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The Solutrean
The Solutrean
industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP. Solutrean
Solutrean
sites have been found in modern-day France and Spain.

Contents

1 Details 2 Solutrean hypothesis
Solutrean hypothesis
in North American archaeology 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Details[edit] The term Solutrean
Solutrean
comes from the type-site of "Cros du Charnier", dating to around 21,000 years ago and located at Solutré, in east-central France near Mâcon. The Rock of Solutré
Rock of Solutré
site was discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry Testot-Ferry. It is now preserved as the Parc archéologique et botanique de Solutré. The industry was named by Gabriel de Mortillet to describe the second stage of his system of cave chronology, following the Mousterian, and he considered it synchronous with the third division of the Quaternary period. The era's finds include tools, ornamental beads, and bone pins as well as prehistoric art. Solutrean
Solutrean
tool-making employed techniques not seen before and not rediscovered for millennia. The Solutrean
The Solutrean
has relatively finely worked, bifacial points made with lithic reduction percussion and pressure flaking rather than cruder flintknapping. Knapping was done using antler batons, hardwood batons and soft stone hammers. This method permitted the working of delicate slivers of flint to make light projectiles and even elaborate barbed and tanged arrowheads. Large thin spearheads; scrapers with edge not on the side but on the end; flint knives and saws, but all still chipped, not ground or polished; long spear-points, with tang and shoulder on one side only, are also characteristic implements of this industry. Bone
Bone
and antler were used as well. The Solutrean
The Solutrean
may be seen as a transitory stage between the flint implements of the Mousterian
Mousterian
and the bone implements of the Magdalenian
Magdalenian
epochs. Faunal finds include horse, reindeer, mammoth, cave lion, rhinoceros, bear and aurochs. Solutrean
Solutrean
finds have also been made in the caves of Les Eyzies
Les Eyzies
and Laugerie Haute, and in the Lower Beds of Creswell Crags
Creswell Crags
in Derbyshire, England
Derbyshire, England
(Proto-Solutrean). The industry first appeared in what is now Spain[citation needed], and disappears from the archaeological record around 17,000 BP. Solutrean hypothesis
Solutrean hypothesis
in North American archaeology[edit] Main article: Solutrean
Solutrean
hypothesis The " Solutrean
Solutrean
hypothesis" argues that people from Europe
Europe
may have been among the earliest settlers of the Americas.[1][2] Its notable recent proponents include Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter.[3] This hypothesis contrasts with the mainstream archaeological orthodoxy that the North American continent was first populated by people from Asia, either by the Bering land bridge
Bering land bridge
(i.e. Beringia) at least 13,500 years ago,[4] or by maritime travel along the Pacific coast, or by both. The idea of a Clovis- Solutrean
Solutrean
link remains controversial and does not enjoy wide acceptance. The hypothesis is challenged by large gaps in time between the Clovis and Solutrean
Solutrean
eras, a lack of evidence of Solutrean
Solutrean
seafaring, lack of specific Solutrean
Solutrean
features and tools in Clovis technology, the difficulties of the route, and other issues.[5][6] In 2014, the autosomal DNA of a male infant from a 12,500-year-old deposit in Montana was sequenced.[7] The skeleton was found in close association with several Clovis artifacts. Comparisons showed strong affinities with DNA from Siberian sites, and virtually ruled out any close affinity of Anzick-1 with European sources. The DNA of the Anzick-1 sample showed strong affinities with sampled Native American populations, which indicated that the samples derive from an ancient population that lived in or near Siberia, the Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta
Mal'ta
population.[8] Gallery[edit]

Solutrean
Solutrean
tools, 22,000–17,000 BP, Crot du Charnier, Solutré-Pouilly, Saône-et-Loire, France

The Solutrean
The Solutrean
toolkit includes the world's earliest identifiable sewing needles.

See also[edit]

Preceded by Gravettian Solutrean 22,000–17,000 BP Succeeded by Magdalenian

Franco-Cantabrian region Gravettian

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

^ Bradley, Bruce; Stanford, Dennis (2004). "The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: a possible Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
route to the New World" (PDF). World Archaeology. 36 (4): 459–478. doi:10.1080/0043824042000303656. Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ Carey, Bjorn (19 February 2006). "First Americans may have been European". Live Science. Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ Vastag, Brian (March 1, 2012). "Theory jolts familiar view of first Americans". The Washington Post. pp. A1, A9. Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ Mann, Charles C. (Nov 2013), "The Clovis Point and the Discovery of America's First Culture," Smithsonian Magazine, [1] ^ Straus, L.G. (April 2000). " Solutrean
Solutrean
settlement of North America? A review of reality". American Antiquity. 65 (2): 219–226. doi:10.2307/2694056.  ^ Westley, Kieran and Justin Dix (2008). " The Solutrean
The Solutrean
Atlantic Hypothesis: A View from the Ocean". Journal of the North Atlantic. 1: 85–98. doi:10.3721/J080527.  ^ Rasmussen M, Anzick SL, et al. (2014). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana". Nature. 506 (7487): 225–229. doi:10.1038/nature13025. PMC 4878442 . PMID 24522598.  ^ "Ancient American's genome mapped". BBC News. 2014-02-14. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solutrean.

Clovis and Solutrean: Is There a Common Thread? by James M. Chandler Stone Age
Stone Age
Columbus BBC TV programme summary "America's Stone Age
Stone Age
Explorers" transcript of 2004 NOVA program on PBS Images of Solutrean
Solutrean
artifacts Radical theory of first Americans places Stone Age
Stone Age
Europeans in Delmarva 20,000 years ago Washington Post article from 28 February 2012 Picture gallery of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(reconstructional palaeoethnology), Libor Balák at the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Archaeology in Brno, The Center for Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Paleoethnological Research

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