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Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu
(sometimes written "Neferusobek") was an Egyptian woman reigning as pharaoh after the death of her brother Amenemhat IV. She was the last ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt
Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt
and governed Egypt for almost four years from 1806 to 1802 BC.[1] Her name means "the beauty of Sobek."

Contents

1 Family 2 Reign 3 Monuments and Tomb 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography

Family[edit] She was the daughter of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Amenemhat III. Manetho states she also was the sister of Amenemhat IV, but this claim is unproven. Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu
had an older sister named Nefruptah, who may have been the intended heir. Neferuptah's name was enclosed in a cartouche and she had her own pyramid at Hawara. Neferuptah died at an early age, however.[2] Reign[edit] Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu
was the first known woman reigning as pharaoh for which there is confirmed proof. There are five women who are believed to have ruled as early as the First Dynasty
First Dynasty
and Nitocris may have ruled in the Sixth Dynasty.[citation needed] Amenemhat IV
Amenemhat IV
most likely died without a male heir; consequently, Amenemhat III's daughter, Sobekneferu, assumed the throne. According to the Turin Canon, she ruled for 3 years, 10 months, and 24 days[3] in the late nineteenth century BC. She died without heirs and the end of her reign concluded Egypt's brilliant Twelfth Dynasty and the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom as it inaugurated the much weaker Thirteenth Dynasty. Monuments and Tomb[edit]

Head of ruling pharaoh Sobekneferu

Drawing by Flinders Petrie
Flinders Petrie
of the cylinder seal of Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu
in the British Museum.[4]

Few monuments have been discovered for her, although many of her (headless) statues have been preserved including the base of a representation of a king's royal daughter that was discovered in Gezer and bears her name.[5] One statue with a head is known. A bust in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin
Egyptian Museum of Berlin
(Inv. no. 14476), lost in World War II, could be identified as belonging to her. Today, the sculpture is known only from photographic images and plaster casts. It came in 1899 to the museum. The head fits on top of the lower part of a royal statue discovered at Semna. The latter can be identified for sure as royal because the royal symbol unification of the two countries appears on the side of her throne.[6] It is known that she made additions to the funerary complex of Amenemhat III
Amenemhat III
at Hawara
Hawara
(called a labyrinth by Herodotus) and also built structures at Herakleopolis Magna. A fine cylinder seal bearing her name and royal titulary is located in the British Museum.[7] A Nile graffito, at the Nubian fortress of Kumma records the Nile inundation height of 1.83 meters in Year 3 of her reign.[8] Another inscription discovered in the Eastern Desert records year 4, second month of the peret season.[9] Her monumental works consistently associate her with Amenemhat III
Amenemhat III
rather than Amenemhat IV, supporting the theory that she was the royal daughter of Amenemhat III
Amenemhat III
and perhaps, only a stepsister of Amenemhat IV.[5] The Danish Egyptologist, Kim Ryholt, notes that the contemporary sources from her reign show that Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu
never adopted the title of King's Sister--only 'King's Daughter'--which supports this hypothesis.[5] Additionally, all Egyptian rulers were given the title 'king', regardless of gender. Her tomb has not been identified positively, although she may have been interred in a pyramid complex in Mazghuna that lacks inscriptions. It is immediately north of a similar complex ascribed to Amenemhat IV. A place called Sekhem-Neferu is mentioned in a papyrus found at Harageh. This might be the name of her pyramid. See also[edit]

Hatshepsut

References[edit]

^ a b Kim S. B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 B.C., Museum Tusculanum Press, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications 20, 1997. p.185 ^ Dodson, Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Egypt, 2004, p. 98. ^ Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, Museum Tusculanum Press, (1997), p.15 ISBN 87-7289-421-0 ^ Flinder Petrie: Scarabs and cylinders with names (1927), available copyright-free here, pl. XIV ^ a b c Ryholt, p.213 ^ B. Fay, R. E. Freed, T. Schelper, F. Seyfried: Neferusobek Project: Part I, in: G. Miniaci, W. Grajetzki: The World of Middle Kingdom Egypt (2000-1550 BC), Vo. I, London 2015, ISBN 978-1906137434, p. 89-91 ^ Gae Callender, 'The Middle Kingdom Renaissance' in Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, (Oxford Univ. Press: 2003), paperback, p.159 ^ Gae Callender, p.159 ^ A. Almásy, Catalogue of Inscriptions, In: U. Luft (editor), Bi'r Minayh, Report on the Survey 1998-2004, Budapest 2011, ISBN 978-9639911116, p. 174-175

Bibliography[edit]

Dodson, Aidan. Hilton, Dyan. 2004. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson W. Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt: History,Archaeology and Society, Duckworth, London 2006 ISBN 0-7156-3435-6, 61-63 Shaw, Ian. Nicholson, Paul. 1995. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers. Shaw, Ian, Ed. 2000. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press. Graffito ref. pg. 170.

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54944821 GN

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