Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central
part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the
country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres
(379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's
states and territories by area, and fifth largest by population. It
has a total of 1.7 million people, and its population is the most
highly centralised of any state in Australia, with more than 75
South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its
environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small.
Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states,
and with the Northern Territory; it is bordered to the west by Western
Australia, to the north by the Northern Territory, to the north-east
by Queensland, to the east by New South Wales, to the south-east by
Victoria, and to the south by the Great Australian Bight. The state
comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks
fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The
majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most
of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern
coast and River Murray. The state's colonial origins are unique in
Australia as a freely settled, planned British province, rather
than as a convict settlement. Colonial government commenced on 28
December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the
Old Gum Tree.
As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied
by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and
The South Australian Company established a temporary
settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months
Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind
settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by
Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was later employed by the New Zealand
Company. The goal was to establish the province as a
centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties
and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic
Australia has remained politically innovative and
culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its fine wine and numerous
cultural festivals. The state's economy is dominated by the
agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries. The state has an
increasingly significant finance sector as well.
2.1 South Australian Boundaries
3.1 Olympic Dam
3.2 Crown land
4.1 Local government
6.1 Primary and secondary
6.2.1 Vocational education
7.1 Historical transport in South Australia
7.4 Air transport
7.5 River transport
7.6 Sea transport
8.1 Australian rules football
8.3 Association football
8.5 Motor sport
8.6 Other sports
10 See also
13 External links
Main article: History of South Australia
European settlers with Aborigines, 1850
Evidence of human activity in South
Australia dates back as far as
20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda
Cave on the Nullarbor Plain. In addition wooden spears and tools were
made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo
Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea
levels.  The first recorded European sighting of the South
Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert,
captained by François Thijssen, examined and mapped a section of the
coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named his
discovery "Pieter Nuyts Land", after the highest ranking individual on
The coastline of South
Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders
Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet later named the Port
Adelaide River which was first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet
Barker and later accurately charted in 1836-37 by Colonel William
Light, Leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners'
'First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia.
The land which now forms the state of South
Australia was claimed for
Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the
new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early
settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid
explorers ventured this far west. It took more than forty years before
any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western
New South Wales
New South Wales were put forward.
On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia
Act 1834 (Foundation Act), which empowered His Majesty to erect and
establish a province or provinces in southern Australia. The act
stated that 802,511 square kilometres (309,851 sq mi) would
be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free.
In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to
the new province. The Letters Patent, which used the enabling
provisions of the South
Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of
the Province of South Australia, provided that 'nothing in those our
Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of
any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation
and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their
Descendants of any Lands therein now actually occupied or enjoyed by
such Natives'. Although the patent guaranteed land rights under
force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the
South Australian Company
South Australian Company authorities and squatters.
Nicolas Baudin, who mapped the coastline of South Australia, along
with Matthew Flinders.
Survey was required before settlement of the Province, and the
Colonization Commissioners for South
Australia appointed William Light
as the Leader of its 'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500
miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site
for the capital, and with then planning and surveying the site of the
city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre
Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries,
South Australian Company
South Australian Company sought, and obtained, the Commissioners'
permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the
surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists.
The Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was
temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until the official
site of the capital was selected by William Light, where the City of
Adelaide is currently located. The first immigrants arrived at
Holdfast Bay (near the present day Glenelg) in November 1836.
The commencement of colonial government was proclaimed on 28 December
1836, now known as Proclamation Day.
Australia was the second Australian state to be settled by free
colonists, the first being the free Swan River colony in Western
Australia, however in 1849 Western
Australia was formally constituted
as a penal colony. Although South
Australia was constituted such that
convicts could never be transported to the Province, some emancipated
or escaped convicts or expirees made their own way there, both prior
to 1836, or later, and may have constituted 1-2% of the early
The plan for the province was that it would be an experiment in
reform, addressing the problems perceived in British society. There
was to be religious freedom and no established religion. Sales of land
to colonists created an Emigration Fund to pay the costs of
transferring a poor young labouring population to South Australia. In
early 1838 the colonists became concerned after it was reported that
convicts who had escaped from the eastern states may make their way to
South Australia. The South
Australia Police was formed in April 1838
to protect the community and enforce government regulations. Their
principal role was to run the first temporary gaol, a two-room
The current flag of South
Australia was adopted on 13 January 1904,
and is a British blue ensign defaced with the state badge. The badge
is described as a piping shrike with wings outstretched on a yellow
disc. The state badge is believed to have been designed by Robert
Craig of Adelaide's School of Design.
Main article: Geography of South Australia
Satellite image of eastern South Australia. Note the dry lakes (white
patches) in the north.
The terrain consists largely of arid and semi-arid rangelands, with
several low mountain ranges. The most important (but not tallest) is
the Mount Lofty-
Flinders Ranges system, which extends north about 800
kilometres (500 mi) from Cape Jervis to the northern end of Lake
Torrens. The highest point in the state is not in those ranges; Mount
Woodroffe (1,435 metres (4,708 ft)) is in the
Musgrave Ranges in
the extreme northwest of the state. The south-western portion of
the state consists of the sparsely inhabited Nullarbor Plain, fronted
by the cliffs of the Great Australian Bight. Features of the coast
Spencer Gulf and the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas that surround
Lake Albert, a freshwater lake near the mouth of the Murray River
The rugged coastline of Second Valley, located on the Fleurieu
The principal industries and exports of South
Australia are wheat,
wine and wool. More than half of Australia's wines
are produced in the
South Australian wine
South Australian wine regions which principally
include: Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, McLaren Vale, Coonawarra, the
Riverland and the
Adelaide Hills. See South Australian wine.
South Australian Boundaries
Further information: South Australian borders
Australia has boundaries with every other Australian mainland
state and territory except the
Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory and the
Jervis Bay Territory. The Western
Australia border has a history
involving the South Australian government astronomer, Dodwell, and the
Western Australian Government Astronomer, Curlewis, marking the border
on the ground in the 1920s.
In 1863, that part of
New South Wales
New South Wales to the north of South Australia
was annexed to South Australia, by letters patent, as the "Northern
Territory of South Australia", which became shortened to the Northern
Territory (6 July 1863). The
Northern Territory was handed to the
federal government in 1911 and became a separate territory.
According to Australian maps, South Australia's south coast is flanked
by the Southern Ocean, but official international consensus defines
Southern Ocean as extending north from the pole only to 60°S or
55°S, at least 17 degrees of latitude further south than the most
southern point of South Australia. Thus the south coast is officially
adjacent to the south-most portion of the Indian Ocean. See Southern
Ocean: Existence and definitions
The southern part of the state has a Mediterranean climate, while the
rest of the state has either an arid or semi-arid climate. South
Australia's main temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in
January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July. Daily temperatures in
parts of the state in January and February can be up to 48 °C
The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C
(123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is also the
highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum
temperature was −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) at Yongala on 20 July
Climate data for South Australia
Record high °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology
See also: Australian economy
Aerial view of vineyards in the Barossa Valley, a major wine producing
region, and a major source of employment in the area.
Flinders Medical Centre. Health care and social assistance is the
largest ABS defined employment sector in South Australia.
This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please
improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or
discuss the issue on the talk page. (October 2016)
South Australia's average annual employment for 2009–10 was 800,600
persons, 18% higher than for 2000–01. For the corresponding
period, national average annual employment rose by 22%.
South Australia's largest employment sector is health care and social
assistance, surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest
employer since 2006–07. In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA
had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300
for health care and social assistance. Health care and social
assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual
The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10),
with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce.
The manufacturing industry plays an important role in South
Australia's economy, generating 11.7% of the state's gross state
product (GSP) and playing a large part in exports. The manufacturing
industry consists of automotive (44% of total Australian production,
2006) and component manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, defence technology
(2.1% of GSP, 2002–03) and electronic systems (3.0% of GSP in 2006).
South Australia's economy relies on exports more than any other state
in Australia. South
Australia has the lead over
other Australian states for its commercialisation and commitment to
renewable energy. It is now the leading producer of wind power in
Renewable energy is a growing source of electricity in
South Australia, and there is potential for growth from this
particular industry of the state's economy. The Hornsdale Power
Reserve is a bank of grid-connected batteries adjacent to the
Hornsdale Wind Farm
Hornsdale Wind Farm in South Australia's Mid-North region. At the time
of construction in late 2017, it was billed as the largest lithium-ion
battery in the world.
State export earnings stood at A$10 billion per
year[when?] and grew by 8.8% from 2002 to 2003.
South Australian food and drink
South Australian food and drink (including agriculture,
horticulture, aquaculture, fisheries and manufacturing) is a
$10 billion industry.[when?]
South Australia's credit rating was upgraded to AAA by Standard &
Poor's Rating Agency in September 2004 and to AAA by Moody's Rating
Agency November 2004, the highest credit ratings achievable by any
company or sovereign. The State had previously lost these ratings in
the State Bank collapse. However, in 2012 Standard & Poor's
downgraded the state's credit rating to AA+ due to declining revenues,
new spending initiatives and a weaker than expected budgetary
South Australia's Gross State Product was A$48.9 billion starting
2004, making it A$32,996 per capita. Exports for 2006 were valued at
$9.0bn with imports at $6.2bn. Private Residential Building Approvals
experienced 80% growth over the year of 2006.
South Australia's economy includes the following major industries:
meat and meat preparations, wheat, wine, wool and sheepskins,
machinery, metal and metal manufactures, fish and crustaceans, road
vehicles and parts, and petroleum products. Other industries, such as
education and defence technology, are of growing
Australia receives the least amount of federal funding for its
local road network of all states on a per capita and a per kilometre
In 2013, South
Australia was named by Commsec Securities as the second
lowest performing economy in Australia. While some sources have
pointed at weak retail spending and capital investment, others have
attributed poor performance to declines in public spending.
The Olympic Dam mine near Roxby Downs in northern South
the largest deposit of uranium in the world, possessing more than a
third of the world's low-cost recoverable reserves and 70% of
Australia's. The mine, owned and operated by BHP Billiton, presently
accounts for 9% of global uranium production. The Olympic Dam
mine is also the world's fourth-largest remaining copper deposit, and
the world's fifth largest gold deposit. There was a
proposal to vastly expand the operations of the mine, making it the
largest open-cut mine in the world, but in 2012 the BHP Billiton
board decided not to go ahead with it at that time due to then lower
Crown land held in right of South
Australia is managed under the Crown
Land Management Act 2009.
Main article: Government of South Australia
Parliament House, Adelaide
Australia is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of
Australia as sovereign, and the
Governor of South Australia
Governor of South Australia as her
representative. It is a state of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The bicameral Parliament of South
Australia consists of the lower
house known as the House of Assembly and the upper house known as the
Legislative Council. General elections are held every four years, the
last being the 2014 election.
Governor of South Australia
Governor of South Australia held almost total power,
derived from the letters patent of the imperial government to create
the colony. He was accountable only to the British Colonial Office,
and thus democracy did not exist in the colony. A new body was created
to advise the governor on the administration of South
1843 called the Legislative Council. It consisted of three
representatives of the British Government and four colonists appointed
by the governor. The governor retained total executive power.
In 1851, the Imperial Parliament enacted the Australian Colonies
Government Act which allowed for the election of representatives to
each of the colonial legislatures and the drafting of a constitution
to properly create representative and responsible government in South
Australia. Later that year, propertied male colonists were allowed to
vote for 16 members on a new 24 seat Legislative Council. Eight
members continued to be appointed by the governor.
The main responsibility of this body was to draft a constitution for
South Australia. The body drafted the most democratic constitution
ever seen in the British Empire and provided for universal manhood
suffrage. It created the bicameral Parliament of South Australia.
For the first time in the colony, the executive was elected by the
people and the colony used the Westminster system, where the
government is the party or coalition that exerts a majority in the
House of Assembly.
Composition of the Parliament of South Australia
Source: Electoral Commission SA
Women's suffrage in
Australia took a leap forward – enacted in 1895
and taking effect from the 1896 colonial election, South
the first in
Australia and only the second in the world after New
Zealand to allow women to vote, and the first in the world to allow
women to stand for election. In 1897
Catherine Helen Spence
Catherine Helen Spence was
the first woman in
Australia to be a candidate for political office
when she was nominated to be one of South Australia's delegates to the
conventions that drafted the constitution. South
Australia became an
original state of the Commonwealth of
Australia on 1 January 1901.
Australia is divided into 74 local government areas. Local
councils are responsible for functions delegated by the South
Australian parliament, such as road infrastructure and waste
management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and
Estimated resident population since 1981.
See also: Demographics of Australia
See also: List of cities in South
Australia by population
At the 2016 census the population of South
Australia was 1.7 million
A majority of the state's population lives within Greater Adelaide's
metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 1,262,940 in
2011 (77.1% of the state). Other significant population centres
include Mount Gambier (28,313), Gawler (26,472),
Murray Bridge (17,152), Mount Barker (16,629),
Port Lincoln (15,682),
Port Pirie (14,281),
Port Augusta (14,196), and Victor Harbor
See also: Education in South Australia
Primary and secondary
See also: List of schools in South Australia
On 1 January 2009, the school leaving age was raised to 17 (having
previously been 15 and then 16). Education is compulsory for all
children until age 17, unless they are working or undergoing other
training. The majority of students stay on to complete their South
Australian Certificate of Education (SACE). School education is the
responsibility of the South Australian government, but the public and
private education systems are funded jointly by it and the
The South Australian Government provides, to schools on a per student
basis, 89 percent of the total Government funding while the
Commonwealth contributes 11 percent. Since the early 1970s it has been
an ongoing controversy that 68 percent of Commonwealth funding
(increasing to 75% by 2008) goes to private schools that are attended
by 32% of the states students. Private schools often refute this
by saying that they receive less State Government funding than public
schools and in 2004 the main private school funding came from the
Australian government, not the state government.
On 14 June 2013, South
Australia became the third Australian state to
sign up to the Australian Federal Government's Gonski Reform Program.
This will see funding for primary and secondary education to South
Australia increased by $1.1 billion before 2019.
University of Adelaide
There are three public and four private universities in South
Australia. The three public universities are the University of
Adelaide (established 1874, third oldest in Australia), Flinders
University (est. 1966) and the University of South
1991). The four private universities are Torrens University Australia
(est. 2013), Carnegie Mellon University -
Australia (est. 2006),
University College London's School of Energy and Resources
(Australia), and Cranfield University. All six have their main campus
Adelaide metropolitan area:
Adelaide and UniSA on North Terrace
in the city; CMU, UCL and Cranfield are co-located on Victoria Square
in the city, and Flinders at Bedford Park.
Main article: TAFE South Australia
Tertiary vocational education is provided by a range of Registered
Training Organisations (RTOs) which are regulated at Commonwealth
level. The range of RTOs delivering education include public, private
and 'enterprise' providers i.e. employing organisations who run an RTO
for their own employees or members.
The largest public provider of vocational education is TAFE South
Australia which is made up of colleges throughout the state, many of
these in rural areas, providing tertiary education to as many people
as possible. In South Australia, TAFE is funded by the state
government and run by the South Australian Department of Further
Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST). Each TAFE SA
campus provides a range of courses with its own specialisation.
Main article: Transport in South Australia
Major highways in South Australia.
Historical transport in South Australia
After settlement, the major form of transport in South
ocean transport. Limited land transport was provided by horses and
bullocks. In the mid 19th century, the state began to develop a
widespread rail network, although a coastal shipping network continued
until the post war period.
Roads began to improve with the introduction of motor transport. By
the late 19th century, road transport dominated internal transport in
Australia has four interstate rail connections, to
Perth via the
Nullarbor Plain, to Darwin through the centre of the continent, to New
South Wales through Broken Hill, and to Melbourne–which is the
closest capital city to Adelaide.
Rail transport is important for many mines in the north of the state.
Adelaide has limited commuter rail transport.
Australia has extensive road networks linking towns and other
states. Roads are also the most common form of transport within the
major metropolitan areas with car transport predominating. Public
Adelaide is mostly provided by buses with regular
services throughout the day.
Adelaide Airport provides regular flights to other capitals, major
South Australian towns, and most international locations. The Airport
also has daily flights to several Asian hub airports.
buses J1 and J1X connect to the City (approx. 30 minutes travel time).
Standard fares apply and tickets may be purchased from the driver.
Maximum charge (September 2016) for Metroticket $5.30; off-peak and
seniors discounts may apply.
A ferry crossing the
Murray River as it runs through the town of
Walker Flat, South Australia
River Murray was formerly an important trade route for South
Australia, with paddle steamers linking inland areas and the ocean at
Australia has a container port at Port Adelaide. There are also
numerous important ports along the coast for minerals and grains.
The passenger terminal at Port
Adelaide periodically sees cruise
Kangaroo Island is dependent on the Sea Link ferry Service between
Cape Jervis and Penneshaw.
Main article: Sport in South Australia
Australian rules football
An AFL match between the Port
Adelaide Power and the
Australian rules football
Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in South
South Australians having the highest attendance rate
in Australia. The state also has the highest participation rate of
people taking part in Australian rules football.
Australia fields two teams in the Australian Football League
national competition: the
Adelaide Football Club and Port Adelaide
Football Club. As of 2015 the two clubs are in the top five in terms
of membership numbers, with both clubs' membership figures reaching
over 60,000. Both teams have used the
Adelaide Oval as their home
ground since 2014, having previously used
Football Park (AAMI
The South Australian National Football League, which owns Football
Park, is a popular local league comprising ten teams (Sturt, Port
Adelaide, Adelaide, West Adelaide, South Adelaide, North Adelaide,
Norwood, Woodville/West Torrens, Glenelg and Central District).
The South Australian Amateur Football League comprises 68 member clubs
playing over 110 matches per week across ten Senior divisions and
three Junior Divisions. The SAAFL is one of Australia's largest and
Australian rules football
Australian rules football associations.
Cricket is the most popular summer sport in South
attracts big crowds. South
Australia has a cricket team, the South
Australian Redbacks, who play at
Adelaide Oval in the
Lands during the summer; they won their first title since 1996 in the
summer of 2010–11. Many international matches have been played at
Adelaide Oval; it was one of the host cities of 2015
Cup, and for many years it hosted the
Australia Day One Day
Australia is also home to the
an Australian men's professional
Twenty20 cricket team that competes
in Australia's domestic
Twenty20 cricket competition, the Big Bash
Adelaide United represents South
Australia in soccer in the men's
A-League and women's W-League. The club's home ground is Hindmarsh
Stadium (Coopers Stadium), but occasionally play games at the Adelaide
The club was founded in 2003 and are the 2015–16 season champions of
the A-League. The club was also premier in the inaugural 2005–06
A-League season, finishing 7 points clear of the rest of the
competition, before finishing 3rd in the finals.
Adelaide United was
also a Grand Finalist in the 2006–07 and 2008–09 seasons. Adelaide
is the only
A-League club to have progressed past the group stages of
the Asian Champions League on more than one occasion.
Adelaide City remains South Australia's most successful club, having
National Soccer League titles and three NSL Cups. City was
the first side from South
Australia to ever win a continental title
when it claimed the
1987 Oceania Club Championship
1987 Oceania Club Championship and it has also won
a record 17 South Australian championships and 17 Federation Cups.
Adelaide became the first South Australian club to be crowned
Australian champion when it won the 1978
National Soccer League title.
Like City, it now competes in the National Premier Leagues South
Australia and the two clubs contest the
Titanium Security Arena, the home of basketball in South Australia.
Basketball also has a big following in South Australia, with the
Adelaide 36ers playing out of an 8,070 seat stadium in Findon. The
36ers have won four championships in the last 20 years in the National
Basketball League. The Titanium Security Arena, located in Findon, is
the home of basketball in the state.
Mount Gambier also has a national basketball team – the Mount
Gambier Pioneers. The Pioneers play at the Icehouse (Mount Gambier
Basketball Stadium) which seats over 1,000 people and is also home to
the Mount Gambier
Basketball Association. The Pioneers won the South
Conference in 2003 and the Final in 2003; this team was rated second
in the top 5 teams to have ever played in the league. In 2012, the
club entered its 25th season, with a roster of 10 senior players (2
imports) and 3 development squad players.
Australia's premier motor sport series, the Supercars Championship,
has visited South
Australia each year since 1999. South Australia's
Supercars event, the
Adelaide 500, is staged on the
Circuit, a temporary track laid out through the streets and parklands
to the east of the
Adelaide city centre. Attendance for the 2010 event
totalled 277,800. An earlier version of the
Circuit played host to the Australian Grand Prix, a round of the FIA
Formula One World Championship, each year from 1985 to 1995.
Mallala Motor Sport Park, a permanent circuit located near the town of
Mallala, 58 km north of Adelaide, caters for both state and
national level motor sport throughout the year.
Sixty-three percent of South Australian children took part in
organised sports in 2002–2003.
Adelaide was a tennis tournament held from 1972 to 2008 that
then moved to Brisbane and was replaced with The World Tennis
Challenge a Professional Exhibition Tournament that is part of the
Australian Open Series. Also, the Royal
Adelaide Golf Club has hosted
nine editions of the Australian Open, with the most recent being in
The state has hosted the
Tour Down Under
Tour Down Under cycle race since 1999.
South Australian cities, towns, settlements and road network.
Kati Thanda-Lake Eyre
Sir Joseph Banks Group
Barossa Valley Highway
Main North Road
South Eastern Freeway
Commonwealth realms portal
Outline of Australia
Index of Australia-related articles
Australia – book
Country Fire Service
Proclamation Day: 28 December 1836
South Australian Ambulance Service
South Australian English
Symbols of South Australia
Food and drink
Farmers Union Iced Coffee
South Australian food and drink
South Australian wine
List of amphibians of South Australia
List of cities and towns in South Australia
List of highways in South Australia
List of people from Adelaide
Local Government Areas of South Australia
List of public art in South Australia
List of films shot in Adelaide
Tourist attractions in South Australia
Dorothy Jauncey, Bardi Grubs and Frog Cakes – South Australian
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (2004) ISBN 0-19-551770-9
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Antarctica and 60
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