Songhua River
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The Songhua or Sunghwa River (also Haixi or Xingal, russian: Сунгари ''Sungari'') is one of the primary
rivers of China This incomplete list of river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without r ...
, and the longest
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage ba ...
of the
Amur The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably th ...

Amur
. It flows about from the
Changbai Mountains The Changbai Mountains are a major mountain range in Northeast Asia that extends from the Northeast Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning, across the border between China China, officially the People's Republic of Chin ...
on the
China–North Korea border The China–North Korea border is the international border separating the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the North Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea, DPRK). It runs for 1,352 km (840 mi) from the estuary of the Yalu R ...
through China's northeastern
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
and
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
provinces. The river drains of land, and has an annual discharge of . The extreme flatness of the Northeast China Plain has caused the river to
meander File:rio-cauto-cuba.JPG, Meanders of the ''Cauto River, Rio Cauto'' at Guamo Embarcadero, Cuba A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves in the channel of a river or other watercourse. It is produced as a watercourse erosion, erodes ...

meander
over time, filling the wide plain with
oxbow lakes An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander Meanders of the '' Rio Cauto'' at Guamo Embarcadero, Cuba A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, str ...
, as remnants of the previous paths of the river.


Geography

The Songhua rises south of Heaven Lake, near the China-North Korea border. From there it flows north, to be interrupted by the Baishan Dam, Baishan, Hongshi Dam, Hongshi and Fengman Dam, Fengman hydroelectricity, hydroelectric dams. The Fengman Dam forms a lake that stretches for . Below the dam, the Second Songhua flows north through
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
, then northwest until it is joined by its largest tributary, the Nen River, near Da'an, Jilin, Da'an, to create the Songhua proper. The Songhua turns east through Harbin, and after the city, it is joined from the south by the Ashi River, and then by the Hulan River from the north. A new dam was constructed in 2007 near Bayan County, Bayan (50 km northeast of Harbin), creating the Dadingshan Reservoir, which is named after the scenic area on the south bank (). The river flows onward through Jiamusi and south of the Lesser Xing'an Range, to eventually join the Amur at Tongjiang, Heilongjiang. The river freezes from late November until March. It has its highest flows when the mountain snow melts during the spring thaw. The river is navigable up to Harbin by medium-sized ships. Smaller craft can navigate the Songhua up to
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
and the Nen River up to Qiqihar. Cities along the river include: * Jilin City, Jilin * Harbin * Jiamusi


History

In November 2005, the river was Jilin chemical plant explosions 2005, contaminated with benzene, leading to a shutdown of Harbin's water supply. The spill stretched and eventually reached the Amur (Heilong) River on the China–Russia border. On July 28, 2010, several thousand barrels from two chemical plants in China's Jilin City were washed away by 2010 China floods, floods. Some of them contained of explosive material like trimethylsilyl chloride and hexamethyldisiloxane.Defence lines were opened in attempt to intercept the barrels with chemicals
RIA Novosti, 30.07.2010 In 2016, the part near the city of Jilin was affected by a minor flood.


See also

* Geography of China * Mudanjiang River * "Along the Songhua River", a Chinese patriotic song


References


External links

{{Authority control Songhua River, Rivers of Heilongjiang Rivers of Jilin Harbin Jilin City Geography of Yanbian