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The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr., had a large role in the American civil rights movement.[1]

Contents

1 Founding

1.1 Citizenship Schools 1.2 Albany Movement 1.3 Birmingham campaign 1.4 March on Washington 1.5 St. Augustine protests 1.6 Selma Voting Rights Movement and the march to Montgomery 1.7 Grenada Freedom Movement 1.8 Jackson conference 1.9 Chicago Freedom Movement 1.10 Poor People's Campaign

2 1968–1997 3 1997 to present 4 Leadership 5 Relationships with other organizations 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Founding[edit] On January 10, 1957, following the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
victory and consultations with Bayard Rustin, Ella Baker, and others, Martin Luther King
King
Jr. invited about 60 black ministers and leaders to Ebenezer Church in Atlanta. Prior to this, Rustin, in New York City, conceived the idea of initiating such an effort and first sought C. K. Steele to make the call and take the lead role. Steele declined, but told Rustin he would be glad to work right beside him if he sought King
King
in Montgomery, for the role. Their goal was to form an organization to coordinate and support nonviolent direct action as a method of desegregating bus systems across the South. In addition to King, Rustin, Baker, and Steele, Fred Shuttlesworth
Fred Shuttlesworth
of Birmingham, Joseph Lowery
Joseph Lowery
of Mobile, and Ralph Abernathy
Ralph Abernathy
of Montgomery, all played key roles in this meeting.[2] On February 15, a follow-up meeting was held in New Orleans. Out of these two meetings came a new organization with King
King
as its president. Initially called the "Negro Leaders Conference on Nonviolent Integration," then "Southern Negro Leaders Conference," the group eventually chose "Southern Christian Leadership Conference" (SCLC) as its name, and expanded its focus beyond buses to ending all forms of segregation.[3] A small office was established in the Prince Hall Masonic Temple Building on Auburn Avenue in Atlanta[4] with Ella Baker as SCLC's first—and for a long time only—staff member.[5] SCLC was governed by an elected Board, and established as an organization of affiliates, most of which were either individual churches or community organizations such as the Montgomery Improvement Association and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR). This organizational form differed from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) who recruited individuals and formed them into local chapters. The organization also drew inspiration from the crusades of evangelist Billy Graham, who befriended King
King
after he appeared at a Graham crusade in New York City in 1957. Despite tactical differences, which arose from Graham's willingness to continue affiliating himself with segregationists, the SCLC and the Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Evangelistic Association had similar ambitions and Graham would privately advise the SCLC.[6] During its early years, SCLC struggled to gain footholds in black churches and communities across the South. Social activism in favor of racial equality faced fierce repression from police, White Citizens' Council and the Ku Klux Klan. Only a few churches had the courage to defy the white-dominated status-quo by affiliating with SCLC, and those that did risked economic retaliation against pastors and other church leaders, arson, and bombings. SCLC's advocacy of boycotts and other forms of nonviolent protest was controversial among both whites and blacks. Many black community leaders believed that segregation should be challenged in the courts and that direct action excited white resistance, hostility, and violence. Traditionally, leadership in black communities came from the educated elite—ministers, professionals, teachers, etc.—who spoke for and on behalf of the laborers, maids, farm-hands, and working poor who made up the bulk of the black population. Many of these traditional leaders were uneasy at involving ordinary blacks in mass activity such as boycotts and marches. SCLC's belief that churches should be involved in political activism against social ills was also deeply controversial. Many ministers and religious leaders—both black and white—thought that the role of the church was to focus on the spiritual needs of the congregation and perform charitable works to aid the needy. To some of them, the social-political activity of King
King
and SCLC amounted to dangerous radicalism which they strongly opposed. SCLC and King
King
were also sometimes criticized for lack of militancy by younger activists in groups such as Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and CORE who were participating in sit-ins and Freedom Rides. Citizenship Schools[edit] Originally started in 1954 by Esau Jenkins and Septima Clark on the Sea Islands
Sea Islands
off the coast of South Carolina
South Carolina
and Georgia, the Citizenship Schools focused on teaching adults to read so they could pass the voter-registration literacy tests, fill out driver's license exams, use mail-order forms, and open checking accounts. Under the auspices of the Highlander Folk School (now Highlander Research and Education Center) the program was expanded across the South. The Johns Island Citizenship School was housed at The Progressive Club, listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in 2007.[7][8] When the state of Tennessee
Tennessee
revoked Highlander's charter and confiscated its land and property in 1961, SCLC rescued the citizenship school program and added Septima Clark, Bernice Robinson, and Andrew Young
Andrew Young
to its staff. Under the innocuous cover of adult-literacy classes, the schools secretly taught democracy and civil rights, community leadership and organizing, practical politicals, and the strategies and tactics of resistance and struggle, and in so doing built the human foundations of the mass community struggles to come. Eventually, close to 69,000 teachers, most of them unpaid volunteers and many with little formal education, taught Citizenship Schools throughout the South.[9] Many of the Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement's adult leaders such as Fannie Lou Hamer
Fannie Lou Hamer
and Victoria Gray, and hundreds of other local leaders in black communities across the South attended and taught citizenship schools.[10] Albany Movement[edit] Main article: Albany Movement In 1961 and 1962, SCLC joined SNCC in the Albany Movement, a broad protest against segregation in Albany, Georgia. It is generally considered the organization's first major nonviolent campaign. At the time, it was considered by many to be unsuccessful: despite large demonstrations and many arrests, few changes were won, and the protests drew little national attention. Yet, despite the lack of immediate gains, much of the success of the subsequent Birmingham Campaign can be attributed to lessons learned in Albany.[11] Birmingham campaign[edit] Main article: Birmingham campaign By contrast, the 1963 SCLC campaign in Birmingham, Alabama, was an unqualified success. The campaign focused on a single goal—the desegregation of Birmingham's downtown merchants—rather than total desegregation, as in Albany. The brutal response of local police, led by Public Safety Commissioner "Bull" Connor, stood in stark contrast to the nonviolent civil disobedience of the activists. After his arrest in April, King
King
wrote the "Letter from Birmingham Jail" in response to a group of clergy who had criticized the Birmingham campaign, writing that it was "directed and led in part by outsiders" and that the demonstrations were "unwise and untimely."[12] In his letter, King
King
explained that, as president of SCLC, he had been asked to come to Birmingham by the local members:

I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. ... Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here I am here because I have organizational ties here.[13]

King
King
also addressed the question of "timeliness":

One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. ... Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign that was "well timed" in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost always meant "Never." We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that "justice too long delayed is justice denied." We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God-given rights.[13]

The most dramatic moments of the Birmingham campaign
Birmingham campaign
came on May 2, when, under the direction and leadership of James Bevel, who would soon officially become SCLC's Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education, more than 1,000 Black children left school to join the demonstrations; hundreds were arrested. The following day, 2,500 more students joined and were met by Bull Connor
Bull Connor
with police dogs and high-pressure fire hoses. That evening, television news programs reported to the nation and the world scenes of fire hoses knocking down schoolchildren and dogs attacking individual demonstrators. Public outrage led the Kennedy administration to intervene more forcefully and a settlement was announced on May 10, under which the downtown businesses would desegregate and eliminate discriminatory hiring practices, and the city would release the jailed protesters. March on Washington[edit] Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom After the Birmingham Campaign, SCLC called for massive protests in Washington, DC, to push for new civil rights legislation that would outlaw segregation nationwide. A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph
and Bayard Rustin issued similar calls for a March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. On July 2, 1963, King, Randolph, and Rustin met with James Farmer
James Farmer
Jr. of the Congress of Racial Equality, John Lewis of SNCC, Roy Wilkins
Roy Wilkins
of the NAACP, and Whitney Young
Whitney Young
of the Urban League
Urban League
to plan a united march on August 28. The media and political establishment viewed the march with great fear and trepidation over the possibility that protesters would run riot in the streets of the capital. But despite their fears, the March on Washington was a huge success, with no violence, and an estimated number of participants ranging from 200,000 to 300,000. It was also a logistical triumph—more than 2,000 buses, 21 special trains, 10 chartered aircraft, and uncounted autos converged on the city in the morning and departed without difficulty by nightfall. The crowning moment of the march was King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech in which he articulated the hopes and aspirations of the Civil Rights Movement and rooted it in two cherished gospels—the Old Testament and the unfulfilled promise of the American creed.[14] St. Augustine protests[edit] Main article: St. Augustine movement When civil rights activists protesting segregation in St. Augustine, Florida were met with arrests and Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
violence, the local SCLC affiliate appealed to King
King
for assistance in the spring of 1964. SCLC sent staff to help organize and lead demonstrations and mobilized support for St. Augustine in the North. Hundreds were arrested on sit-ins and marches opposing segregation, so many that the jails were filled and the overflow prisoners had to be held in outdoor stockades. Among the northern supporters who endured arrest and incarceration were Mrs. Malcolm Peabody, the mother of the governor of Massachusetts and Mrs. John Burgess, wife of the Episcopal Bishop of Massachusetts.[15] Nightly marches to the Old Slave Market were attacked by white mobs, and when blacks attempted to integrate "white-only" beaches they were assaulted by police who beat them with clubs. On June 11, King
King
and other SCLC leaders were arrested for trying to lunch at the Monson Motel restaurant, and when an integrated group of young protesters tried to use the motel swimming pool the owner poured acid into the water. TV and newspaper stories of the struggle for justice in St. Augustine helped build public support for the Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1964[16] that was then being debated in Congress.[17] Selma Voting Rights Movement and the march to Montgomery[edit] Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches When voter registration and civil rights activity in Selma, Alabama was blocked by an illegal injunction,[18] the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) asked SCLC for assistance. King, SCLC, and DCVL chose Selma as the site for a major campaign around voting rights that would demand national voting rights legislation in the same way that the Birmingham and St. Augustine campaigns won passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[16][19] In cooperation with SNCC who had been organizing in Selma since early 1963, the Voting Rights Campaign commenced with a rally in Brown Chapel on January 2, 1965 in defiance of the injunction. SCLC and SNCC organizers recruited and trained blacks to attempt to register to vote at the courthouse, where many of them were abused and arrested by Dallas County Sheriff Jim Clark — a staunch segregationist. Black voter applicants were subjected to economic retaliation by the White Citizens' Council, and threatened with physical violence by the Ku Klux Klan. Officials used the discriminatory literacy test[20] to keep blacks off the voter rolls. Nonviolent mass marches demanded the right to vote and the jails filled up with arrested protesters, many of them students. On February 1, King
King
and Abernathy were arrested. Voter registration efforts and protest marches spread to the surrounding Black Belt counties — Perry, Wilcox, Marengo, Greene, and Hale. On February 18, an Alabama State Trooper shot and killed Jimmie Lee Jackson during a voting rights protest in Marion, county seat of Perry County. In response, James Bevel, who was directing SCLC's Selma actions, called for a march from Selma to Montgomery, and on March 7 close to 600 protesters attempted the march to present their grievances to Governor Wallace. Led by Reverend Hosea Williams
Hosea Williams
of SCLC and John Lewis of SNCC, the marchers were attacked by State Troopers, deputy sheriffs, and mounted possemen who used tear-gas, horses, clubs, and bull whips to drive them back to Brown Chapel. News coverage of this brutal assault on nonviolent demonstrators protesting for the right to vote — which became known as "Bloody Sunday" — horrified the nation.[21] King, Bevel, Diane Nash and others called on clergy and people of conscience to support the black citizens of Selma. Thousands of religious leaders and ordinary Americans came to demand voting rights for all. One of them was James Reeb, a white Unitarian Universalist minister, who was savagely beaten to death on the street by Klansmen who severely injured two other ministers in the same attack. After more protests, arrests, and legal maneuvering, Federal Judge Frank M. Johnson ordered Alabama to allow the march to Montgomery. It began on March 21 and arrived in Montgomery on the 24th. On the 25th, an estimated 25,000[22] protesters marched to the steps of the Alabama capitol in support of voting rights where King
King
spoke.[23] Within five months, Congress and President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
responded to the enormous public pressure generated by the Selma Voting Rights Movement by enacting into law the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Grenada Freedom Movement[edit] When the Meredith Mississippi March Against Fear passed through Grenada, Mississippi
Grenada, Mississippi
on June 15, 1966, it sparked months of civil rights activity on the part of Grenada blacks. They formed the Grenada County Freedom Movement (GCFM) as an SCLC affiliate, and within days 1,300 blacks registered to vote.[24] Though the Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1964[16] had outlawed segregation of public facilities, the law had not been applied in Grenada which still maintained rigid segregation. After black students were arrested for trying to sit downstairs in the "white" section of the movie theater, SCLC and the GCFM demanded that all forms of segregation be eliminated, and called for a boycott of white merchants. Over the summer, the number of protests increased and many demonstrators and SCLC organizers were arrested as police enforced the old Jim Crow social order. In July and August, large mobs of white segregationists mobilized by the KKK violently attacked nonviolent marchers and news reporters with rocks, bottles, baseball bats and steel pipes. When the new school year began in September, SCLC and the GCFM encouraged more than 450 black students to register at the formerly white schools under a court desegregation order. This was by far the largest school integration attempt in Mississippi since the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954. The all-white school board resisted fiercely, whites threatened black parents with economic retaliation if they did not withdraw their children, and by the first day of school the number of black children registered in the white schools had dropped to approximately 250. On the first day of class, September 12, a furious white mob organized by the Klan attacked the black children and their parents with clubs, chains, whips, and pipes as they walked to school, injuring many and hospitalizing several with broken bones. Police and Mississippi State Troopers made no effort to halt or deter the mob violence.[25] Over the following days, white mobs continued to attack the black children until public pressure and a Federal court order finally forced Mississippi lawmen to intervene. By the end of the first week, many black parents had withdrawn their children from the white schools out of fear for their safety, but approximately 150 black students continued to attend, still the largest school integration in state history at that point in time. Inside the schools, blacks were harassed by white teachers, threatened and attacked by white students, and many blacks were expelled on flimsy pretexts by school officials. By mid-October, the number of blacks attending the white schools had dropped to roughly 70. When school officials refused to meet with a delegation of black parents, black students began boycotting both the white and black schools in protest. Many children, parents, GCFM activists, and SCLC organizers were arrested for protesting the school situation. By the end of October, almost all of the 2600 black students in Grenada County were boycotting school. The boycott was not ended until early November when SCLC attorneys won a Federal court order that the school system treat everyone equal regardless of race and meet with black parents. Jackson conference[edit] In 1966, Allen Johnson hosted the Tenth Annual Southern Christian Leadership Conference at the Masonic Temple in Jackson, Mississippi.[26] The theme of the conference was human rights - the continuing struggle.[26] Those in attendance, among others, included: Edward Kennedy, James Bevel, Martin Luther King, Ralph Abernathy, Curtis W. Harris, Walter E. Fauntroy, C. T. Vivian, Andrew Young, The Freedom Singers, Charles Evers, Fred Shuttlesworth, Cleveland Robinson, Randolph Blackwell, Annie Bell Robinson Devine, Charles Kenzie Steele, Alfred Daniel Williams King, Benjamin Hooks, Aaron Henry and Bayard Rustin.[26] Chicago Freedom Movement[edit] Main article: Chicago Freedom Movement Poor People's Campaign[edit] Main article: Poor People's Campaign 1968–1997[edit] After the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
in 1968, leadership was transferred to Ralph Abernathy, who presided until 1977. Abernathy was replaced by Joseph Lowery
Joseph Lowery
who was SCLC president until 1997. In 1997, MLK’s son, Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III, became the president of SCLC. In 2004, for less than a year, it was Fred Shuttlesworth. After him, the president was Charles Steele Jr., and in 2009, Howard W. Creecy Jr. Next were Isaac Newton Farris Jr. and current president C. T. Vivian, who took office in 2012 and remains today.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)

1997 to present[edit] In 1997, Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III was unanimously elected to head the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, replacing Joseph Lowery. Under King's leadership, the SCLC held hearings on police brutality, organized a rally for the 37th anniversary of the "I Have a Dream" speech and launched a successful campaign to change the Georgia state flag, which previously featured a large Confederate cross.[27] Within only a few months of taking the position, however, King
King
was being criticized by the Conference board for alleged inactivity. He was accused of failing to answer correspondence from the board and take up issues important to the organization. The board also felt he failed to demonstrate against national issues the SCLC previously would have protested, like the disenfranchisement of black voters in the Florida election recount
Florida election recount
or time limits on welfare recipients implemented by then-President Bill Clinton.[28] King
King
was further criticized for failing to join the battle against AIDS, allegedly because he feels uncomfortable talking about condoms.[27] He also hired Lamell J. McMorris, an executive director who, according to The New York Times, "rubbed board members the wrong way."[28] The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
suspended King
King
from the presidency in June 2001, concerned that he was letting the organization drift into inaction. In a June 25 letter to King, the group's national chairman at the time, Claud Young, wrote, "You have consistently been insubordinate and displayed inappropriate, obstinate behavior in the (negligent) carrying out of your duties as president of SCLC."[28] King
King
was reinstated only one week later after promising to take a more active role. Young said of the suspension, "I felt we had to use a two-by-four to get his attention. Well, it got his attention all right."[28] After he was reinstated, King
King
prepared a four-year plan outlining a stronger direction for the organization, agreeing to dismiss McMorris and announcing plans to present a strong challenge to the George W. Bush administration in an August convention in Montgomery, Alabama.[28] He also planned to concentrate on racial profiling, prisoners' rights, and closing the digital divide between whites and blacks.[27] However, King
King
also suggested in a statement that the group needed a different approach than it had used in the past, stating, "We must not allow our lust for 'temporal gratification' to blind us from making difficult decisions to effect future generations."[28] Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III resigned in 2004, upon which Fred Shuttlesworth was elected to replace him. Shuttlesworth resigned the same year that he was appointed, complaining that "deceit, mistrust, and a lack of spiritual discipline and truth have eaten at the core of this once-hallowed organization".[29] He was replaced by Charles Steele Jr. who served until October 2009. On October 30, 2009, Elder Bernice King, King's youngest child, was elected SCLC's new president, with James Bush III taking office in February 2010 as Acting President/CEO until Bernice King
Bernice King
took office. However, on January 21, 2011, fifteen months after her election, Bernice King
Bernice King
declined the position of president. In a written statement, she said that her decision came "after numerous attempts to connect with the official board leaders on how to move forward under my leadership, unfortunately, our visions did not align."[30] Leadership[edit] The best-known member of the SCLC was Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr., who was president and chaired the organization until he was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Other prominent members of the organization have included Joseph Lowery, Ralph Abernathy, Ella Baker, James Bevel, Diane Nash, Dorothy Cotton, James Orange, C. O. Simpkins Sr, Charles Kenzie Steele, C. T. Vivian, Fred Shuttlesworth, Andrew Young, Hosea Williams, Jesse Jackson, Walter E. Fauntroy, Claud Young, Septima Clark, Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III, Curtis W. Harris, Maya Angelou, and Golden Frinks.

Presidents

 • 1957–1968 Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr.

 • 1968–1977 Ralph Abernathy

 • 1977–1997 Joseph Lowery

 • 1997–2004 Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III

 • 2004 Fred Shuttlesworth

 • 2004–2009 Charles Steele Jr.

 • 2009–2011 Howard W. Creecy Jr.

 • 2012–present Charles Steele Jr.

Relationships with other organizations[edit] Because of its dedication to nonviolence, nonviolent direct-action protests, civil disobedience, and mobilizing mass participation in boycotts and marches, SCLC was considered more "radical" than the older NAACP, which favored lawsuits, legislative lobbying, and education campaigns conducted by professionals, and usually opposed civil disobedience. At the same time, it was generally considered less radical than Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) or the youth-led Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC). To a certain extent during the period 1960–1964, SCLC had a mentoring relationship with SNCC before SNCC began moving away from nonviolence and integration in the late 1960s. Over time, SCLC and SNCC took different strategic paths, with SCLC focusing on large-scale campaigns such as Birmingham and Selma to win national legislation, and SNCC focusing on community-organizing to build political power on the local level. In many communities, there was tension between SCLC and SNCC because SCLC's base was the minister-led Black churches, and SNCC was trying to build rival community organizations led by the poor.[31] SCLC also had its own youth volunteer initiative, the SCOPE Project (Summer Community Organization on Political Education), which placed about 500 young people, mostly white students from nearly 100 colleges and universities, who registered about 49,000 voters in 120 counties in 6 southern states in 1965–66.[32] In August 1979, the head of the SCLC, Joseph Lowery, met with the Palestinian Liberation Organization
Palestinian Liberation Organization
(PLO) and endorsed Palestinian self-determination and urged the PLO to "consider" recognizing Israel's right to exist.[33] Notes[edit]

^ King
King
Research & Education Institute at Stanford Univ. "Southern Christian Leadership Conference".  ^ Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters. Simon & Schuster.  ^ "Veterans of the Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement -- History & Timeline, 1957". www.crmvet.org. Retrieved 2017-04-14.  ^ http://sweetauburn.us/princehall.htm ^ Garrow, David (1986). Bearing the Cross. Morrow.  ^ Miller, Steven P. (2009). Billy Graham
Billy Graham
and the Rise of the Republican South. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-8122-4151-8. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ "The Progressive Club, Charleston County (3377 River Rd., Johns Island)". National Register Properties in South Carolina. South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 2014-08-01.  ^ Payne, Charles (1995). I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle. University of California Press.  ^ Citizenship Schools ~ Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans ^ Albany GA, Movement ~ Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans ^ C.C.J. Carpenter; et al. (April 12, 1963). "Statement by Alabama Clergymen" (.PDF). Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Papers Project. Retrieved February 12, 2008.  ^ a b Martin Luther King, Jr. (April 16, 1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail" (.PDF). Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Papers Project. Retrieved February 12, 2008.  ^ March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom ~ Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans ^ St. Augustine Movement King
King
Research and Education Institute (Stanford Univ) ^ a b c Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1964 ^ St. Augustine Movement 1963–1964 ~ Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans ^ The Selma Injunction ~ Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans ^ SCLC's "Alabama Project" ~ Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans ^ Are You "Qualified" to Vote? The Alabama "Literacy Test" ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans ^ "Selma to Montgomery March". King
King
Research & Education Institute at Stanford University. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009.  ^ Garrow, David (1986). Bearing the Cross. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04794-7.  ^ King
King
Research & Education Institute at Stanford University. "Our God Is Marching On!".  ^ Grenada Mississippi, 1966 Chronology of a Movement ^ "Negroes Beaten in Grenada School Integration" (PDF). New York Times. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 10 September 2013.  ^ a b c "Program from the SCLC's Tenth Annual Convention". The King Center. Retrieved 7 September 2015.  ^ a b c Gettleman, Jeffrey. "M.L. King
King
III: Father's path hard to follow." Los Angeles Times, August 5, 2001. Retrieved on September 14, 2008. ^ a b c d e f Firestone, David. "A civil rights group suspends, then reinstates, its president." The New York Times, July 26, 2001. Retrieved on August 28, 2008. ^ "President of Beleaguered Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Group Resigns". Washington Post. November 12, 2004. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ " Bernice King
Bernice King
Declines SCLC Presidency". Atlanta
Atlanta
Journal Constitution. January 21, 2011. Retrieved January 21, 2011.  ^ Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans ^ Stephen G. N. Tuck (2001). Beyond Atlanta: The Struggle for Racial Equality in Georgia, 1940-1980. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-2528-6.  ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 273. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. 

References[edit]

Aguiar, Marian; Gates, Henry Louis (1999). "Southern Christian Leadership Conference". Africana: the encyclopedia of the African and African American experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.  Cooksey, Elizabeth B. (December 23, 2004). "Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)". The new Georgia encyclopedia. Athens, GA: Georgia Humanities Council. OCLC 54400935. Retrieved February 12, 2008.  Fairclough, Adam. "The Preachers and the People: The Origins and Early Years of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 1955-1959." Journal of Southern History (1986): 403-440. in JSTOR Fairclough, Adam. To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. (University of Georgia Press, 2001) Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(1986); Pulitzer Prize Marable, Manning; Mullings, Leith (2002). Freedom: A Photographic History of the African American Struggle. London: Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-4270-2.  Peake, Thomas R. Keeping the dream alive: A history of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from King
King
to the nineteen-eighties (P. Lang, 1987) Williams, Juan (1987). Eyes on The Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 1954–1965. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-81412-1. 

External links[edit]

The SCLC Official Website Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Movement Veterans Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
records, 1864 (sic)–2012 at Manuscripts, Archives, and Rare Books Library (MARBL), Emory University SCLC Documents Online collection of original SCLC documents ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "SCLC," One Person, One Vote

v t e

Civil rights
Civil rights
movement

Notable events (timeline)

Prior to 1954

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore

1954–1959

Brown v. Board of Education

Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v. Belton

White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott

Browder v. Gayle

Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

"Give Us the Ballot"

Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine

National Guard blockade

Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins

1960–1963

Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in
Sit-in
movement Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1960 Gomillion v. Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides

attacks

Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever"

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

1963 Birmingham campaign

Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

John F. Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington

"I Have a Dream"

St. Augustine movement

1964–1968

Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer

workers' murders

Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches

"How Long, Not Long"

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House Conference on Civil Rights Chicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King
King
assassination

funeral riots

Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Act of 1968 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Activist groups

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Atlanta
Atlanta
Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Leadership Dallas County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP

Youth Council

Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council

Activists

Ralph Abernathy Victoria Gray Adams Zev Aelony Mathew Ahmann William G. Anderson Gwendolyn Armstrong Arnold Aronson Ella Baker Marion Barry Daisy Bates Harry Belafonte James Bevel Claude Black Gloria Blackwell Randolph Blackwell Unita Blackwell Ezell Blair Jr. Joanne Bland Julian Bond Joseph E. Boone William Holmes Borders Amelia Boynton Raylawni Branch Ruby Bridges Aurelia Browder H. Rap Brown Guy Carawan Stokely Carmichael Johnnie Carr James Chaney J. L. Chestnut Colia Lafayette Clark Ramsey Clark Septima Clark Xernona Clayton Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Cleaver Charles E. Cobb Jr. Annie Lee Cooper Dorothy Cotton Claudette Colvin Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Joseph DeLaine Dave Dennis Annie Devine Patricia Stephens Due Joseph Ellwanger Charles Evers Medgar Evers Myrlie Evers-Williams Chuck Fager James Farmer Walter E. Fauntroy James Forman Marie Foster Golden Frinks Andrew Goodman Fred Gray Jack Greenberg Dick Gregory Lawrence Guyot Prathia Hall Fannie Lou Hamer William E. Harbour Vincent Harding Dorothy Height Lola Hendricks Aaron Henry Oliver Hill Donald L. Hollowell James Hood Myles Horton Zilphia Horton T. R. M. Howard Ruby Hurley Jesse Jackson Jimmie Lee Jackson Richie Jean Jackson T. J. Jemison Esau Jenkins Barbara Rose Johns Vernon Johns Frank Minis Johnson Clarence Jones J. Charles Jones Matthew Jones Vernon Jordan Tom Kahn Clyde Kennard A. D. King C.B. King Coretta Scott King Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Sr. Bernard Lafayette James Lawson Bernard Lee Sanford R. Leigh Jim Letherer Stanley Levison John Lewis Viola Liuzzo Z. Alexander Looby Joseph Lowery Clara Luper Malcolm X Mae Mallory Vivian Malone Thurgood Marshall Benjamin Mays Franklin McCain Charles McDew Ralph McGill Floyd McKissick Joseph McNeil James Meredith William Ming Jack Minnis Amzie Moore Douglas E. Moore Harriette Moore Harry T. Moore William Lewis Moore Irene Morgan Bob Moses William Moyer Elijah Muhammad Diane Nash Charles Neblett Edgar Nixon Jack O'Dell James Orange Rosa Parks James Peck Charles Person Homer Plessy Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Fay Bellamy Powell Al Raby Lincoln Ragsdale A. Philip Randolph George Raymond Jr. Bernice Johnson Reagon Cordell Reagon James Reeb Frederick D. Reese Gloria Richardson David Richmond Bernice Robinson Jo Ann Robinson Bayard Rustin Bernie Sanders Michael Schwerner Cleveland Sellers Charles Sherrod Alexander D. Shimkin Fred Shuttlesworth Modjeska Monteith Simkins Glenn E. Smiley A. Maceo Smith Kelly Miller Smith Mary Louise Smith Maxine Smith Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson Charles Kenzie Steele Hank Thomas Dorothy Tillman A. P. Tureaud Hartman Turnbow Albert Turner C. T. Vivian Wyatt Tee Walker Hollis Watkins Walter Francis White Roy Wilkins Hosea Williams Kale Williams Robert F. Williams Andrew Young Whitney Young Sammy Younge Jr. James Zwerg

Influences

Nonviolence

Padayatra

Sermon on the Mount Mahatma Gandhi

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Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam

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Noted historians

Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F. Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers

v t e

Presidents of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1957–68) Ralph Abernathy
Ralph Abernathy
(1968–77) Joseph Lowery
Joseph Lowery
(1977–97) Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III (1997–2004) Fred Shuttlesworth
Fred Shuttlesworth
(2004) Charles Steele Jr. (2004–09) Howard W. Creecy Jr. (2009–11) Charles Steele Jr. (2012–present)

v t e

African American topics

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Category Portal

v t e

Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr.

Speeches, movements, and protests

Speeches

"Give Us the Ballot" (1957) "I Have a Dream" (1963) "How Long, Not Long" (1965) "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" (1967) "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (1968)

Writings

Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958) The Measure of a Man (1959)

"What Is Man?"

"Second Emancipation Proclamation" Strength to Love (1963) Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963) Why We Can't Wait (1964) Conscience for Change (1967) Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967)

Movements and protests

Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956) Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom (1957) Albany Movement (1961–1962) Birmingham campaign (1963) March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (1963) St. Augustine movement (1963–1964) Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) Chicago Freedom Movement (1966) Mississippi March Against Fear (1966) Anti-Vietnam War movement (1967) Memphis sanitation strike (1968) Poor People's Campaign (1968)

People

Family

Coretta Scott King (wife) Yolanda King (daughter) Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III (son) Dexter Scott King (son) Bernice King (daughter) Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Sr. (father) Alberta Williams King (mother) Christine King
King
Farris (sister) A. D. King (brother) Alveda King (niece)

Other leaders

Ralph Abernathy (mentor and friend) Ella Baker (colleague) James Bevel (strategist / colleague) Dorothy Cotton (colleague) Jesse Jackson (protégé) Bernard Lafayette (colleague) James Lawson (colleague) John Lewis (colleague) Joseph Lowery (colleague) Benjamin Mays (mentor) Diane Nash (colleague) James Orange (colleague) Bayard Rustin (advisor) Fred Shuttlesworth (colleague) C. T. Vivian (colleague) Wyatt Walker (colleague) Hosea Williams (colleague) Andrew Young (colleague)

Assassination

James Earl Ray Lorraine Motel (now National Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Museum) Funeral MLK Records Act Riots Loyd Jowers
Loyd Jowers
trial United States
United States
House Select Committee on Assassinations

Media

Film

King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis (1970 documentary) Our Friend, Martin (1999 animated) Boycott (2001 film) The Witness: From the Balcony of Room 306 (2008 documentary) Alpha Man: The Brotherhood of MLK (2011 documentary) Selma (2014 film) All the Way (2016 film)

Television

King (1978 miniseries) "The First Store" ( The Jeffersons
The Jeffersons
episode, 1980) "Great X-Pectations" ( A Different World
A Different World
episode, 1993) "The Promised Land" ( New York Undercover
New York Undercover
episode, 1997) "Return of the King" (The Boondocks episode, 2006)

Plays

The Meeting (1987) The Mountaintop (2009) I Dream (2010) All the Way (2012)

Illustrated

Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
and the Montgomery Story (1957 comic book)

Music

"Abraham, Martin and John" (Dion) "March! For Martin Luther King" (John Fahey) "Martin Luther King's Dream" (Strawbs) "Happy Birthday" (Stevie Wonder) "Pride (In the Name of Love)" (U2) "MLK" (U2) " King
King
Holiday" ( King
King
Dream Chorus and Holiday Crew) "By The Time I Get To Arizona" (Public Enemy) "Shed a Little Light" (James Taylor) "Up to the Mountain" (Patti Griffin) "Never Alone Martin" (Jason Upton) "Symphony Of Brotherhood" (Miri Ben-Ari) Joseph Schwantner: New Morning for the World; Nicolas Flagello: The Passion of Martin Luther King (1995 album) "A Dream" (Common featuring Will.i.am) "Glory" (Common and John Legend)

Related topics

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Day Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Memorial National Historical Park King
King
Center for Nonviolent Social Change Dexter Avenue Baptist Church National Civil Rights
Civil Rights
Museum Authorship issues Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha
fraternity Season for Nonviolence U.S. Capitol Rotunda sculpture Oval Office bust Homage to King
King
sculpture, Atlanta Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
sculpture, Houston Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Memorial, San Francisco Landmark for Peace Memorial, Indianapolis Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
statue, Milwaukee The Dream sculpture, Portland, Oregon Dr. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Library Memorials to Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Eponymous streets America in the King
King
Years Civil rights
Civil rights
movement in popular culture Lee–Jackson– King
King
Day Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
High School (other) Lycée Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
(dis

.