The Solutrean industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making
style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP.
Solutrean sites have been found in modern-day France and Spain.
Solutrean hypothesis in North American archaeology
4 See also
6 External links
Solutrean comes from the type-site of "Cros du Charnier",
dating to around 21,000 years ago and located at Solutré, in
east-central France near Mâcon. The
Rock of Solutré
Rock of Solutré site was
discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry
Testot-Ferry. It is now preserved as the Parc archéologique et
botanique de Solutré.
The industry was named by Gabriel de Mortillet to describe the second
stage of his system of cave chronology, following the Mousterian, and
he considered it synchronous with the third division of the Quaternary
period. The era's finds include tools, ornamental beads, and bone pins
as well as prehistoric art.
Solutrean tool-making employed techniques not seen before and not
rediscovered for millennia.
The Solutrean has relatively finely
worked, bifacial points made with lithic reduction percussion and
pressure flaking rather than cruder flintknapping. Knapping was done
using antler batons, hardwood batons and soft stone hammers. This
method permitted the working of delicate slivers of flint to make
light projectiles and even elaborate barbed and tanged arrowheads.
Large thin spearheads; scrapers with edge not on the side but on the
end; flint knives and saws, but all still chipped, not ground or
polished; long spear-points, with tang and shoulder on one side only,
are also characteristic implements of this industry.
Bone and antler
were used as well.
The Solutrean may be seen as a transitory stage between the flint
implements of the
Mousterian and the bone implements of the
Magdalenian epochs. Faunal finds include horse, reindeer, mammoth,
cave lion, rhinoceros, bear and aurochs.
Solutrean finds have also
been made in the caves of
Les Eyzies and Laugerie Haute, and in the
Lower Beds of
Creswell Crags in
Derbyshire, England (Proto-Solutrean).
The industry first appeared in what is now Spain, and
disappears from the archaeological record around 17,000 BP.
Solutrean hypothesis in North American archaeology
Solutrean hypothesis" argues that people from
Europe may have
been among the earliest settlers of the Americas. Its notable
recent proponents include
Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian
Institution and Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter. This
hypothesis contrasts with the mainstream archaeological orthodoxy that
the North American continent was first populated by people from Asia,
either by the
Bering land bridge
Bering land bridge (i.e. Beringia) at least 13,500 years
ago, or by maritime travel along the Pacific coast, or by both. The
idea of a Clovis-
Solutrean link remains controversial and does not
enjoy wide acceptance. The hypothesis is challenged by large gaps in
time between the Clovis and
Solutrean eras, a lack of evidence of
Solutrean seafaring, lack of specific
Solutrean features and tools in
Clovis technology, the difficulties of the route, and other
In 2014, the autosomal DNA of a male infant from a 12,500-year-old
deposit in Montana was sequenced. The skeleton was found in close
association with several Clovis artifacts. Comparisons showed strong
affinities with DNA from Siberian sites, and virtually ruled out any
close affinity of Anzick-1 with European sources. The DNA of the
Anzick-1 sample showed strong affinities with sampled Native American
populations, which indicated that the samples derive from an ancient
population that lived in or near Siberia, the Upper Palaeolithic
Solutrean tools, 22,000–17,000 BP, Crot du Charnier,
Solutré-Pouilly, Saône-et-Loire, France
The Solutrean toolkit includes the world's earliest identifiable
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name
needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
^ Bradley, Bruce; Stanford, Dennis (2004). "The North Atlantic
ice-edge corridor: a possible
Palaeolithic route to the New World"
(PDF). World Archaeology. 36 (4): 459–478.
doi:10.1080/0043824042000303656. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
^ Carey, Bjorn (19 February 2006). "First Americans may have been
European". Live Science. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
^ Vastag, Brian (March 1, 2012). "Theory jolts familiar view of first
Americans". The Washington Post. pp. A1, A9. Retrieved
^ Mann, Charles C. (Nov 2013), "The Clovis Point and the Discovery of
America's First Culture," Smithsonian Magazine, 
^ Straus, L.G. (April 2000). "
Solutrean settlement of North America? A
review of reality". American Antiquity. 65 (2): 219–226.
^ Westley, Kieran and Justin Dix (2008). "
The Solutrean Atlantic
Hypothesis: A View from the Ocean". Journal of the North Atlantic. 1:
^ Rasmussen M, Anzick SL, et al. (2014). "The genome of a Late
Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana".
Nature. 506 (7487): 225–229. doi:10.1038/nature13025.
PMC 4878442 . PMID 24522598.
^ "Ancient American's genome mapped". BBC News. 2014-02-14.
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