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Coordinates: 12°48′N 45°02′E / 12.800°N 45.033°E / 12.800; 45.033

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(September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemenجمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبيةJumhūrīyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha'bīyah1967–1990

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: الجمهورية المتحدة (Arabic)al-Jumhūrīyah al-Muttaḥidâh"United Republic"(Original lyrics) The People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen in 1989Status Socialist state
Socialist state
(1970–1990)[1] Satellite state of the Soviet Union[2] Capitaland largest cityAdenCommon languages Arabic English Modern South Arabian languages Mehri Soqotri Hobi Shehri Religion Sunni IslamGovernmentFederal Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republicGeneral Secretary • 1978–1980 Abdul Fattah Ismail• 1980–1986 Ali Nasir Muhammad• 1986–1990 Ali Salim al-Beidh President • 1967–1969 (first) Qahtan al-Shaabi• 1986–1990 (last) Haidar al-Attas Prime Minister • 1969 Faysal al-Shaabi• 1969–1971 Muhammad Ali Haitham• 1971–1985 Ali Nasir Muhammad• 1985–1986 Haidar al-Attas• 1986–1990 Yasin Said Numan LegislatureSupreme People's CouncilHistorical eraCold War• Independence declared 30 November 1967• UN membership 14 December 1967• Constitution adopted 31 October 1978• Unification 22 May 1990 Area1990360,133 km2 (139,048 sq mi)Population• 1990 2,585,484 CurrencySouth Yemeni dinarCalling code967

Preceded by Succeeded by

Federation of South Arabia

Protectorate of South Arabia

Yemen

South Yemen, officially the People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen (Arabic: جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية‎ Jumhūriyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha'bīyah), was a country that existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East
Middle East
in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic
Republic
of Yemen, including the island of Socotra. It was also referred to as Democratic Yemen
Yemen
or Yemen
Yemen
(Aden). South Yemen's origins can be traced to 1874 with the creation of the British colony of Aden
Aden
and the Aden
Aden
Protectorate, which consisted of two-thirds of the present-day Yemen. However, Aden
Aden
became a province within the British Raj
British Raj
in 1937. After the collapse of Aden Protectorate, the state of emergency was declared in 1963 when the National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen
Yemen
(FLOSY) rebelled against British rule. The Federation of South Arabia
Federation of South Arabia
and the Protectorate of South Arabia merged to become South Yemen
Yemen
on 30 November 1967 and became a Marxist socialist republic in 1970 supported by the Soviet Union. Despite its efforts to bring stability into the region, it was involved in a brief civil war in 1986. With the collapse of communism, South Yemen
Yemen
was unified with the Yemen
Yemen
Arab
Arab
Republic
Republic
(commonly known as "North Yemen") on 22 May 1990, to form the present-day Yemen. After four years, however, South Yemen
Yemen
declared its secession from the north, which resulted in the north occupying south Yemen
Yemen
and the 1994 civil war. Another attempt to restore South Yemen
Yemen
continues on since 2017.

Contents

1 History

1.1 British rule 1.2 Decolonization 1.3 Disputes with North Yemen 1.4 Civil war 1.5 Reforms and attempts for unification

2 Reviving South Yemen 3 Politics and social life

3.1 Sports

4 Governorates 5 Economy 6 Airlines 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Yemen British rule[edit] In 1838, Sultan Muhsin Bin Fadl of the state of Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. miles) including Aden
Aden
to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company
British East India Company
landed Royal Marines
Royal Marines
at Aden
Aden
to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. It then became an important trading hub between British India
India
and the Red Sea, and following the opening of the Suez canal
Suez canal
in 1869, it became a coaling station for ships en route to India. Aden
Aden
was ruled as part of British India
India
until 1937, when the city of Aden
Aden
became the Colony of Aden. The Aden
Aden
hinterland and Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
to the east formed the remainder of what would become South Yemen
Yemen
and was not administered directly by Aden
Aden
but were tied to Britain by treaties of protection with local rulers of traditional polities that, together, became known as the Aden
Aden
Protectorate. Economic development was largely centered in Aden, and while the city flourished, the states of the Aden
Aden
Protectorate stagnated.

Decolonization[edit] In 1963, Aden
Aden
and much of the Protectorate were joined to form the Federation of South Arabia
Federation of South Arabia
with the remaining states that declined to join, mainly in Hadhramaut, forming the separate Protectorate of South Arabia. Both of these polities were still tied to Britain with promises of total independence in 1968. Two nationalist groups, the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen
Yemen
(FLOSY) and the National Liberation Front (NLF), began an armed struggle known as the Aden
Aden
Emergency on 14 October 1963 against British control and, with the temporary closure of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
in 1967, the British began to withdraw. One faction, NLF, was invited to the Geneva Talks to sign the independence agreement with the British. However, Britain - who during its occupation of Aden
Aden
signed several treaties of protection with the local sheikhdoms and emirates of the Federation of South Arabia
Federation of South Arabia
- excluded them in the talks and thus the agreement stated "...the handover of the territory of South Arabia to the (Yemeni) NLF...". Southern Yemen
Yemen
became independent as the People's Republic
Republic
of Southern Yemen
Yemen
on 30 November 1967, and the National Liberation Front consolidated its control in the country. In June 1969, a radical Marxist
Marxist
wing of the NLF gained power and on 1 December 1970, reorganized the country into the People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen
Yemen
(PDRY). Subsequently, all political parties were amalgamated into the National Liberation Front, renamed the Yemeni Socialist Party, which became the only legal party. The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
Democratic Republic of Yemen
established close ties with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic
Republic
of China, Cuba, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization. East Germany's constitution of 1968 even served as a kind of blueprint for the PDRY's first constitution.[3] The new government embarked on a programme of nationalisation, introduced central planning, put limits on housing ownership and rent, and implemented a land reform. By 1973, the GDP
GDP
of South Yemen increased by 25 percent.[4] And despite the conservative environment and resistance, women became legally equal to men, polygamy, child marriage and arranged marriage were all banned by law. Equal rights in divorce were also sanctioned. The Republic
Republic
also secularised education and sharia law was replaced by a state legal code.[5] The major communist powers assisted in the building of the PDRY's armed forces. Strong support from Moscow
Moscow
resulted in Soviet naval forces gaining access to naval facilities in South Yemen.

Disputes with North Yemen[edit] @media all and (min-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .desktop-float-right box-sizing:border-box;float:right;clear:right North Yemen–South Yemen
Yemen
Border Conflict of 1972Part of the Cold WarNorth & South YemenDate1972LocationNorth Yemen–South Yemen borderResult StalemateTerritorialchanges NoneBelligerents  North Yemen Supported by:  Saudi Arabia  Jordan United States   Republic
Republic
of China  United Kingdom

 West Germany South Yemen National Democratic Front Supported by:  Soviet Union   Cuba
Cuba
 East Germany Czechoslovakia

LibyaCommanders and leaders Ali Abdullah Saleh Abdel Fattah IsmailStrength

24,000vteInternal conflictsin modern Yemen Alwaziri coup Yemeni–Adenese clan violence North Yemen
Yemen
Civil War Aden
Aden
Emergency 1972 North and South Yemen
Yemen
war NDF Rebellion Yemenite War of 1979 South Yemen
Yemen
Civil War Yemeni Civil War (1994) Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Houthi insurgency in Yemen Takeover Aftermath South Yemen
Yemen
insurgency Yemeni Crisis Yemeni Revolution Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)

The Arabian peninsula in 1914 Unlike the early decades of East Germany
East Germany
and West Germany, North Korea and South Korea, or North Vietnam
North Vietnam
and South Vietnam, North Yemen
Yemen
(YAR) and South Yemen
Yemen
(PDRY) remained relatively friendly, though relations were often strained. Fighting broke out in 1972, and a short-lived, small proxy border conflict was resolved with negotiations, where it was declared unification would eventually occur.[6][7] However, these plans were put on hold in 1979, as the PDRY funded Red rebels in the YAR, and war was only prevented by an Arab
Arab
League intervention. The goal of unity was reaffirmed by the northern and southern heads of state during a summit meeting in Kuwait
Kuwait
in March 1979. In 1980, PDRY president Abdul Fattah Ismail
Abdul Fattah Ismail
resigned and went into exile in Moscow, having lost the confidence of his sponsors in the USSR.[8] His successor, Ali Nasir Muhammad, took a less interventionist stance toward both North Yemen
Yemen
and neighbouring Oman.

Civil war[edit] Main article: South Yemen
Yemen
Civil War On January 13, 1986, a violent struggle began in Aden
Aden
between Ali Nasir's supporters and supporters of the returned Ismail, who wanted power back. Fighting, known as the South Yemen
Yemen
Civil War, lasted for more than a month and resulted in thousands of casualties, Ali Nasir's ouster, and Ismail's death. Some 60,000 people, including the deposed Ali Nasir, fled to the YAR. Ali Salim al-Beidh, an ally of Ismail who had succeeded in escaping the attack on pro-Ismail members of the Politburo, then became General Secretary of the Yemeni Socialist Party.[9]

Reforms and attempts for unification[edit] Main article: Yemeni unification Against the background of the perestroika in the USSR, the main backer of the PDRY, political reforms were started in the late 1980s. Political prisoners were released, political parties were formed and the system of justice was reckoned to be more equitable than in the North. In May 1988, the YAR and PDRY governments came to an understanding that considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification card. In 1990, the parties reached a full agreement on joint governing of Yemen, and the countries were effectively merged as Yemen.[citation needed]

Reviving South Yemen[edit] Main article: Southern Movement Since 2007, some Southerners have been actively protesting for independence, in a movement known as 'Al Hirak' or the Southern Movement. During the Yemen
Yemen
Civil War 2015, in response to incursions by the Houthis
Houthis
and military forces loyal to deposed Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh, members of the Southern Movement
Southern Movement
formed 'Popular Resistance' militias. Since the Battle of Aden, these armed groups have sought to defend the South against Houthi/Saleh attempts to take over the country and have taken the current state of civil war as opportunity to further their struggle for independence. In late January 2018, separatists loyal to the Southern Transitional Council successfully seized control of the Saudi-backed Yemeni government headquarters in Aden
Aden
in an apparent coup d'état against the Hadi government.[10][11]

Politics and social life[edit] South Yemen's ethnic groups are Arabs (92.8%), Somalis (3.7%), Afro- Arab
Arab
1.1%, Indians and Pakistanis (1%), and other (1.4%) (2000). The only recognized political party in South Yemen
Yemen
was the Yemeni Socialist Party, which ran the country and the economy along self-described Marxist
Marxist
lines, modeled on the Soviet Union.[citation needed] The constitution prescribed universal suffrage. The Supreme People's Council was appointed by the General Command of the National Liberation Front in 1971. In Aden, there was a structured judicial system with a supreme court. Education was paid for through general taxation. There was no housing crisis in South Yemen. Surplus housing built by the British meant that there were few homeless people in Aden, and people built their own houses out of adobe and mud in the rural areas. South Yemen
Yemen
developed as a Marxist, mostly secular[12] society ruled first by the National Liberation Front, which later morphed into the ruling Yemeni Socialist Party. The only avowedly Marxist
Marxist
nation in the Middle East, South Yemen
Yemen
received significant foreign aid and other assistance from the USSR[13] and East Germany, which stationed several hundred officers of the Stasi
Stasi
in the country to train the nation's secret police and establish another arms trafficking route to Palestine.[14] The East Germans didn't leave until 1990, when the Yemeni government declined to pay their salaries which had been terminated with the dissolution of the Stasi during German reunification.[15]

Sports[edit] In 1976, the South Yemen
Yemen
national football team participated in the Asia Cup, where the team lost to Iraq 1-0 and to Iran 8-0. They entered their only World Cup qualification campaign in 1986 and were knocked out in the first round by Bahrain. On September 2, 1965, South Yemen
Yemen
played their first international match against the United Arab Republic, to whom they lost 14-0. On November 5, 1989, South Yemen played its last international match against Guinea, to whom they lost 1-0. The team stopped playing when the North and South united in 1990 to form the modern state of Yemen. In 1988, the South Yemen
Yemen
Olympic team made its debut in Seoul. Sending only eight athletes, the country won no medals. This was the only time the country went to the Olympics until unification in 1990.

Governorates[edit] Following independence, South Yemen
Yemen
was divided into six governorates (Arabic sg. muhafazah), with roughly natural boundaries, each given a name by numeral. From 1967 to 1978, they were named officially by numerals only; from 1979 to 1990, they were given new official names. The islands: Kamaran
Kamaran
(until 1972, when it was seized by North Yemen), Perim (Meyun), Socotra, Abd-el-Kuri, Samha (inhabited), Darsah and others uninhabited from the Socotra
Socotra
archipelago were districts (mudiriyah) of the First/ Aden
Aden
Governorate being under Prime-Minister of the state supervision.[16]

Numeral

Name

Approximate Area (km.²)

Capital

I

'Adan

6,980

Aden

II

Lahij

12,766

Lahij

III

Abyan

21,489

Zinjibar

IV

Shabwah

73,908

Ataq

V

Hadhramawt

155,376

Mukalla

VI

al-Mahrah

66,350

Al Ghaydah

Economy[edit] There was little industrial output, or mineral wealth exploitation, in South Yemen, until the mid-1980s, following the discovery of significant petroleum reserves in the central regions near Shibam
Shibam
and Mukalla. The main sources of income were agriculture, mostly fruit, cereal crops, cattle and sheep, fishing and later, oil exports. The national budget was 13.43 million dinars in 1976, and the gross national product was US$150 million. The total national debt was $52.4 million.

Airlines[edit] The following airlines had operated from the PDRY:[17]

Aden
Aden
Airways[18] (1949–1967). Ceased operations on 30 June 1967 at the time of British withdrawal from the Federation and the Protectorate of South Arabia. Alyemda
Alyemda
– Democratic Yemen
Yemen
Airlines (1961–1996). Joined Yemenia, the airline of the former YAR Yemen
Yemen
Airways (1989–1990) See also[edit]

Communism portal List of leaders of South Yemen History of Yemen Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen South Yemen
Yemen
Movement South Yemen
Yemen
insurgency Dhofar Rebellion Yemen References[edit]

^ Clark, Victoria. Yemen: Dancing on the Heads of Snakes, Yale University Press: 2010, page 112-130.

^ Cigar, Norman (1985). "South Yemen
Yemen
and the USSR: Prospects for the Relationship". Middle East
Middle East
Journal. 39 (4): 775–795. JSTOR 4327184..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Müller, Miriam M. (2015). A Spectre is haunting Arabia - How the Germans brought their Marxism
Marxism
to Yemen. Bielefeld: Transcript. pp. 257ff. ISBN 978-3-8376-3225-5. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-30.

^ Bayat, Asef (2017). Revolution without Revolutionaries: Making Sense of the Arab
Arab
Spring. California, US: Standford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780804799027.

^ Molyneux, Maxine; Yafai, Aida; Mohsen, Aisha; Ba'abaad, Noor (1979). "Women and Revolution in the People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen". Feminist Review (1): 4–20.

^ "North and South Yemen: In Search of Unity", CIA Study on Yemeni Unification, Central Intelligence Agency, January 19, 1990, archived from the original on March 5, 2016, retrieved September 14, 2017 – via Scribd

^ Gause, Gregory (1990). Saudi-Yemeni relations: domestic structures and foreign influence. Columbia University Press. p. 98. ISBN 9780231070447.

^ Halliday, Fred (2002). Revolution and Foreign Policy: The Case of South Yemen, 1967–1987. Cambridge University Press. p. 35.

^ Katz, Mark (Fall 1986). "Civil Conflict in South Yemen" (PDF). Middle East
Middle East
Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18.

^ "Separatist clashes flare in south Yemen". 30 January 2018. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018 – via www.BBC.com.

^ "Yémen: les séparatistes sudistes, à la recherche de l'indépendance perdue". Le Point. 28 January 2018. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018.

^ Laessing, Ulf (January 22, 2010). "Women of southern Yemen
Yemen
port remember better times". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2017.

^ Gart, Murray (January 9, 1989). "South Yemen
Yemen
New Thinking in a Marxist
Marxist
Land". Time. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2017.

^ Müller, Miriam Manuela. A Spectre Is Haunting Arabia: How the Germans Brought Their Communism to Yemen. Transcript, 2015.In-text Citation

^ Stokes, Lee. “East German Security Quit South Yemen.” United Press Agency, 11 May 1990.In-text Citation

^ Ismael, Tareq Y.; Jacqueline S. Ismael (October 1986). The People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen: Politics, Economics, and Society; The Politics of Socialist Transformation. Lynne Rienner Pub. ISBN 978-0-931477-96-6.

^ "Airlines - South Yemen". The World's Airlines. David Lyall. Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2009-07-13.

^ "History". Aden
Aden
Airways. Peter Pickering. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 13 July 2009.

.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100%  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

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History of socialism Authority control BNF: cb11865894h (data) GND: 4073008-6 ISNI: 0000 0001 2196 7032 LCCN: n50002560 NARA: 10035779 NDL: 00567663 SUDOC: 026405660 VIAF: 158182311 WorldCat Identities
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