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Sophene
Sophene
(Armenian: Ծոփք Tsopkh, Ancient Greek: Σωφηνή, translit. Sōphēnē or Armenian: Չորրորդ Հայք, English: Fourth Armenia) was a province of the Armenian Kingdom
Armenian Kingdom
and of the Roman Empire, located in the south-west of the kingdom. The region lies in what is now southeastern Turkey.[1] The region that was to become Sophene
Sophene
was part of the kingdom of Ararat (Urartu) in the 8th-7th centuries BC. After unifying the region with his kingdom in the early 8th century BC, king Argishtis I of Urartu
Urartu
resettled many of its inhabitants in his newly built city of Erebuni (modern day Armenian capital Yerevan). Around 600 BC, Sophene became part of the newly emerged ancient Armenian Kingdom
Armenian Kingdom
of the Orontids. This dynasty acted as satraps of Armenia
Armenia
firstly under Median Empire, later under Persian Empire. According to Anania Shirakatsi's Ashkharatsuyts ("World Atlas," 7th century), Tsopk (Sophene) was the 2nd among the 15 provinces of Greater Armenia. It consisted of 8 cantons (gavar):[2]

Khordzyan Hashtyank Paghnatun Balahovit Tsopk Shahunyats Andzit Degik Gavrek

After Alexander the Great's campaigns in 330s BC and the subsequent collapse of the Achaemenid Empire, Sophene
Sophene
remained part of the newly independent kingdom of Greater Armenia. In the early 3rd century BC, at the instigation of the Seleucid Empire, which was trying to weaken the Armenian kingdom, Sophene, split from Greater Armenia, forming the Kingdom of Sophene. The kingdom was ruled by a branch of the Armenian royal dynasty of Orontids. Sophene
Sophene
later split from the Sophene- Commagene
Commagene
kingdom as well, forming an independent kingdom. Commagene
Commagene
was part of Sophene
Sophene
at this time. Around 200 BC, in his attempt to finally subjugate Armenia, Seleucid king Antiochus III conquered both Greater Armenia
Armenia
and Sophene, installing Armenian generals Artaxias I
Artaxias I
and Zariadres as governors-strategoi in the respective kingdoms. Following Antiochus' defeat by the Romans at the battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, both Zareh and Artashes declared themselves independent kings. Zareh and his descendants ruled the kingdom of Sophene
Sophene
until it was reunified with Greater Armenia
Armenia
by Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
in the 80s BC.

Roman province
Roman province
of Sophene, in the year 120

Pompey
Pompey
gave Sophene
Sophene
to Tigranes, after defeating his father Tigranes the Great.[3] Sophene
Sophene
later become part of the Roman Empire, and was made into a province of the Roman Empire. The capital was Amida (modern Diyarbakır).[citation needed] Around 54, the province was ruled by Sohaemus of Emesa.[4] In 530, Sophene
Sophene
was included into the province of Armenia
Armenia
IV.[5] The local Armenian population remained until the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
of 1915.[6] See also[edit]

Kingdom of Sophene

References[edit]

^ The History of Rome By Theodor Mommsen, William Purdie Dickson. ^ Anania Shirakatsi, Geography. ^ Richardson, Peter, Univ of South Carolina Press, 1996, p. 96. ^ Swain, Simon, Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World, Ad 50-250, Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 304. ^ Joshua, The Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite, Liverpool University Press, 2001, p. 54. ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia

v t e

Historical states and regions of Armenia

Independent Armenian states

Kingdom of Ararat (Urartian kings, 860 BC–590 BC) Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)
Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)
(Orontids, Artaxiads and Arsacids, 553 BC–428 AD) Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
(middle ages) (Bagratunis, 884-1045) Armenian Principality of Cilicia
Cilicia
(Rubenids, 1080-1198) Armenian Kingdom
Armenian Kingdom
of Cilicia
Cilicia
(Rubenids, Hethumids
Hethumids
and Lusignans, 1198-1375) Republic of Armenia
Armenia
(1918-1920) Republic of Armenia
Armenia
(1991-)

Minor or dependent Armenian states

Satrapy of Armenia
Armenia
(Orontids, 522-331 BC) Kingdom of Sophene
Kingdom of Sophene
(Hellenized Orontids, 3rd century–94 BC) Kingdom of Commagene
Commagene
(Hellenized Orontids, 163 BC–72 AD) Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
(Artsrunis, 908–1021) Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget
Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget
(Kiurikians, 979–1118) Kingdom of Syunik
Kingdom of Syunik
(Siunis, 987–1170) Kingdom of Artsakh
Kingdom of Artsakh
(Khachen, 1000–1261) Zakarid Principality of Armenia
Armenia
(Zakarians, 1201–1360) Melikdoms of Karabakh
Melikdoms of Karabakh
(Beglarians, Israelians, Hasan-Jalalians, Shanazarians and Avanians, 1603-1822) Republic of Mountainous Armenia
Armenia
(unrecognized, 1921) Soviet Armenia
Armenia
(1920-1991)

Provinces or Ashkhars of Armenia
Armenia
Major

Upper Armenia Sophene Arzanene Turuberan Moxoene Corduene Nor Shirakan Vaspurakan Syunik Artsakh Paytakaran Utik Gugark Tayk Ayrarat

Other Armenian regions

Lesser Armenia
Armenia
(regions: First, Second and Third Armenia) Commagene Armenian Mesopotamia Cilicia
Cilicia
(regions: Mountainous, Plain and Rocky Cilicia)

Other provinces under Tigranes the Great

Syria Atropatene Adiabene Assyria Iberia Albania Cappadocia Judea Osroene

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

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Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia
Armenia
I5 Armenia
Armenia
II5 Armenia
Armenia
Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia
Armenia
III (536) Armenia
Armenia
IV (536) Bithynia Cappadocia
Cappadocia
I5 Cappadocia
Cappadocia
II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia
Cilicia
I Cilicia
Cilicia
II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganiz

.