinet Map of 1811
Freycinet Map of 1811
– resulted from the 1800-1803 French Baudin expedition to Australia and was the first full map of Australia ever to be published. In French, the map named the ocean immediately below Australia as the Grand Océan Austral (‘Great Southern Ocean’). 

1863 map of Australia shows the Southern Ocean
Ocean
lying immediately to the south of Australia. 

1906 map by German publisher Justus Perthes
Justus Perthes
showing Antarctica encompassed by an Antarktischer (Sudl. Eismeer) Ocean
Ocean
– the ‘ Antarctic
Antarctic
(South Arctic) Ocean’. 

Map of The World in 1922 by the National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
showing the Antarctic
Antarctic
(Southern) Ocean. 

Antarctic
Antarctic
expeditions[edit] Main article: List of Antarctic
Antarctic
expeditions

USS Vincennes at Disappointment Bay, Antarctica
Antarctica
in early 1840.

1911 South Polar Regions exploration map

In December 1839, as part of the United States Exploring Expedition
United States Exploring Expedition
of 1838–42 conducted by the United States Navy
United States Navy
(sometimes called "the Wilkes Expedition"), an expedition sailed from Sydney, Australia, on the sloops-of-war USS Vincennes and USS Peacock, the brig USS Porpoise, the full-rigged ship Relief, and two schooners Sea Gull
Gull
and USS Flying Fish. They sailed into the Antarctic
Antarctic
Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands" on 25 January 1840. That part of Antarctica
Antarctica
was later named "Wilkes Land", a name it maintains to this day. Explorer James Clark Ross
James Clark Ross
passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea
Sea
and discovered Ross Island
Ross Island
(both of which were named for him) in 1841. He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf. Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus
and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror.[49]

Frank Hurley, As time wore on it became more and more evident that the ship was doomed (The Endurance trapped in pack ice), National Library of Australia.

The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
of 1914, led by Ernest Shackleton, set out to cross the continent via the pole, but their ship, the Endurance, was trapped and crushed by pack ice before they even landed. The expedition members survived after an epic journey on sledges over pack ice to Elephant Island. Then Shackleton and five others crossed the Southern Ocean, in an open boat called James Caird, and then trekked over South Georgia to raise the alarm at the whaling station Grytviken. In 1946, US Navy Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd
Richard E. Byrd
and more than 4,700 military personnel visited the Antarctic
Antarctic
in an expedition called Operation Highjump. Reported to the public as a scientific mission, the details were kept secret and it may have actually been a training or testing mission for the military. The expedition was, in both military or scientific planning terms, put together very quickly. The group contained an unusually high amount of military equipment, including an aircraft carrier, submarines, military support ships, assault troops and military vehicles. The expedition was planned to last for eight months but was unexpectedly terminated after only two months. With the exception of some eccentric entries in Admiral Byrd's diaries, no real explanation for the early termination has ever been officially given. Captain Finn Ronne, Byrd's executive officer, returned to Antarctica with his own expedition in 1947–1948, with Navy support, three planes, and dogs. Ronne disproved the notion that the continent was divided in two and established that East and West Antarctica
Antarctica
was one single continent, i.e. that the Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea
and the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
are not connected.[50] The expedition explored and mapped large parts of Palmer Land and the Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea
coastline, and identified the Ronne Ice Shelf, named by Ronne after his wife Edith "Jackie" Ronne.[51] Ronne covered 3,600 miles by ski and dog sled – more than any other explorer in history.[52] The Ronne Antarctic
Antarctic
Research Expedition discovered and mapped the last unknown coastline in the world and was the first Antarctic
Antarctic
expedition to ever include women.[53] Recent history[edit]

MS Explorer in Antarctica
Antarctica
in January 1999. She sank on 23 November 2007 after hitting an iceberg.

The Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
was signed on 1 December 1959 and came into force on 23 June 1961. Among other provisions, this treaty limits military activity in the Antarctic
Antarctic
to the support of scientific research. The first person to sail single-handed to Antarctica
Antarctica
was the New Zealander David Henry Lewis, in 1972, in a 10-metre steel sloop Ice Bird. A baby, named Emilio Marcos de Palma, was born near Hope Bay
Hope Bay
on 7 January 1978, becoming the first baby born on the continent. He also was born further south than anyone in history.[54] The MS Explorer was a cruise ship operated by the Swedish explorer Lars-Eric Lindblad. Observers point to the Explorer's 1969 expeditionary cruise to Antarctica
Antarctica
as the frontrunner for today's sea-based tourism in that region.[55][56] The Explorer was the first cruise ship used specifically to sail the icy waters of the Antarctic Ocean
Ocean
and the first to sink there[57] when she struck an unidentified submerged object on 23 November 2007, reported to be ice, which caused a 10 by 4 inches (25 by 10 cm) gash in the hull.[58] The Explorer was abandoned in the early hours of 23 November 2007 after taking on water near the South Shetland Islands
South Shetland Islands
in the Southern Ocean, an area which is usually stormy but was calm at the time.[59] The Explorer was confirmed by the Chilean Navy
Chilean Navy
to have sunk at approximately position: 62° 24′ South, 57° 16′ West,[60] in roughly 600 m of water.[61]

Geography[edit] See also: List of Antarctic
Antarctic
and subantarctic islands The Southern Ocean, geologically the youngest of the oceans, was formed when Antarctica
Antarctica
and South America
South America
moved apart, opening the Drake Passage, roughly 30 million years ago. The separation of the continents allowed the formation of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circumpolar Current. With a northern limit at 60°S, the Southern Ocean
Ocean
differs from the other oceans in that its largest boundary, the northern boundary, does not abut a landmass (as it did with the first edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas). Instead, the northern limit is with the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. One reason for considering it as a separate ocean stems from the fact that much of the water of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
differs from the water in the other oceans. Water gets transported around the Southern Ocean fairly rapidly because of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
which circulates around Antarctica. Water in the Southern Ocean
Ocean
south of, for example, New Zealand, resembles the water in the Southern Ocean south of South America
South America
more closely than it resembles the water in the Pacific Ocean. The Southern Ocean
Ocean
has typical depths of between 4,000 and 5,000 m (13,000 and 16,000 ft) over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water. The Southern Ocean's greatest depth of 7,236 m (23,740 ft) occurs at the southern end of the South Sandwich Trench, at 60°00'S, 024°W. The Antarctic continental shelf appears generally narrow and unusually deep, its edge lying at depths up to 800 m (2,600 ft), compared to a global mean of 133 m (436 ft). Equinox
Equinox
to equinox in line with the sun's seasonal influence, the Antarctic
Antarctic
ice pack fluctuates from an average minimum of 2.6 million square kilometres (1.0×10^6 sq mi) in March to about 18.8 million square kilometres (7.3×10^6 sq mi) in September, more than a sevenfold increase in area. Sub-divisions of the Southern Ocean[edit] Sub-divisions of oceans are geographical features such as "seas", "straits", "bays", "channels", and "gulfs". There are many sub-divisions of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
defined in the never-approved 2002 draft fourth edition of the IHO publication Limits of Oceans and Seas. In clockwise order these include (with IHO sub-division chartlet numbers in parenthesis) the Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea
(10.1), the Lazarev Sea (10.2), the Riiser-Larsen Sea
Riiser-Larsen Sea
(10.3), the Cosmonauts Sea
Cosmonauts Sea
(10.4), the Cooperation Sea
Cooperation Sea
(10.5), the Davis Sea
Davis Sea
(10.6), Tryoshnikova Gulf (10.6.1), the Mawson Sea
Mawson Sea
(10.7), the Dumont D'Urville Sea (10.8), the Somov Sea
Somov Sea
(10.9), the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
(10.10), McMurdo Sound
McMurdo Sound
(10.10.1), the Amundsen Sea
Amundsen Sea
(10.11), the Bellingshausen Sea
Bellingshausen Sea
(10.12), part of the Drake Passage
Drake Passage
(10.13), Bransfield Strait
Bransfield Strait
(10.14) and part of the Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
(4.2).[29][note 7][note 8] A number of these such as the 2002 Russian-proposed "Consmonauts Sea", "Cooperation Sea", and "Somov (mid-1950s Russian polar explorer) Sea" are not included in the 1953 IHO document which remains currently in force,[27] because they received their names largely originated from 1962 onward. Leading geographic authorities and atlases do not use these latter three names, including the 2014 10th edition World Atlas from the United States' National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
and the 2014 12th edition of the British Times Atlas of the World, but Soviet and Russian-issued maps do.[62][63]

An iceberg being pushed out of a shipping lane USS Burton Island (AGB-1), USS Atka (AGB-3), and USS Glacier (AGB-4) pushing an iceberg out of a channel in the "Silent Land" near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1965

Natural resources[edit]

Manganese
Manganese
nodule

The Southern Ocean
Ocean
probably contains large, and possibly giant, oil and gas fields on the continental margin. Placer deposits, accumulation of valuable minerals such as gold, formed by gravity separation during sedimentary processes are also expected to exist in the Southern Ocean.[6] Manganese nodules
Manganese nodules
are expected to exist in the Southern Ocean. Manganese nodules
Manganese nodules
are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. The core may be microscopically small and is sometimes completely transformed into manganese minerals by crystallization. Interest in the potential exploitation of polymetallic nodules generated a great deal of activity among prospective mining consortia in the 1960s and 1970s.[6] The icebergs that form each year around in the Southern Ocean
Ocean
hold enough fresh water to meet the needs of every person on Earth
Earth
for several months. For several decades there have been proposals, none yet to be feasible or successful, to tow Southern Ocean
Ocean
icebergs to more arid northern regions (such as Australia) where they can be harvested.[64] Natural hazards[edit] Icebergs can occur at any time of year throughout the ocean. Some may have drafts up to several hundred meters; smaller icebergs, iceberg fragments and sea-ice (generally 0.5 to 1 m thick) also pose problems for ships. The deep continental shelf has a floor of glacial deposits varying widely over short distances. Sailors know latitudes from 40 to 70 degrees south as the "Roaring Forties", "Furious Fifties" and "Shrieking Sixties" due to high winds and large waves that form as winds blow around the entire globe unimpeded by any land-mass. Icebergs, especially in May to October, make the area even more dangerous. The remoteness of the region makes sources of search and rescue scarce. Physical oceanography[edit]

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
(ACC) is the strongest current system in the world oceans, linking the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific basins.

Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
and Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence[edit] The Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
moves perpetually eastward – chasing and joining itself, and at 21,000 km (13,000 mi) in length – it comprises the world's longest ocean current, transporting 130 million cubic metres per second (4.6×10^9 cu ft/s) of water – 100 times the flow of all the world's rivers. Several processes operate along the coast of Antarctica
Antarctica
to produce, in the Southern Ocean, types of water masses not produced elsewhere in the oceans of the Southern Hemisphere. One of these is the Antarctic Bottom Water, a very cold, highly saline, dense water that forms under sea ice. Associated with the Circumpolar Current is the Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence encircling Antarctica, where cold northward-flowing Antarctic
Antarctic
waters meet the relatively warmer waters of the subantarctic, Antarctic waters predominantly sink beneath subantarctic waters, while associated zones of mixing and upwelling create a zone very high in nutrients. These nurture high levels of phytoplankton with associated copepods and Antarctic
Antarctic
krill, and resultant foodchains supporting fish, whales, seals, penguins, albatrosses and a wealth of other species.[65] The Antarctic Convergence
Antarctic Convergence
is considered to be the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Southern Ocean.[6]

Upwelling
Upwelling
in the Southern Ocean

Upwelling[edit] Large-scale upwelling is found in the Southern Ocean. Strong westerly (eastward) winds blow around Antarctica, driving a significant flow of water northwards. This is actually a type of coastal upwelling. Since there are no continents in a band of open latitudes between South America and the tip of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula, some of this water is drawn up from great depths. In many numerical models and observational syntheses, the Southern Ocean
Ocean
upwelling represents the primary means by which deep dense water is brought to the surface. Shallower, wind-driven upwelling is also found off the west coasts of North and South America, northwest and southwest Africa, and southwest and southeast Australia, all associated with oceanic subtropical high pressure circulations. Some models of the ocean circulation suggest that broad-scale upwelling occurs in the tropics, as pressure driven flows converge water toward the low latitudes where it is diffusively warmed from above. The required diffusion coefficients, however, appear to be larger than are observed in the real ocean. Nonetheless, some diffusive upwelling does probably occur.

Location of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
gyres.

Ross and Weddell Gyres[edit] The Ross Gyre
Ross Gyre
and Weddell Gyre
Weddell Gyre
are two gyres that exist within the Southern Ocean. The gyres are located in the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
and Weddell Sea respectively, and both rotate clockwise. The gyres are formed by interactions between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
and the Antarctic
Antarctic
Continental Shelf. Sea
Sea
ice has been noted to persist in the central area of the Ross Gyre.[66] There is some evidence that global warming has resulted in some decrease of the salinity of the waters of the Ross Gyre
Ross Gyre
since the 1950s.[67] Due to the Coriolis effect
Coriolis effect
acting to the left in the Southern Hemisphere and the resulting Ekman transport
Ekman transport
away from the centres of the Weddell Gyre, these regions are very productive due to upwelling of cold, nutrient rich water.

Climate[edit] Sea
Sea
temperatures vary from about −2 to 10 °C (28 to 50 °F). Cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently become intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean. The ocean-area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle
Antarctic Circle
has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth.[68] In winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius. At some coastal points, however, persistent intense drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter.

Clouds over Southern Ocean
Ocean
with Continent labels.

Biodiversity[edit] See also: Antarctic
Antarctic
ecozone, Antarctic
Antarctic
microorganism, and Wildlife of Antarctica

Orca (Orcinus orca) hunting a Weddell seal
Weddell seal
in the Southern Ocean.

Animals[edit] A variety of marine animals exist and rely, directly or indirectly, on the phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic
Antarctic
sea life includes penguins, blue whales, orcas, colossal squids and fur seals. The emperor penguin is the only penguin that breeds during the winter in Antarctica, while the Adélie penguin
Adélie penguin
breeds farther south than any other penguin. The rockhopper penguin has distinctive feathers around the eyes, giving the appearance of elaborate eyelashes. King penguins, chinstrap penguins, and gentoo penguins also breed in the Antarctic. The Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
was very heavily hunted in the 18th and 19th centuries for its pelt by sealers from the United States and the United Kingdom. The Weddell seal, a "true seal", is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. Antarctic
Antarctic
krill, which congregates in large schools, is the keystone species of the ecosystem of the Southern Ocean, and is an important food organism for whales, seals, leopard seals, fur seals, squid, icefish, penguins, albatrosses and many other birds.[69] The benthic communities of the seafloor are diverse and dense, with up to 155,000 animals found in 1 square metre (10.8 sq ft). As the seafloor environment is very similar all around the Antarctic, hundreds of species can be found all the way around the mainland, which is a uniquely wide distribution for such a large community. Deep-sea gigantism
Deep-sea gigantism
is common among these animals.[70] A census of sea life carried out during the International Polar Year and which involved some 500 researchers was released in 2010. The research is part of the global Census of Marine Life
Census of Marine Life
(CoML) and has disclosed some remarkable findings. More than 235 marine organisms live in both polar regions, having bridged the gap of 12,000 km (7,456 mi). Large animals such as some cetaceans and birds make the round trip annually. More surprising are small forms of life such as mudworms, sea cucumbers and free-swimming snails found in both polar oceans. Various factors may aid in their distribution – fairly uniform temperatures of the deep ocean at the poles and the equator which differ by no more than 5 °C, and the major current systems or marine conveyor belt which transport egg and larva stages.[71]

A wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) on South Georgia

Birds[edit] See also: List of birds of Antarctica The rocky shores of mainland Antarctica
Antarctica
and its offshore islands provide nesting space for over 100 million birds every spring. These nesters include species of albatrosses, petrels, skuas, gulls and terns.[72] The insectivorous South Georgia pipit
South Georgia pipit
is endemic to South Georgia and some smaller surrounding islands. Freshwater ducks inhabit South Georgia and the Kerguelen Islands.[73] The flightless penguins are all located in the Southern Hemisphere, with the greatest concentration located on and around Antarctica. Four of the 18 penguin species live and breed on the mainland and its close offshore islands. Another four species live on the subantarctic islands.[74] Emperor penguins
Emperor penguins
have four overlapping layers of feathers, keeping them warm. They are the only Antarctic
Antarctic
animal to breed during the winter.[75] Fish[edit] There are relatively few fish species in few families in the Southern Ocean. The most species-rich family are the snailfish (Liparidae), followed by the cod icefish (Nototheniidae)[76] and eelpout (Zoarcidae). Together the snailfish, eelpouts and notothenioids (which includes cod icefish and several other families) account for almost ​9⁄10 of the more than 320 described fish species of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
(tens of undescribed species also occur in the region, especially among the snailfish).[77] Southern Ocean
Ocean
snailfish are generally found in deep waters, while the icefish also occur in shallower waters.[76] Icefish[edit]

Fish of the Notothenioidei
Notothenioidei
suborder, such as this young icefish, are mostly restricted to the Antarctic
Antarctic
and Subantarctic

Cod icefish
Cod icefish
(Nototheniidae), as well as several other families, are part of the Notothenioidei
Notothenioidei
suborder, collectively sometimes referred to as icefish. The suborder contains many species with antifreeze proteins in their blood and tissue, allowing them to live in water that is around or slightly below 0 °C (32 °F).[78][79] Antifreeze proteins are also known from Southern Ocean
Ocean
snailfish.[80] The crocodile icefish (family Channichthyidae), also known as white-blooded fish, are only found in the Southern Ocean. They lack hemoglobin in their blood, resulting in their blood being colourless. One Channichthyidae species, the mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari), was once the most common fish in coastal waters less than 400 metres (1,312 ft) deep, but was overfished in the 1970s and 1980s. Schools of icefish spend the day at the seafloor and the night higher in the water column eating plankton and smaller fish.[78] There are two species from the Dissostichus
Dissostichus
genus, the Antarctic toothfish ( Dissostichus
Dissostichus
mawsoni) and the Patagonian toothfish ( Dissostichus
Dissostichus
eleginoides). These two species live on the seafloor 100–3,000 metres (328–9,843 ft) deep, and can grow to around 2 metres (7 ft) long weighing up to 100 kilograms (220 lb), living up to 45 years. The Antarctic toothfish
Antarctic toothfish
lives close to the Antarctic
Antarctic
mainland, whereas the Patagonian toothfish
Patagonian toothfish
lives in the relatively warmer subantarctic waters. Toothfish are commercially fished, and overfishing has reduced toothfish populations.[78] Another abundant fish group is the Notothenia
Notothenia
genus, which like the Antarctic toothfish
Antarctic toothfish
have antifreeze in their bodies.[78] An unusual species of icefish is the Antarctic
Antarctic
silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is the only truly pelagic fish in the waters near Antarctica.[81]

Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are the most southerly of Antarctic
Antarctic
mammals.

Mammals[edit] See also: List of mammals of Antarctica Seven pinniped species inhabit Antarctica. The largest, the elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), can reach up to 4,000 kilograms (8,818 lb), while females of the smallest, the Antarctic
Antarctic
fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), reach only 150 kilograms (331 lb). These two species live north of the sea ice, and breed in harems on beaches. The other four species can live on the sea ice. Crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus) and Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) form breeding colonies, whereas leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) and Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossii) live solitary lives. Although these species hunt underwater, they breed on land or ice and spend a great deal of time there, as they have no terrestrial predators.[82] The four species that inhabit sea ice are thought to make up 50% of the total biomass of the world's seals.[83] Crabeater seals have a population of around 15 million, making them one of the most numerous large animals on the planet.[84] The New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(Phocarctos hookeri), one of the rarest and most localised pinnipeds, breeds almost exclusively on the subantarctic Auckland Islands, although historically it had a wider range.[85] Out of all permanent mammalian residents, the Weddell seals live the furthest south.[86] There are 10 cetacean species found in the Southern Ocean; six baleen whales, and four toothed whales. The largest of these, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), grows to 24 metres (79 ft) long weighing 84 tonnes. Many of these species are migratory, and travel to tropical waters during the Antarctic
Antarctic
winter.[87]

Antarctic krill
Antarctic krill
(Euphausia superba) are a keystone species of the food web.

Invertebrates[edit] Arthropods[edit] Five species of krill, small free-swimming crustaceans, are found in the Southern Ocean.[88] The Antarctic krill
Antarctic krill
(Euphausia superba) is one of the most abundant animal species on earth, with a biomass of around 500 million tonnes. Each individual is 6 centimetres (2.4 in) long and weighs over 1 gram (0.035 oz).[89] The swarms that form can stretch for kilometres, with up to 30,000 individuals per 1 cubic metre (35 cu ft), turning the water red.[88] Swarms usually remain in deep water during the day, ascending during the night to feed on plankton. Many larger animals depend on krill for their own survival.[89] During the winter when food is scarce, adult Antarctic krill can revert to a smaller juvenile stage, using their own body as nutrition.[88] Many benthic crustaceans have a non-seasonal breeding cycle, and some raise their young in a brood pouch. Glyptonotus antarcticus
Glyptonotus antarcticus
is an unusually large benthic isopod, reaching 20 centimetres (8 in) in length weighing 70 grams (2.47 oz). Amphipods are abundant in soft sediments, eating a range of items, from algae to other animals.[70] Slow moving sea spiders are common, sometimes growing as large as a human hand. They feed on the corals, sponges, and bryozoans that litter the seabed.[70]

A female warty squid (Moroteuthis ingens)

Others[edit] Many aquatic molluscs are present in Antarctica. Bivalves
Bivalves
such as Adamussium colbecki
Adamussium colbecki
move around on the seafloor, while others such as Laternula elliptica live in burrows filtering the water above.[70] There are around 70 cephalopod species in the Southern Ocean,[90] the largest of which is the colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni), which at up to 14 metres (46 ft) is among the largest invertebrate in the world.[91] Squid
Squid
makes up most of the diet of some animals, such as grey-headed albatrosses and sperm whales, and the warty squid (Moroteuthis ingens) is one of the subantarctic's most preyed upon species by vertebrates.[90] The sea urchin genus Abatus burrow through the sediment eating the nutrients they find in it.[70] Two species of salps are common in Antarctic
Antarctic
waters, Salpa thompsoni and Ihlea racovitzai. Salpa thompsoni is found in ice-free areas, whereas Ihlea racovitzai is found in the high latitude areas near ice. Due to their low nutritional value, they are normally only eaten by fish, with larger animals such as birds and marine mammals only eating them when other food is scarce.[92] Antarctic
Antarctic
sponges are long lived, and sensitive to environmental changes due to the specificity of the symbiotic microbial communities within them. As a result, they function as indicators of environmental health.[93] Environment[edit] Current issues[edit] Increased solar ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole has reduced marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% and has started damaging the DNA
DNA
of some fish.[94] Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, especially the landing of an estimated five to six times more Patagonian toothfish
Patagonian toothfish
than the regulated fishery, likely affects the sustainability of the stock. Long-line fishing for toothfish causes a high incidence of seabird mortality. International agreements[edit] All international agreements regarding the world's oceans apply to the Southern Ocean. In addition, it is subject to these agreements specific to the region:

The Southern Ocean
Ocean
Whale Sanctuary of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) prohibits commercial whaling south of 40 degrees south (south of 60 degrees south between 50 degrees and 130 degrees west). Japan
Japan
regularly does not recognize this provision, because the sanctuary violates IWC charter. Since the scope of the sanctuary is limited to commercial whaling, in regard to its whaling permit and whaling for scientific research, a Japanese fleet carried out an annual whale-hunt in the region. On 31 March 2014, the International Court of Justice ruled that Japan's whaling program, which Japan
Japan
has long claimed is for scientific purposes, was a cloak for commercial whaling, and no further permits would be granted. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals is part of the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System. It was signed at the conclusion of a multilateral conference in London on 11 February 1972.[95] Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic
Antarctic
Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is part of the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System. The Convention was entered into force on 7 April 1982 and has its goal is to preserve marine life and environmental integrity in and near Antarctica. It was established in large part to concerns that an increase in krill catches in the Southern Ocean
Ocean
could have a serious impact on populations of other marine life which are dependent upon krill for food.[96]

Many nations prohibit the exploration for and the exploitation of mineral resources south of the fluctuating Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence,[97] which lies in the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
and serves as the dividing line between the very cold polar surface waters to the south and the warmer waters to the north. The Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty covers the portion of the globe south of sixty degrees south,[98] it prohibits new claims to Antarctica.[99] The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic
Antarctic
Marine Living Resources applies to the area south of 60° South latitude as well as the areas further north up to the limit of the Antarctic Convergence.[100] Economy[edit] Between 1 July 1998 and 30 June 1999, fisheries landed 119,898 tonnes, of which 85% consisted of krill and 14% of Patagonian toothfish. International agreements came into force in late 1999 to reduce illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, which in the 1998–99 season landed five to six times more Patagonian toothfish
Patagonian toothfish
than the regulated fishery. Ports and harbors[edit]

Severe cracks in an ice pier in use for four seasons at McMurdo Station slowed cargo operations in 1983 and proved a safety hazard.

Major operational ports include: Rothera Station, Palmer Station, Villa Las Estrellas, Esperanza Base, Mawson Station, McMurdo Station, and offshore anchorages in Antarctica. Few ports or harbors exist on the southern (Antarctic) coast of the Southern Ocean, since ice conditions limit use of most shores to short periods in midsummer; even then some require icebreaker escort for access. Most Antarctic
Antarctic
ports are operated by government research stations and, except in an emergency, remain closed to commercial or private vessels; vessels in any port south of 60 degrees south are subject to inspection by Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
observers. The Southern Ocean's southernmost port operates at McMurdo Station
McMurdo Station
at 77°50′S 166°40′E / 77.833°S 166.667°E / -77.833; 166.667. Winter Quarters Bay
Winter Quarters Bay
forms a small harbor, on the southern tip of Ross Island
Ross Island
where a floating ice pier makes port operations possible in summer. Operation Deep Freeze
Operation Deep Freeze
personnel constructed the first ice pier at McMurdo in 1973.[101] Based on the original 1928 IHO delineation of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
(and the 1937 delineation if the Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
is considered integral), Australian ports and harbors between Cape Leeuwin
Cape Leeuwin
and Cape Otway on the Australian mainland and along the west coast of Tasmania would also be identified as ports and harbors existing in the Southern Ocean. These would include the larger ports and harbors of Albany, Thevenard, Port Lincoln, Whyalla, Port Augusta, Port Adelaide, Portland, Warrnambool, and Macquarie Harbour.

Yacht races have been held in the Southern Ocean, such as the Volvo Ocean
Ocean
Race, Velux 5 Oceans Race, Vendée Globe, Jules Verne Trophy
Jules Verne Trophy
and Global Challenge. See also[edit]

Extreme points of the Antarctic Seven Seas Borders of the oceans

Environment portal Ecology portal Geography portal Weather portal

Notes[edit]

^ Also a translation of its former French name (Grand Océan Austral) in reference to its position below the Pacific, the "Grand Océan". ^ Used by Dr Hooker in his accounts of his Antarctic
Antarctic
voyages.[5] Also a translation of the ocean's Japanese name Nankyoku Kai (南極海). ^ Also a translation of the ocean's Chinese name Nánbīng Yáng (南冰洋). ^ Historic names include the "South Sea",[3] the "Great Southern Ocean",[4][note 1] the "South Polar Ocean" or "South-Polar Ocean",[note 2] and the "Southern Icy Ocean".[3][note 3] ^ A subsidiary of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ^ In violation of their Style Guide,[2] however, some of National Geographic's online news blogs do use the term.[14] ^ Reservation by Norway: Norway recognizes the name Kong Håkon VII Hav which covers the sea area adjacent to Dronning Maud Land
Dronning Maud Land
and stretching from 20°W to 45°E.[29] ^ The Drake Passage
Drake Passage
is situated between the southern and eastern extremities of South America
South America
and the South Shetland Islands, lying north of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula. The Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
is an area defined by the southeastern extremity of South America
South America
and the South Shetland Islands on the west and by South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands to the north and east. As they extend north of 60°S, Drake Passage and the Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
are also described as forming part of the South Atlantic Ocean.[29]

^ EB (1878). ^ a b c NGS (2014). ^ a b Sherwood, Mary Martha (1823), An Introduction to Geography, Intended for Little Children, 3rd ed., Wellington: F. Houlston & Son, p. 10 . ^ EB (1911). ^ Hooker, Joseph Dalton (1844), Flora Antarctica: The Botany of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Voyage, London: Reeve . ^ a b c d e "Geography – Southern Ocean". CIA Factbook. Retrieved 16 July 2012. ... the Southern Ocean
Ocean
has the unique distinction of being a large circumpolar body of water totally encircling the continent of Antarctica; this ring of water lies between 60 degrees south latitude and the coast of Antarctica
Antarctica
and encompasses 360 degrees of longitude.  ^ a b c "Introduction – Southern Ocean". CIA Factbook. Retrieved 16 July 2012. ...As such, the Southern Ocean
Ocean
is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean).  ^ The Southern Ocean
Ocean
is the Fifth and Newest World Ocean ^ Pyne, Stephen J.; The Ice: A Journey to Antarctica. University of Washington Press, 1986. (A study of Antarctica's exploration, earth-sciences, icescape, esthetics, literature, and geopolitics) ^ a b "Southern Ocean". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 18 January 2014.  ^ Darby, Andrew (22 December 2003). "Canberra all at sea over position of Southern Ocean". The Age. Retrieved 13 January 2013.  ^ a b "Indian Ocean". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 January 2013.  ^ "Maps Home". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 31 March 2014.  ^ a b c "Southern Ocean
Ocean
– News Watch". National Geographic. Retrieved 26 April 2013.  ^ "Upside Down World Map". Hema Maps. Retrieved 22 July 2014.  ^ "Classic World Wall Map". GeoNova. Retrieved 22 July 2014.  ^ "Balboa, or Pan-Pacific Day". The Mid-Pacific Magazine. Pan-Pacific Union. 20 (10): 16. He named it the Southern Ocean, but in 1520 Magellan sailed into the Southern Ocean
Ocean
and named it Pacific  ^ Tomlins, Sir Thomas Edlyne; Raithby, John (1811). "18 George II c. 17". The statutes at large, of England and of Great-Britain: from Magna Carta to the union of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. Printed by G. Eyre and A. Strahan. p. 153. Retrieved 1 November 2015.  ^ Cook, James (1821). "March 1775". Three Voyages of Captain James Cook Round the World. Longman. p. 244. Retrieved 1 November 2015. These voyages of the French, though undertaken by private adventurers, have contributed something towards exploring the Southern Ocean. That of Captain Surville, clears up a mistake, which I was led into, in imagining the shoals off the west end of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
to extend to the west, as far as New Holland.  ^ A Compendious Geographical Dictionary, Containing, a Concise Description of the Most Remarkable Places, Ancient and Modern, in Europe, Asia, Africa, & America, ... (2nd ed.). London: W. Peacock. 1795. p. 29.  ^ Payne, John (1796). Geographical extracts, forming a general view of earth and nature... illustrated with maps. London: G. G. and J. Robinson. p. 80. Retrieved 1 November 2015.  ^ The Edinburgh Gazetteer: Or, Geographical Dictionary: Containing a Description of the Various Countries, Kingdoms, States, Cities, Towns, Mountains, &c. of the World; an Account of the Government, Customs, and Religion of the Inhabitants; the Boundaries and Natural Productions of Each Country, &c. &c. Forming a Complete Body of Geography, Physical, Political, Statistical, and Commercial with Addenda, Containing the Present State of the New Governments in South America... 1. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. 1827. p. lix.  ^ "Physical Geography". Family Magazine: Or Monthly Abstract of General Knowledge. New York: Redfield & Lindsay. 3 (1): 16. June 1835.  ^ "45 Vict. No. 702" (PDF). Australasian Legal Information Institute. 28 November 1881. p. 87. Retrieved 2 November 2015.  ^ a b "Map accompanying first edition of IHO Publication Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special
Special
Publication 23". NOAA Photo Library. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Retrieved 19 January 2014.  ^ a b "Map accompanying second edition of IHO Publication Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special
Special
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Special
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Antarctica
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Tasmania
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Ocean
Between Cape Horn
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and Cape of Good Hope. Two volumes. London. ^ Headland, Robert K. (1984). The Island of South Georgia, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25274-1 ^ Cook, James. (1777). A Voyage Towards the South Pole, and Round the World. Performed in His Majesty's Ships the Resolution and Adventure, In the Years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775. In which is included, Captain Furneaux's Narrative of his Proceedings in the Adventure during the Separation of the Ships. Volume II. London: Printed for W. Strahan and T. Cadell. (Relevant fragment) ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Polar Regions". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Dance, Nathaniel (c. 1776). "Captain James Cook, 1728–79". Royal Museums Greenwich. Commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks. Retrieved 23 January 2014.  ^ Weddel, James (1970) [1825]. A voyage towards the South Pole: performed in the years 1822–24, containing an examination of the Antarctic
Antarctic
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Survey. ^ Scope of Antarctic
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Tourism – A Background Presentation Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine., IAATO official website. ^ Reel, Monte (24 November 2007). "Cruise Ship Sinks Off Antarctica". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 May 2010.  ^ "154 Rescued From Sinking Ship In Antarctic: Passengers, Crew Boarding Another Ship After Wait In Lifeboats; No Injuries Reported". CBS News. 23 November 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007.  ^ "Doomed Ship Defies Antarctica
Antarctica
Odds". Reuters. 25 November 2007. Archived from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.  ^ "MS Explorer – situation report". The Falkland Islands News. 23 November 2007.  ^ MV Explorer Cruise Ship Sinking In South Atlantic, The Shipping Times, 23 November 2007 ^ [1] ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ "Water from Icebergs". Ocean
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Detail". U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 18 October 2000. Retrieved 18 January 2014.  ^ Michael L., Van Woert; et al. (2003). "The Ross Sea
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Climate Evolution. Elsevier. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-444-52847-6.  ^ "The World Fact Book: Climate". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 January 2014.  ^ "Creatures of Antarctica". Archived from the original on 14 February 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2006.  ^ a b c d e Australian Antarctic
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Division. "Seabed (benthic) communities". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ Kinver, Mark (15 February 2009). "Ice oceans 'are not poles apart'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 October 2011.  ^ Australian Antarctic
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Division. "Flying Birds". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.  ^ British Antarctic
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Division. "Fish". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013.  ^ Cheng, C.-H.C.; L. Chen; T.J. Near; Y. Jin (2003). "Functional Antifreeze Glycoprotein Genes in Temperate-Water New Zealand Nototheniid Fish Infer an Antarctic
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Division. "What is a whale?". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ a b c Australian Antarctic
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Division. "Krill". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ a b Australian Antarctic
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Division. "Squid". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ Anderton, J. (23 February 2007). "Amazing specimen of world's largest squid in NZ". beehive.govt.nz. Retrieved 27 December 2017.  ^ Australian Antarctic
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Division. "Salps". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ Australian Antarctic
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Division. "Sponges". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ Smith RC, Prézelin BB, Baker KS, Bidigare RR, Boucher NP, Coley T, Karentz D, MacIntyre S, Matlick HA, Menzies D, et al. (1992). "Ozone depletion: ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in antarctic waters". Science. 255 (5047): 952–59. Bibcode:1992Sci...255..952S. doi:10.1126/science.1546292. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 1546292.  ^ Antarctic
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Sun. 8 January 2006; McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

References[edit]

 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), " Antarctic
Antarctic
Ocean", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 100   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Great Southern Ocean", Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 422  Brindley, David, ed. (2014), " Antarctic
Antarctic
Ocean, Austral Ocean, Southern Ocean", Style Manual, Washington: National Geographic Society, retrieved 31 July 2015 .

Further reading[edit]

Gille, Sarah T. 2002. "Warming of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
since the 1950s": abstract, article. Science: vol. 295 (no. 5558), pp. 1275–1277. Descriptive Regional Oceanography, P. Tchernia, Pergamon Press, 1980. Matthias Tomczak and J. Stuart Godfrey. 2003. Regional Oceanography: an Introduction. (see the site)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Southern Ocean.

Look up southern ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Great Southern Ocean.

Oceanography Image of the Day, from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution The CIA World Factbook's entry on the Southern Ocean The Fifth Ocean
Ocean
from Geography.About.com The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean
Ocean
(IBCSO) National Geophysical Data Center U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA): Limits of Oceans and Seas (2nd Edition), extant 1937 to 1953, with limits of Southern Ocean. NOAA In-situ Ocean
Ocean
Data Viewer Plot and download ocean observations NOAA FAQ about the number of oceans Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic
Antarctic
Marine Living Resources

Coordinates: 70°S 150°W / 70°S 150°W / -70; -150

v t e

Marine realms

Arctic Temperate Northern Pacific Tropical Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Tropical Eastern Pacific Southern Ocean

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea
Sea
of Åland Sea
Sea
of Azov Sea
Sea
of Crete Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral
Coral
Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea
Sea
of Japan Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

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  Book   Category

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

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Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

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Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea
Sea
of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

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Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

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Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea
Sea
of Åland Sea
Sea
of Azov Sea
Sea
of Crete Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral
Coral
Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea
Sea
of Japan Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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Antarctica

General

Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System Climate Colonization Demographics Economy Expeditions Field camps Flags Flora Geography Geology History Mammals Microorganisms Military activity Protected areas Religion Research stations Telecommunications Territorial claims Time Tourism Transport Volcanoes Wildlife

Geographic regions

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Ecozone Extreme points Floristic Kingdom Islands

Waterways

Lake Vostok List of rivers McMurdo Sound Ross Sea Southern Ocean Weddell Sea Lake CECs

Famous explorers

Roald Amundsen Richard E. Byrd Douglas Mawson James Clark Ross Robert Falcon Scott Ernest Shackleton more...

Category Commons Antarctica
Antarctica
portal Index

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Polar exploration

Arctic

Ocean History Expeditions Research stations

Farthest North North Pole

Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole

J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes

Polaris

Polaris C. F. Hall

British Arctic
Arctic
Expedition

HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Greely Lockwood Brainard

1st Fram
Fram
expedition

Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup

Jason

Amedeo

F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge

Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth

Airship Italia Nautilus

Wilkins

ANT-25

Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov

"North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1

Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel

NP-36 NP-37 Sedov

Badygin Wiese

USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007

Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov

Iceland Greenland

Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions

J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson

Danish colonization

Egede

Scoresby Jason

Nansen Sverdrup

Peary Rasmussen

Northwest Passage Northern Canada

Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery

Bylot Baffin

Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Discovery

Clerke

Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper

Parry

HMS Hecla

Lyon

HMS Fury

Hoppner

Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom

Beechey

Franklin's lost expedition

HMS Erebus HMS Terror

Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition

Rae J. Richardson

Austin McClure Expedition

HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett

Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel

Inglefield

2nd Grinnell Expedition

USS Advance Kane

Fox

McClintock

HMS Pandora

Young

Fram

Sverdrup

Gjøa

Amundsen

Rasmussen Karluk

Stefansson Bartlett

St. Roch

H. Larsen

Cowper

North East Passage Russian Arctic

Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition

Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev

Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition

Weyprecht Payer

Vega Expedition

A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander

USS Jeannette

De Long

Yermak

Makarov

Zarya

Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak

Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition

Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad

Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach

Vilkitsky

Maud

Amundsen

AARI

Samoylovich

Begichev Urvantsev Sadko

Ushakov

Glavsevmorput

Schmidt

Aviaarktika

Shevelev

Sibiryakov

Voronin

Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers

NS Lenin Arktika class

Antarctic

Continent History Expeditions

Southern Ocean

Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Smith San Telmo Vostok

Bellingshausen

Mirny

Lazarev

Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe

Dumont d'Urville

United States Exploring Expedition

USS Vincennes Wilkes

USS Porpoise

Ringgold

Ross expedition

HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier)

Cooper Challenger expedition

HMS Challenger Nares Murray

Jason

C. A. Larsen

"Heroic Age"

Belgian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski

Southern Cross

Southern Cross Borchgrevink

Discovery

Discovery Discovery Hut

Gauss

Gauss Drygalski

Swedish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen

Scottish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Bruce Scotia

Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition

Nimrod

French Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

Pourquoi-Pas Charcot

Japanese Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Shirase

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim

Terra Nova

Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly

Filchner Australasian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

SY Aurora Mawson

Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild

James Caird Ross Sea
Ross Sea
party

Mackintosh

Shackleton–Rowett Expedition

Quest

IPY · IGY Modern research

Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE

Rymill

New Swabia

Ritscher

Operation Tabarin

Marr

Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey Operation Windmill

Ketchum

Ronne Expedition

F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach

Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Hillary V. Fuchs

Soviet Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

1st

Somov Klenova Mirny

2nd

Tryoshnikov

3rd

Tolstikov

Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System Transglobe Expedition

Fiennes Burton

Lake Vostok Kapitsa

Farthest South South Pole

HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Weddell HMS Erebus

J. C. Ross

HMS Terror

Crozier

Southern Cross

Borchgrevink

Discovery

Barne

Nimrod

Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams

South Magnetic Pole

Mawson David Mackay

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim

Terra Nova

Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers

Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold

Vostok Station

Pole of inaccessibility

Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov

Crary A. Fuchs Messner

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248079071 GND: 40584

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