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Coordinates: 90°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°S 0.00000°E / -90.00000; 0.00000

A photo of Earth
Earth
from Apollo 17
Apollo 17
(Blue Marble) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspective

The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
highlighted in yellow ( Antarctica
Antarctica
not depicted)

The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
from above the South Pole

The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
is the half sphere of Earth
Earth
which is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents[1] (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, the southern third of Africa, and several southern islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
in Oceania. Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.[2] Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation
Earth's rotation
relative to the Sun
Sun
and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September. September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox. The South Pole
South Pole
is in the middle of the southern hemispherical region.

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Demographics and human geography 3 List of continents and countries

3.1 Continents and microcontinents 3.2 Countries and territories

4 References 5 See also

Characteristics[edit] Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
climates tend to be slightly milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic which is colder than the Arctic. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much less land; water heats up and cools down more slowly than land.

Aurora australis appearing in the night sky of Swifts Creek, 100 km (62 mi) north of Lakes Entrance, Victoria, Australia

Aurora australis appearing from Stewart Island / Rakiura
Stewart Island / Rakiura
in the south of New Zealand

In the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
the sun passes from east to west through the north, although north of the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
the mean sun can be directly overhead or due south at midday. The Sun
Sun
rotating through the north causes an apparent right-left trajectory through the sky unlike the left-right motion of the Sun
Sun
when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn, the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun
Sun
(see, for example, photos with timings of the solar eclipse of November 13, 2012), while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer (i.e., in the Northern Hemisphere), the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere (as opposed to anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere) due to the Coriolis effect.[3] The southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. This zone includes the southern tip of Uruguay and South Africa; the southern half of Chile
Chile
and Argentina; parts of Australia, going south from Adelaide, and all of New Zealand. The Sagittarius constellation that includes the galactic centre is a southern constellation and this, combined with clearer skies, makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars. Forests in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile
Chile
and Australia
Australia
share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, and New Zealand
New Zealand
has members of the closely related genera Lophozonia
Lophozonia
and Fuscospora. The eucalyptus is native to Australia
Australia
but is now also planted in Southern Africa
Africa
and Latin America
Latin America
for pulp production and, increasingly, biofuel uses. Demographics and human geography[edit] Approximately 800 million humans live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing only 10–12% of the total global human population of 7.3 billion.[4][5] Of those 800 million people, 200 million live in Brazil, the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere, while 141 million live on the island of Java, the most populous island in the world. The most populous nation in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
is Indonesia, with 261 million people (roughly 30 million of whom live north of the equator on the northern portions of the islands of Sumatra, Borneo
Borneo
and Sulawesi, while the rest of the population lives in the Southern Hemisphere). Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere,[6] followed by Spanish and Javanese. The largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
are São Paulo (21 million people), Jakarta
Jakarta
(18 million people), Buenos Aires (12 million people) and Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
(11 million people) and Kinshasa
Kinshasa
(11 million people). The most important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
are São Paulo, where the Bovespa Index is headquartered, along with Sydney, home to the Australian Securities Exchange, Johannesburg, home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Buenos Aires, headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere. Some of the richest, most advanced nations in the world are found in the Southern Hemisphere, along with some of the poorest and least developed. Among the most developed are Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$51,850 and a Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of 0.939, the second highest in the world as of 2016. New Zealand
New Zealand
is also well developed, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$38,385 and a Human Development Index of 0.915, putting it at #13 in the world in 2016. The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
cluster in Africa
Africa
and Oceania, with Burundi
Burundi
and Mozambique
Mozambique
at the lowest ends of the Human Development Index, at 0.404 (#184 in the world) and 0.418 (#181 in the world) respectively. The nominal GDP per capitas of these two countries don't go above US$550 per capita, a tiny fraction of the incomes enjoyed by Australians and New Zealanders. The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
are Christianity
Christianity
in South America, southern Africa
Africa
and Australia/New Zealand, followed by Islam
Islam
in most of the islands of Indonesia
Indonesia
and in parts of southeastern Africa, and Hinduism, which is mostly concentrated on the island of Bali
Bali
and neighboring islands. The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
is Bogor, in western Java, which was founded in 669 CE. Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor
Bogor
was founded. However, there is some evidence that Zanzibar, an ancient port with around 200,000 inhabitants on the coast of Tanzania, may be older than Bogor. A Greco-Roman text written between 1 CE and 100 CE, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias (Ancient Greek: Μενουθιάς) as a trading port on the east African coast, which is probably the small island of Unguja
Unguja
on which Zanzibar is located. The oldest proven archaeological site in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
is Sechin Bajo, located on the coast of northern Peru, and dates back to 3600 BCE. Sechin Bajo may also be the oldest site for monumental architecture in the Americas. List of continents and countries[edit] Continents and microcontinents[edit]

Africa
Africa
(about one-third, from south of Somalia
Somalia
in the east to south of Libreville
Libreville
in Gabon
Gabon
in the west) Antarctica
Antarctica
(the entire continent and its associated islands are wholly within the Southern Hemisphere) Asia
Asia
(the very southern island portion including East Timor, most of Indonesia, and a few islets of the Maldives) Australia
Australia
(the entire mainland is in the Southern Hemisphere) South America
South America
(mostly, from south of the Amazon River
Amazon River
mouth in the east to south of Quito
Quito
in Ecuador
Ecuador
in the west) Zealandia
Zealandia
(New Caledonia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and other associated islands are wholly within the Southern Hemisphere)

Countries and territories[edit]

Africa Entirely

Angola Botswana Burundi Comoros Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mayotte
Mayotte
(France) Mozambique Namibia Réunion
Réunion
(France) Rwanda Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe

Mostly

Democratic Republic of the Congo Gabon Republic of the Congo

Partially

Equatorial Guinea Kenya São Tomé and Príncipe Somalia Uganda

Asia Entirely

East Timor

Mostly

Indonesia

Partially

Maldives

Australia Entirely

Australia Papua New Guinea

South America Entirely

Argentina Bolivia Chile Paraguay Peru Uruguay

Mostly

Brazil Ecuador

Partially

Colombia

Indian Ocean Entirely

British Indian Ocean
Ocean
Territory (United Kingdom) Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
(Australia)

South Atlantic Ocean Entirely

Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
/ Islas Malvinas (Administered by United Kingdom
United Kingdom
/ Claimed by Argentina) Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(United Kingdom)

Southern Ocean Entirely

Antarctic and subantarctic islands Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island
(Norway) French Southern and Antarctic Lands
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(France) Peter I Island
Peter I Island
(Antarctic Treaty signatories / Claimed by Norway) South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(Administered by United Kingdom / Claimed by Argentina) South Orkney Islands
South Orkney Islands
(Antarctic Treaty signatories) South Shetland Islands
South Shetland Islands
(Antarctic Treaty signatories)

South Pacific Ocean Entirely

American Samoa
American Samoa
(United States) Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
(Australia) Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia) Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(New Zealand) Coral Sea Islands
Coral Sea Islands
(Australia) Fiji French Polynesia
French Polynesia
(including Tahiti) (France) Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island
(United States) Nauru New Caledonia
New Caledonia
(France) New Zealand Niue
Niue
(New Zealand) Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
(Australia) Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
(United Kingdom) Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau
Tokelau
(New Zealand) Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
(France)

Mostly

Kiribati

References[edit]

^ "Hemisphere Map". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 13 June 2014.  ^ Life on Earth: A - G.. 1. ABC-CLIO. 2002. p. 528. ISBN 9781576072868. Retrieved 8 September 2016.  ^ "Surface Ocean
Ocean
Currents". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 13 June 2014.  ^ "90% Of People Live In The Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
- Business Insider". Business Insider. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2015.  ^ "GIC - Article". galegroup.com. Retrieved 10 November 2015.  ^ "Potencial Económico da Língua Portuguesa" (PDF). University of Coimbra. 

See also[edit] Media related to Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
at Wikimedia Commons

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Hemispheres of Earth

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