HOME
The Info List - Soong Mei-ling





Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
or Soong May-ling (Chinese: 宋美齡; pinyin: Sòng Měilíng; March 5, 1898[2] – October 23, 2003), also known as Madame Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
or Madame Chiang, was a Chinese political figure who was First Lady of the Republic of China
First Lady of the Republic of China
(ROC), the wife of Generalissimo
Generalissimo
and President Chiang Kai-shek. Soong played a prominent role in the politics of the Republic of China
Republic of China
and was the sister-in-law of Sun Yat-sen, the founder and the leader of the Republic of China. She was active in the civic life of her country and held many honorary and active positions, including chairman of Fu Jen Catholic University. During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
she rallied her people against the Japanese invasion and in 1942 conducted a speaking tour of the United States
United States
to gain support. She was also the youngest and the last surviving of the three Soong sisters, and one of only two first ladies during World War II
World War II
(along with Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, 1900-2002) who lived into the 21st century. Her life extended into three centuries.[3]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Education 3 Madame Chiang 4 "Warphans" 5 Visits to the U.S. 6 Later life 7 Death

7.1 Appraisals by international press

8 Gallery 9 Internet video 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 External links

Early life[edit] She was born in Hongkou District, Shanghai, China, on March 5, 1898,[4] though some biographies give the year as 1897, since Chinese tradition considers one to be a year old at birth.[2][3] She was the fourth of six children of Charlie Soong, a wealthy businessman and former Methodist
Methodist
missionary from Hainan, and his wife Ni Kwei-tseng (倪桂珍 Ní Guìzhēn). Mei-ling's siblings were sister Ai-ling, sister Ching-ling, who later became Madame Sun Yat-sen, older brother Tse-ven and younger brothers Tse-liang (T.L.) and Tse-an (T.A.)[5] Education[edit]

May-ling as a student at Wesleyan College
Wesleyan College
c. 1910

In Shanghai, May-ling attended the McTyeire School
McTyeire School
for Girls with her sister, Ching-ling. Their father, who had studied in the United States, arranged to have them continue their education in the US in 1907. May-ling and Ching-ling attended a private school in Summit, New Jersey. In 1908, Ching-ling was accepted by her sister Ai-ling's alma mater, Wesleyan College, at age 15 and both sisters moved to Macon, Georgia, to join Ai-ling. However, she could not get permission to stay on campus as a family member nor could she be a student because she was too young.[citation needed] May-ling spent the year in Demorest, Georgia, with Ai-ling's Wesleyan friend, Blanche Moss, who enrolled May-ling as an 8th grader at Piedmont College. In 1909, Wesleyan's newly appointed president, William Newman Ainsworth, gave her permission to stay at Wesleyan and assigned her tutors. She briefly attended Fairmount College in Monteagle, Tennessee
Monteagle, Tennessee
in 1910.[6][7] May-ling was officially registered as a freshman at Wesleyan in 1912 at the age of 15. She then transferred to Wellesley College
Wellesley College
a two years later to be closer to her older brother, T. V., who, at the time, was studying at Harvard. By then, both her sisters had graduated and returned to Shanghai. She graduated from Wellesley as one of the 33 "Durant Scholars" on June 19, 1917, with a major in English literature and minor in philosophy. She was also a member of Tau Zeta Epsilon, Wellesley's Arts and Music Society. As a result of being educated in English all her life, she spoke excellent English, with a pronounced Georgia accent which helped her connect with American audiences.[8] Madame Chiang[edit]

Chiang-Soong wedding photo

Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
met Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
in 1920. Since he was eleven years her elder, already married, and a Buddhist, Mei-ling's mother vehemently opposed the marriage between the two, but finally agreed after Chiang showed proof of his divorce and promised to convert to Christianity. Chiang told his future mother-in-law that he could not convert immediately, because religion needed to be gradually absorbed, not swallowed like a pill. They married in Shanghai
Shanghai
on December 1, 1927.[9] While biographers regard the marriage with varying appraisals of partnership, love, politics and competition, it lasted 48 years. The couple had no children. In 1928, she was made a member of the Committee of Yuans by Chiang.[10] They renewed their wedding vows on May 24, 1944 at St. Bartholomew's Church in New York City.[11] Polly Smith sang the Lord's Prayer at the ceremony. Madame Chiang initiated the New Life Movement
New Life Movement
and became actively engaged in Chinese politics. She was a member of the Legislative Yuan from 1930 to 1932 and Secretary-General of the Chinese Aeronautical Affairs Commission from 1936 to 1938. In 1945 she became a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. As her husband rose to become Generalissimo
Generalissimo
and leader of the Kuomintang, Madame Chiang acted as his English translator, secretary and advisor. She was his muse, his eyes, his ears, and his most loyal champion. During World War II, Madame Chiang tried to promote the Chinese cause and build a legacy for her husband on a par with Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. Well-versed in both Chinese and Western culture, she became popular both in China
China
and abroad. Her prominence led Joseph Stilwell
Joseph Stilwell
to quip that she ought to be appointed minister of defense.[citation needed] In 1931, Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
had a villa built for her on the east side of Nanjing. Located a few hundred meters east of the Sifangcheng Pavilion of the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, the villa still exists, and is commonly known as Meilinggong (美龄宫), "Mei-ling Palace".[12] "Warphans"[edit]

Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
on the cover of the Liangyou pictorial, April 1938, as Deputy Commander of the Republic of China
Republic of China
Air Force

Although Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
initially avoided the public eye after marrying Chiang, she soon began an ambitious social welfare project to establish schools for the orphans of Chinese soldiers. The orphanages were well-appointed: with playgrounds, hotels, swimming pools, a gymnasium, model classrooms, and dormitories. Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
was deeply involved in the project and even picked all of the teachers herself. There were two schools - one for boys and one for girls—built on a thousand-acre site at the foot of Purple Mountain, in Nanjing. She referred to these children as her "warphans" and made them a personal cause.[13] The fate of the children of fallen soldiers became a much more important issue in China
China
after the beginning of the war with Japan in 1937. In order to better provide for these children she established the Chinese Women's National War Relief Society.[14] Visits to the U.S.[edit]

Play media

On February 18, 1943, she addressed both houses of the US Congress.

Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
made several tours to the United States
United States
to lobby support for the Nationalists' war effort. She drew crowds as large as 30,000 people and in 1943 made the cover of TIME magazine for a third time. She had earlier appeared on the October 26, 1931 cover alongside her husband and on the January 3, 1937 cover with her husband as "Man and Wife of the Year"[15][16] Both husband and wife were on good terms with Time magazine senior editor and co-founder Henry Luce, who frequently tried to rally money and support from the American public for the Republic of China. On February 18, 1943, she became the first Chinese national and the second woman to address both houses of the US Congress. After the defeat of her husband's government in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
in 1949, Madame Chiang followed her husband to Taiwan, while her sister Soong Ching-ling stayed in mainland China, siding with the communists. Madame Chiang continued to play a prominent international role. She was a Patron of the International Red Cross Committee, honorary chair of the British United Aid to China
China
Fund, and First Honorary Member of the Bill of Rights Commemorative Society.[17] Later life[edit]

Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
and Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
in Taipei, Taiwan

After the death of her husband in 1975, Madame Chiang assumed a low profile. She was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 1975 and would undergo two mastectomies in Taiwan. She also had an ovarian tumor removed in 1991.[18] Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
was succeeded to power by his eldest son Chiang Ching-kuo, from a previous marriage, with whom Madame Chiang had rocky relations. In 1975, she emigrated from Taiwan
Taiwan
to her family's 36 acre (14.6 hectare) estate in Lattingtown, New York, where she kept a portrait of her late husband in full military regalia in her living room. She kept a residence in Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, where she vacationed in the summer. Madame Chiang returned to Taiwan
Taiwan
upon Chiang Ching-kuo's death in 1988, to shore up support among her old allies. However, Chiang Ching-kuo's successor, Lee Teng-hui, proved more adept at politics than she was, and consolidated his position. She again returned to the U.S. and made a rare public appearance in 1995 when she attended a reception held on Capitol Hill in her honor in connection with celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. Madame Chiang made her last visit to Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1995. In the 2000 Presidential Election on Taiwan, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
produced a letter from her in which she purportedly supported the KMT candidate Lien Chan
Lien Chan
over independent candidate James Soong
James Soong
(no relation). James Soong had never disputed the authenticity of the letter. Soong sold her Long Island
Long Island
estate in 2000 and spent the rest of her life in a Gracie Square apartment on the Upper East Side
Upper East Side
of Manhattan
Manhattan
owned by her niece. An open house viewing of the estate drew many Taiwanese expatriates. When Madame Chiang was 103 years old, she had an exhibition of her Chinese paintings in New York.[19] Death[edit] Madame Chiang died in her sleep in New York City, in her Manhattan apartment on October 23, 2003, at the age of 105.[3] Her remains were interred at Ferncliff Cemetery
Ferncliff Cemetery
in Hartsdale, New York, pending an eventual burial with her late husband who was entombed in Cihu, Taiwan. The stated intention is to have them both buried in mainland China
China
once political differences are resolved.[20][21] Upon her death, The White House
White House
released a statement:

Madame Chiang was a close friend of the United States
United States
throughout her life, and especially during the defining struggles of the last century. Generations of Americans will always remember and respect her intelligence and strength of character. On behalf of the American people, I extend condolences to Madame Chiang's family members and many admirers around the world. — George W. Bush[22]

Appraisals by international press[edit]

Soong and Chiang on the cover of TIME magazine, Oct 26, 1931

The New York Times
New York Times
obituary wrote:

As a fluent English speaker, as a Christian, as a model of what many Americans hoped China
China
to become, Madame Chiang struck a chord with American audiences as she traveled across the country, starting in the 1930s, raising money and lobbying for support of her husband's government. She seemed to many Americans to be the very symbol of the modern, educated, pro-American China
China
they yearned to see emerge—even as many Chinese dismissed her as a corrupt, power-hungry symbol of the past they wanted to escape.[3]

Life magazine called Madame the "most powerful woman in the world."[23] Liberty magazine described her as "the real brains and boss of the Chinese government."[24] Clare Boothe Luce
Clare Boothe Luce
compared her to Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
and Florence Nightingale.[25] Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
called her the "empress" of China.[25]

Gallery[edit]

Soong giving a bandage to an injured Chinese soldier (c. 1942)[26]

Chiang and Soong in 1943

Soong stitching uniforms for National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
soldiers.

1943 Wellesley College
Wellesley College
speech poster.

1942 Chiang, Soong and Joseph Stilwell
Joseph Stilwell
in Burma.

1943 Soong in the White House
White House
Oval Office
Oval Office
to conduct a press conference.

Soong sitting close to Chiang opposite Claire Lee Chennault.

The three Soong sisters
Soong sisters
in their youth, with Soong Ching Ling in the middle, and Soong Ai Ling (left) and Soong Mei Ling (right)

Internet video[edit]

1937 video-cast of Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
address to the world in English on YouTube (in Chinese) Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
and the China
China
Air Force 1995: US senators held a reception for Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
in recognition of China's role as a US ally in World War II.

See also[edit]

China
China
portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal Biography portal

Second Sino-Japanese War Xi'an Incident History of the Republic of China Military of the Republic of China President of the Republic of China Politics of the Republic of China Claire Lee Chennault Flying Tigers Chiang Fang-liang National Revolutionary Army Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941) Address to Congress - The full text of her 1943 address The Last Empress: Madame Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and the Birth of Modern China - A 2009 biography of Soong Mei-ling

References[edit]

^ The New York Times
New York Times
gives her place of birth as Shanghai, while the BBC and Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
give it as Wenchang, Hainan
Hainan
island (which was then part of Guangdong
Guangdong
Province). ^ a b While records at Wellesley College
Wellesley College
and the Encyclopædia Britannica indicate she was born in 1897, the Republic of China government as well as the BBC and the New York Times
New York Times
cite her year of birth as 1897.[clarification needed] The New York Times
New York Times
obituary includes the following explanation: "some references give 1897 as the year because the Chinese usually consider everyone to be one year old at birth." cf: East Asian age reckoning. However, early sources such as the Columbia Encyclopedia, 1960, give her date of birth as 1896, making it possible that "one year" was subtracted twice. ^ a b c d Faison, Seth (October 24, 2003). "Madame Chiang Kai-shek, a Power in Husband's China
China
and Abroad, Dies at 106". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-27. Madame Chiang Kai-shek, a pivotal figure in one of the 20th century's great epics — the struggle for control of post-imperial China
China
waged between the Nationalists and the Communists during the Japanese invasion and the violent aftermath of World War II — died on Thursday in Manhattan, the Foreign Ministry of Taiwan reported yesterday. She was 105. ...  ^ Karon, Tony (24 October 2003). "Madame Chiang Kai-Shek, 1898-2003". Time. Retrieved 12 August 2017.  ^ Tyson Li, Laura (2006). Madame Chiang Kai-shek: China's Eternal First Lady. New York: Grove Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8021-4322-8.  ^ "Southeast Tennessee Tourist Association". Southeast Tourist Tourist Association. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.  ^ Chitty, Arther and Elizabeth, Sewanee Sampler, 1978, p. 106; ISBN 0-9627687-7-4 ^ Profile, wellesley.edu; accessed July 28, 2014. ^ "CHINA: Soong Sisters". TIME. December 12, 1927. Retrieved May 22, 2011.  ^ "CHINA: Potent Mrs. Chiang". TIME. November 26, 1928. Retrieved May 22, 2011.  ^ St. Bartholomew's Church Marriage Registration 1944. ^ Meiling Villa, synotrip.com; accessed July 28, 2014. ^ Tyson Li 2006, pp. 87–88 ^ Scott Wong, Kevin (2005). Americans first: Chinese Americans and the Second World War. Harvard
Harvard
University Press. p. 93. ISBN 9780674016712.  ^ TIME Magazine cover ^ Karon, Tony (October 24, 2003). "Madame Chiang Kai-shek, 1898-2003". Time.com. Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Madame Chiang Kai-Shek". Wellesley College. 14 August 2000. Retrieved 1 August 2017.  ^ Pakula 2009, p. 659 ^ Pakula 2009, p. 670 ^ Berger, Joseph (30 October 2003). "An Epitapth for Madame Chiang Kai-shek: 'Mama'". New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ Isogawa, Tomoyoshi; Aoyama, Naoatsu (7 March 2014). "Chinese Civil War and birth of Taiwan, as told by Leo Soong". The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ "President's Statement on the Death of Madame Chiang Kai-shek". The White House. Retrieved 4 July 2011.  ^ Pakula, Hannah. "Chiang Kai-shek". New York Times. Retrieved 11 November 2014.  ^ Pakula 2009, p. 305 ^ a b Kirkpatrick, Melanie (3 November 2009). "China's Mystery Lady". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 November 2014.  ^ Fenby, Jonathan (2009), Modern China, p. 279

Bibliography[edit]

Chu, Samuel C.; Kennedy, Thomas L., eds. (2005). Madame Chiang Kai-shek and her China. Norwalk, Connecticut: EastBridge. ISBN 9781891936715.  DeLong, Thomas A. (2007). Madame Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and Miss Emma Mills: China's First Lady
First Lady
and Her American Friend. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-2980-6.  Preview at Google Books Donovan, Sandy (2006). Madame Chiang Kai-shek: Face of Modern China. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books. ISBN 978-0-7565-1886-8.  Preview at Google Books Pakula, Hannah (2009). The Last Empress: Madame Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and the Birth of Modern China. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-4893-8.  Preview at Google Books Scott Wong, Kevin (2005). Americans first: Chinese Americans and the Second World War. Harvard
Harvard
University Press. ISBN 9780674016712. Retrieved 20 May 2015.  Taylor, Jay (2009). The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and the Struggle for Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 217–18. ISBN 978-0-674-03338-2. Retrieved 20 May 2015.  Preview at Google Books Tyson Li, Laura (2006). Madame Chiang Kai-shek: China's Eternal First Lady. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4322-8.  Preview at Google Books

External links[edit]

Find more aboutSoong Mei-lingat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Audio of her speaking at the Hollywood Bowl, 1943 (3 hours into program) Text of her address to the US Congress, 1943 As delivered text transcript and complete audio of her address to the US Congress, 1943 Wellesley College
Wellesley College
biography at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archive index) Time magazine's "Man and Wife of the Year," 1937 Madame Chiang being honored by U.S. Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole (left) and Senator Paul Simon (center) at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC, July 26, 1995 Madame Chiang Kai-shek, 1898–2003 Life in pictures: Madame Chiang Kai-shek Voice of America
Voice of America
obituary CNN: Madame Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
dies Song Meiling's Villa Madame Chiang, 105, Chinese Leader's Widow, Dies - The New York Times The extraordinary secret of Madame Chiang Kai-shek Madame Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
- The Economist What a 71-Year-Old Article by Madame Chiang Kai-Shek Tells Us About China
China
Today - The Atlantic Madame Chiang Kai-Shek, 1898-2003 - TIME Madame Chiang - IMDb Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
- Britannica.com Madame Soong Mei-ling's Life in Her Old Age

Honorary titles

Preceded by None First Lady
First Lady
of the Republic of China 1948–1975 Succeeded by Liu Chi-chun

v t e

Warlord Era

1915–1922 1923–1932 Northern factions Southern factions

1915 Twenty-One Demands

1915–1916 Empire of China
China
(Yuan Shikai) National Protection War

1916 Death of Yuan Shikai

1917 Manchu Restoration

1917–1922 Constitutional Protection Movement

1918–1920 Siberian Intervention

1919 Paris Peace Conference May Fourth Movement

1919–1921 Occupation of Outer Mongolia

1920 Zhili–Anhui War

1920–1921 Guangdong–Guangxi War

1921 1st National CPC Congress

1922 First Zhili–Fengtian War

1923–1927 First United Front

1924 Second Zhili–Fengtian War Beijing Coup

1925 Yunnan–Guangxi War May Thirtieth Movement

1925–1926 Anti-Fengtian War

1926 Zhongshan Warship Incident

1926–1928 Northern Expedition

1928 Jinan Incident Huánggūtun Incident Looting of the Eastern Mausoleum Flag Replacement of the Northeast

1929 Warlord Rebellion in northeastern Shandong Sino-Soviet conflict

1930 Central Plains War

1932 Han–Liu War

Beiyang Army

Yuan Shikai Anhui Zhili Communications Research

Regional

Fengtian (Zhili) Shanxi Guominjun Ma Xinjiang

Yunnan Old Guangxi New Guangxi Guangdong
Guangdong
(Chen Jitang) Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) Communist Party (CPC) Sichuan

Republic of China
Republic of China
(1912–1949)

v t e

Chinese Civil War

Principal belligerents and campaigns

Nationalist Party /   Republic of China
Republic of China
( National Revolutionary Army → Republic of China
Republic of China
Armed Forces)

Communist Party /  People's Republic of China
Republic of China
( Red Army → 8th Route Army, N4A, etc. → People's Liberation Army)

Pre-1945 Post-1945 Current issues

1924 First United Front

1927 Shanghai
Shanghai
massacre Nanchang uprising Autumn Harvest Uprising Guangzhou Uprising

1929 Sino-Soviet conflict

1930–1934 Encirclement Campaigns

1931–1934 Chinese Soviet Republic

1933–1934 Fujian People's Government

1934–1936 Long March

1936 Xi'an Incident

1937–1946 Second United Front

1945 Chongqing Negotiations

1945 Double Tenth Agreement

1946 Jiaochangkou Incident

1945–1949 Operation Beleaguer

1946–1949 Revolution

1948 SS Kiangya
SS Kiangya
Incident

1948 Liaoshen Campaign

1948–1949 Huaihai Campaign

1948–1949 Pingjin Campaign

1949 Taiping Steamer Incident

1949 Yangtze River Crossing Campaign

1950–1958 Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Islamic insurgency

1950 Hainan
Hainan
Island Campaign

1950 Wanshan Archipelago Campaign

1950 Battle of Chamdo

1951 Incorporation of Tibet

1955 First Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis

1958 Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis (Jinmen Crisis)

1960–1961 China– Burma
Burma
border

1996 Third Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis

2005–present Pan-Blue visits

Political status of Taiwan Tibetan Government-in-Exile Chinese unification Hong Kong independence
Hong Kong independence
movement Inner Mongolian independence movement Manchurian independence movement Taiwan
Taiwan
independence movement Tibetan independence movement East Turkestan independence movement Cross-Strait relations

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ Conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Uganda–Tanzania War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Soong sisters
Soong sisters
family tree

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charlie Soong 1863–1918

 

Ni Kwei-Tseng 1869–1931

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soong Ai-ling

 

H. H. Kung

 

Soong Ching-ling

 

Sun Yat-sen

 

T. V. Soong

 

Lo-Yi Chang

 

Soong Mei-ling

 

Chiang Kai-shek

 

Soong Zi-liang

 

Soong Zi-on

 

胡其瑛

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosemond Kung

 

孔令侃

 

孔令伟

 

孔令杰

 

宋琼颐

 

宋曼颐

 

宋瑞颐

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

宋伯熊

 

 

宋仲虎

Notes:

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 50034607 LCCN: n50059493 ISNI: 0000 0001 2210 9064 GND: 119365952 SELIBR: 93232 SUDOC: 082965692 BNF: cb15011277f (data) NLA: 36730824 NCL: 491546 NKC: jx20080314002 SN

.