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SONDERAKTION KRAKAU was the codename for a Nazi German operation against professors and academics of the Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
and other universities in German occupied Kraków , Poland
Poland
, at the beginning of World War II
World War II
. It was carried out as part of the much broader action plan, the Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
, to eradicate the Polish intellectual elite especially in those centres (such as Kraków) that were slated by the Germans to become culturally German.

CONTENTS

* 1 Course of operation

* 1.1 Release

* 2 Prominent personalities arrested during Sonderaktion Krakau
Sonderaktion Krakau
* 3 In film * 4 See also * 5 References

COURSE OF OPERATION

A little over two months after the German Invasion of Poland
Poland
, the Gestapo
Gestapo
chief in Kraków SS-Obersturmbannführer Bruno Müller , commanded Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
rector Professor Tadeusz Lehr-Spławiński to require all professors to attend his lecture about German plans for Polish education. The rector agreed and sent an invitation throughout the university for a meeting scheduled at the administrative centre building in the Collegium Novum (entrance pictured). On November 6, 1939 at the lecture room no. 56 (or 66, sources vary) at noon, all academics and their guests gathered; among them, 105 professors and 33 lecturers from Jagiellonian University (UJ), 34 professors and doctors from University of Technology (AGH) some of whom attended a meeting in a different room, 4 from University of Economics (AE) and 4 from Lublin and Wilno. Jagiellonian University lecture room No. 56 trap

The academics filled the hall but no Vortrag (lecture) on education was conducted. Instead, they were told by Müller that the university did not have permission to start a new academic year (which it did), and that Poles are hostile toward German science, and act in bad faith. They were arrested on the spot by armed police, frisked and escorted out. Some senior professors were kicked, slapped in the face (Stanisław Estreicher) and hit with rifle butts. Additional 13–15 university employees and students who were onsite were also arrested, as well as the President of Kraków, Dr Stanisław Klimecki who was apprehended at home that afternoon.

All of them, 184 persons in total, were transported first to prison at Montelupich street, then to barracks at Mazowiecka, and – three days later – to a detention center in Breslau
Breslau
, Germany (now Wrocław , Poland), where they spent 18 days split between two prison facilities: the detention centre (Untersuchungsgefängnis, at the Świebodzka 1 Street), and the Strafgefängnis penal complex at Kleczkowska 35. The Gestapo
Gestapo
were unprepared for such a large transfer of prisoners, and awaited permission to send them to Buchenwald concentration camp which was filled to capacity. As a result, on November 27, 1939 at night, they were loaded onto a train to Sachsenhausen concentration camp located on the other side of Berlin, and in March 1940, sent further to Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
near Munich after a new batch of younger academics taken prisoner arrived.

RELEASE

Following loud international protest by prominent Italians including Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
and the Vatican , 101 professors who were older than 40 were released from Sachsenhausen on February 8, 1940. Additional academics were released later. Many elderly professors did not survive the roll-calls held twice a day in snow and rain, and the grim living conditions in the camp where dysentery was common and warm clothes were rare. Twelve died in the camp within three months, and another five within days of release. Among the notable professors who died in the camp were Ignacy Chrzanowski (UJ; Jan 19, 1940), Stanisław Estreicher (UJ; Dec 29, 1939), Kazimierz Kostanecki (UJ; Jan 11, 1940), Antoni Meyer (AGH; Dec 24, 1939), and Michał Siedlecki (UJ; Jan 11, 1940, after roll-call). In March 1940 the able prisoners from Kraków who remained alive were sent to Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
and most of them, but not all, released in January 1941 on intervention.

Many of those who went through Sonderaktion Krakau
Sonderaktion Krakau
and the internment, in 1942 formed an underground university in defiance of the German punitive edicts. Among the 800 students of their underground college was Karol Wojtyła, the future Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
, taught by prof. Tadeusz Lehr-Spławiński among others.

Today there is a plaque commemorating the events of Sonderaktion Krakau in front of Collegium Novum in Kraków. Every November 6, black flags are hung outside all Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
buildings, and the Rector of the University lays wreaths to honor those who suffered.

PROMINENT PERSONALITIES ARRESTED DURING SONDERAKTION KRAKAU

Below is the partial list of selected prominent academics and university graduates arrested on November 6, 1939. The train with 173 of them arrived in Breslau
Breslau
on November 10, 1939. After two-and-a-half weeks spent in local prisons, they were transported further west.

* Tadeusz Banachiewicz * Aleksander Birkenmajer * Ignacy Chrzanowski * Stanisław Estreicher * Tadeusz Estreicher * Stanisław Gołąb * Zdzisław Jachimecki * Stanisław Klimecki * Aleksander Kocwa * Władysław Konopczyński

* Kazimierz Kostanecki * Tadeusz Jan Kowalski * Stanisław Kutrzeba * Tadeusz Lehr-Spławiński * Bogusław Leśnodorski * Mieczysław Małecki * Wiktor Ormicki * Kazimierz Piwarski * Jan Stanisławski (lexicographer) * Leon Tochowicz * Tadeusz Wazewski

IN FILM

Sonderaktion Krakau
Sonderaktion Krakau
is depicted in the 2005 miniseries Karol: A Man Who Became Pope and the 2007 Polish film Katyń directed by Academy Honorary Award winner Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
. It was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 80th Academy Awards
80th Academy Awards
ceremony.

SEE ALSO

* Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
* Aktion Krakau * German AB-Aktion operation in Poland
Poland
* Invasion of Poland
Poland
(1939) * Massacre of Lviv professors *