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Sliven
Sliven
(Bulgarian: Сливен) is the eighth-largest city in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the administrative and industrial centre of Sliven Province and municipality. Sliven
Sliven
is famous for its hoes Haiduts who fought against the Ottoman Turks in the 19th century and is known as the "City of the 100 Voyvodi", a Voyvoda
Voyvoda
being a leader of Haiduts. The famous rocky massif Sinite Kamani
Sinite Kamani
(Сините камъни, "The Blue Rocks") and the associated national park, the fresh air and the mineral springs offer diverse opportunities for leisure and tourism. Investors are exploring the opportunity to use the famous local wind (Bora) for the production of electricity. Another point of interest and a major symbol of the city as featured on the coat of arms, is over thousand-year-old Stariyat Briast (Старият Бряст, "The Old Elm"), a huge Smooth-leaved Elm in the center of the city. In times of the Ottoman rule Turkish officials used to hang Bulgarian revolutionaries on it. Today the city is helping the tree live on by frequent evaluations and reinforcing its base. It was elected Bulgarian tree of the year in 2013. On 19 March 2014 the results of online poll were revealed at a ceremony in the European Parliament. The Old Elm was voted European tree of the year 2014. Sliven Peak
Sliven Peak
on Livingston Island
Livingston Island
in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
Antarctica
is named after Sliven.

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demography

4.1 Ethnic groups

5 History 6 Economy 7 Culture 8 See also 9 Town twinning 10 References 11 External links

Name[edit] The name comes from the Slavic word sliv ("pour, confluence") + the Slavic suffix or ending -en.[2] Geography[edit]

View of Sliven
Sliven
and the lowlands of Thrace
Thrace
from southern Stara Planina

Sliven
Sliven
is located 300 km east of Bulgaria's capital Sofia, 100 km from Bourgas, the country's largest commercial port, 130 km from the border with Greece
Greece
and 130 km from the border with Turkey. It is located in close proximity to the cities of Yambol
Yambol
and Nova Zagora. West of the city lies the so-called Peach
Peach
Valley which contains large peach orchards. The city is also known for its mineral baths whose water is used to treat diseases of the liver and nervous system. The most visited geographical location and attraction in the city is the Karandila (Карандила). It is a hilltop 1050m above sealevel, with great sights overlooking the city. On the Karandila is the rock formation Halkata (Хaлката, "The Ring"). It is a rock protrusion with an interesting, yet peculiar hole in the center. According to myth, one would have their most sincere wish granted upon passing through the ring. Karandila is the site of the annual Karakachani festival, organized by the Federation of the Cultural and Educational Associations of Karakachans (ФКПДК) in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
each July.[3] Karandila is located in the nature park Sinite Kamani
Sinite Kamani
(Сините камъни), whose peak Bulgarka (Българка, 1181 m.) is the highest in the eastern Balkan mountain.[4] Climate[edit] Sliven
Sliven
Municipality is situated on the sub-Balkan plain in the zone of transitional-continental climate. In the region of Sliven, winter is mild and summer is relatively warm. Autumn is longer than Spring. The local wind Bora is typical for the region.

Climate data for Sliven
Sliven
(2002-2013)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 8.5 (47.3) 13.0 (55.4) 18.5 (65.3) 24.0 (75.2) 28.1 (82.6) 30.8 (87.4) 31.3 (88.3) 26.1 (79) 19.5 (67.1) 13.6 (56.5) 7.7 (45.9) 19.0 (66.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 3.5 (38.3) 8.2 (46.8) 13.4 (56.1) 18.7 (65.7) 23.2 (73.8) 25.2 (77.4) 25.6 (78.1) 20.9 (69.6) 14.7 (58.5) 9.6 (49.3) 3.7 (38.7) 14.3 (57.7)

Average low °C (°F) −0.5 (31.1) 0.6 (33.1) 3.5 (38.3) 8.7 (47.7) 12.7 (54.9) 17.0 (62.6) 19.0 (66.2) 19.2 (66.6) 15.0 (59) 10.2 (50.4) 5.6 (42.1) 1.1 (34) 9.3 (48.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 46 (1.81) 41 (1.61) 31 (1.22) 50 (1.97) 67 (2.64) 66 (2.6) 54 (2.13) 37 (1.46) 32 (1.26) 43 (1.69) 61 (2.4) 59 (2.32) 587 (23.11)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 94 122 171 213 264 293 327 319 232 191 123 87 2,441

Source: weatheronline.co.uk [5]

Demography[edit] According to the Bulgarian National Statistical Institute, as of February 2011, the total population of the Sliven
Sliven
Municipality is 125 268 inhabitants while in the city of Sliven
Sliven
live 91 620 inhabitants.[6] The town is called the underage mother capital of Europe, with 177 such births in 2008.

Sliven

Year 1887 1910 1934 1946 1956 1965 1975 1985 1992 2001 2005 2009 2011 2013

Population 20,893 25,142 30,571 34,291 46,175 68,536 90,316 102,268 106,225 100,366 95,518 93,781 91,620 ??

Highest number 114,696 in 1991

Sources: National Statistical Institute,[1][7][8] „citypopulation.de“,[9] „pop-stat.mashke.org“,[10] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences[11]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1887 20,893 —    

1910 25,142 +20.3%

1934 30,571 +21.6%

1946 34,291 +12.2%

1956 46,175 +34.7%

1965 68,536 +48.4%

1975 90,316 +31.8%

1985 102,268 +13.2%

1991 114,696 +12.2%

2001 100,366 −12.5%

2005 95,518 −4.8%

2009 93,781 −1.8%

2011 91,620 −2.3%

Sliven
Sliven
Panorama - east view.

View to Sinite Kamani

Ethnic groups[edit] Members of the following ethnic groups are represented in the city's population:[12][13]

Bulgarians: 68,853 (87.1%) Roma: 5,666 (7.2%) Turks: 2,637 (3.3%) Sarakatsani, Armenians and others: 1,388 (1.8%) Indefinable: 491 (0.6%)

Undeclared: 12,585 (13.7%)

Total: 91,620 In Sliven
Sliven
Municipality 88750 declared as Bulgarians, 12153 as Roma, 4209 as Turks and 18641 did not declare their ethnic group. The city of Sliven, Sliven
Sliven
Municipality and Sliven Province
Sliven Province
have the largest number of Roma in Bulgaria. History[edit]

Saint Demetrius
Saint Demetrius
church in Sliven, built 1831

The monument of Hadzhi Dimitar
Hadzhi Dimitar
in Sliven

The house museum of the Sliven
Sliven
lifestyle

Sliven
Sliven
clock tower, built 1808

Remains of the oldest settlements on the territory of Sliven
Sliven
date back to around 6000 BCE of the Neolithic. Ruins of a Thracian settlement dating to around 5th–3rd century BCE as well as Thracian ceramics and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
coins have been discovered in the area of Hisarlaka — a small hill in Sliven. In antiquity it was known as Selymnos (Σήλυμνος in Greek). The area occupied by present-day Sliven has in the past been settled by the Thracian tribes Asti, Kabileti and Seleti. These tribes held their independence until time of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
who conquered them. The 2nd century BCE marked the beginning of the Roman conquests of northeastern Thracia. Sliven
Sliven
was conquered by Rome
Rome
around 72–71 BCE when the Thracian[14] Kabile
Kabile
and later Greek[15] cities of Kabile
Kabile
and Apolonia are conquered. With the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
the region of the city became part of the Thracian province of the Roman Empire. A new stage in the city's history began around 2nd-4th century. The first written records of the settlement's name, Tuida/Suida/Tsuida date to this period. This name is most likely of Thracian origin. Its etymology is currently not understood. Known as "İslimye" by the Turks, during Ottoman rule it was a sanjak centre in first Rumelia eyalet, then Silistre (Özi) eyalet, Edirne vilayet, finally being for a short period a centre of a department in the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia
Eastern Rumelia
before its inclusion in the Principality of Bulgaria in 1885. During the First World War
First World War
it was the site of the Sliven prisoner of war camp, the largest such camp in the country. It was the place of internment for Greek and Serbian civilians and soldiers, with peak numbers of 19,000.[16] In more modern times, Sliven
Sliven
became one of the most significant cultural centres during the Bulgarian National Revival, with much of its old heritage still preserved and enriched and today offers to its citizens and visitors a lot of opportunities for cultural life. It served as the birthplace of many prominent Bulgarians
Bulgarians
who contributed to the enlightenment such as Hadzhi Dimitar, Dobri Chintulov, Evgeniy Chapkanov, Ivan Seliminski and many others. Another notable native is Anton Pann
Anton Pann
who composed the Romanian national anthem. Another notable resident is Yordan Letchkov, whose goal in the 1994 World Cup eliminated defending champion Germany. Letchkov was mayor of Sliven from 2003 to 2011. Economy[edit] The economy of Sliven
Sliven
has centered around industry since the early 19th century. In 1834, Dobri Zhelyazkov
Dobri Zhelyazkov
established the first factory in Bulgarian lands, thus starting industrial development in Bulgaria. Sliven
Sliven
was one of the largest industrial centers in Bulgaria, playing an important role during the Bulgarian National Revival. It has long-lived traditions in textiles, machine-building, glass-making, chemical production, and the technical and food industries. Following the beginning of communist rule in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1944, most industries were nationalized and much industrial building and development was spurred. Industry continued to develop until the fall of communism, at which point much of the previously built industry stagnated; many plants and factories were shut down and there was little development. In contemporary times, Sliven
Sliven
has experienced a surge in economy with increased investment, banking establishments and new industries have begun to emerge. The dairy industry, which has long been present, continues to grow and thrive. The wine industry, with companies such as Vinprom and Vini Sliven
Sliven
and about a dozen others, continues to grow as grapes are easily grown due to the climate conditions. In terms of heavy industry, the city produces electric lights and electrical machines. Light industry in Sliven
Sliven
is mostly devoted to textiles with many companies making wool clothing, socks, and food. Culture[edit]

The dramatic theater in Sliven, situated on the city's main square. This theatre serves as a venue for various performing arts.

There are many buildings in the city built in the National Revival Architecture style, including the House museum "Hadzhi Dimitar". It is in the south western part of the town and shows visitors a complex of a native memorial home and an old traditional inn. The Museum collection "Dobri Chintulov" is on the North side of Sliven; it was the home of the Bulgarian revival teacher and poet Dobri Chintulov. The city's main theater is located at the main city square. It is named after the Sliven
Sliven
native Stefan Kirov (Стефан Киров) who was a prominent actor and director. See also[edit]

List of cities in Bulgaria Upper Thrace

Town twinning[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Alba Iulia, Romania Gera, Germany Pécs, Hungary Voronezh, Russia Svetlahorsk, Belarus Ternopil, Ukraine Tekirdağ, Turkey Chongqing, China Kutaisi, Georgia Kaisariani, Greece Jerash, Jordan Cheonan, South Korea Melitopol, Ukraine Taraclia, Moldova

References[edit]

^ a b (in Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - Main Towns Census 2011 Archived 2011-04-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "За Сливен" (in Bulgarian). БНС – Сливен. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2008-09-14.  ^ Annual Karakachan Festival, Karandila ^ Sinite Kamuni and Karandila ^ "weatheronline.co.uk: Historical Weather for Sliven, Bulgaria". weatheronline.co.uk. 2012.  Retrieved on May 9, 2013. ^ (in English) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute - Census 2011 ^ (in Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992[permanent dead link] ^ (in English) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute - towns in 2009 ^ (in English) „WorldCityPopulation“ ^ „pop-stat.mashke.org“ ^ (in Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ (in Bulgarian) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute ^ Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (in Bulgarian) ^ Fol, Aleksandar. The Thracian Royal city of Kabyle. - In: Settlement Life in Ancient Thrace. IIIrd International Symposium “Cabyle”, 17–21 May 1993 Jambol. Jambol, 53-55. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,Index ^ Pissari, Milovan (2013). "Bulgarian Crimes against Civilians in Occupied Serbia during the First World War" (PDF). Balcanica. Institute for Balkan Studies (44): 357–390. doi:10.2298/BALC1344357P. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sliven.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sliven.

 "Sliven". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). 1911.  Digital photos from Sliven Official site of Sliven
Sliven
Municipality Sliven.net RegionSliven.org Sliven.government.bg Sliven.start.bg

Coordinates: 42°41′N 26°20′E / 42.683°N 26.333°E / 42.683; 26.333

v t e

Cities and towns of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2011 census)

1,000,000+

Sofia
Sofia
(capital)

300,000+

Plovdiv Varna

200,000+

Burgas

100,000+

Pleven Ruse Stara Zagora

50,000+

Asenovgrad Blagoevgrad Dobrich Gabrovo Haskovo Pazardzhik Pernik Shumen Sliven Veliko Tarnovo Vratsa Yambol

20,000+

Aytos Botevgrad Dimitrovgrad Dupnitsa Gorna Oryahovitsa Kardzhali Karlovo Kazanlak Kyustendil Lom Lovech Montana Nova Zagora Petrich Razgrad Samokov Sandanski Sevlievo Silistra Smolyan Svishtov Targovishte Troyan Velingrad Vidin

10,000+

Balchik Bankya Berkovitsa Byala Slatina Cherven Bryag Chirpan Elhovo Etropole Gotse Delchev Harmanli Ihtiman Karnobat Kavarna Knezha Kostinbrod Kozloduy Mezdra Nesebar Novi Iskar Novi Pazar Panagyurishte Parvomay Pavlikeni Peshtera Pomorie Popovo Provadia Radnevo Radomir Rakovski Razlog Stamboliyski Svilengrad

5,000+

Aksakovo Bansko Belene Belogradchik Beloslav Bobov Dol Bozhurishte Byala, Ruse Province Chepelare Devin Devnya Dolni Chiflik Dryanovo Dulovo Elena Elin Pelin Galabovo General Toshevo Hisarya Isperih Kostenets Kotel Krichim Krumovgrad Kubrat Kuklen Levski Lukovit Lyaskovets Lyubimets Madan Momchilgrad Omurtag Oryahovo Perushtitsa Pirdop Rakitovo Saedinenie Septemvri Simeonovgrad Simitli Slivnitsa Sopot, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Province Sredets Straldzha Svoge Tervel Teteven Topolovgrad Tryavna Tsarevo Tutrakan Tvarditsa Varshets Veliki Preslav Yakoruda Zlatitsa Zlatograd

2,000+

Aheloy Apriltsi Ardino Batak Batanovtsi Belitsa Belovo Borovo Bratsigovo Bregovo Breznik Byala Chernomorets Dalgopol Debelets Dobrinishte Dolna Banya Dolna Mitropoliya Dolna Oryahovitsa Dolni Dabnik Dospat Dragoman Dunavtsi Dve Mogili Dzhebel Glodzhevo Godech Gulyantsi Gurkovo Hadzhidimovo Ignatievo* Iskar Ivaylovgrad Kableshkovo Kalofer Kameno Kaspichan Kilifarevo Klisura Kocherinovo Koprivshtitsa Kostandovo Koynare Kresna Kran Krivodol Kula Laki Letnitsa Loznitsa Maglizh Malko Tarnovo Marten Мizia Nedelino Nikolaevo Nikopol Obzor Opaka Pavel Banya Polski Trambesh Pordim Pravets Primorsko Rila Roman Rudozem Sadovo Sapareva Banya Sarnitsa Shabla Shivachevo Slavyanovo Slivo Pole Smyadovo Sozopol Strazhitsa Strelcha Sungurlare Suvorovo Sveti Vlas Tran Trastenik Tsar Kaloyan Ugarchin Valchedram Valchi Dol Varbitsa Vetovo Vetren Yablanitsa Zavet Zlataritsa

1,000+

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500+

Kiten Madzharovo Pliska

499-

Melnik

Notes

city status after the census of 01.02.2011: Ignatievo, Kran

v t e

Municipalities of Sliven
Sliven
Province

Kotel Nova Zagora Sliven Tvarditsa

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248161590 GN

.