The Info List - Slavic Peoples

are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia). From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Also, today there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America, particularly in the United States and Canada
as a result of immigration[1]. Slavs
are the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe.[2][3] Present-day Slavic peoples are classified into East Slavs
East Slavs
(chiefly Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns, and Ukrainians), West Slavs
West Slavs
(chiefly Czechs, Kashubs, Poles, Silesians, Slovaks
and Sorbs), and South Slavs (chiefly Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs
and Slovenes) [4][5][6][7]. Slavs
can further be divided along the lines of religion. Orthodox Christianity makes up the bulk of the religion encompassing and practiced by the Slavs. The Orthodox Slavs
Orthodox Slavs
include the Belarusians, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Russians, Serbs, and Ukrainians and are defined by their use of Orthodox customs and the use of Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
as well as their cultural influence and connection to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
( Serbs
also use Serbian Latin
script on equal terms). The second most practiced and common religion amongst the Slavs
is Roman Catholicism. The Catholic Slavs
include Croats, Czechs, Kashubians, Poles, Silesians, Slovaks
and Slovenes
and they are defined by their Latinate
influence and heritage and connection to Western Europe. There are also substantial Protestant
and Lutheran minorities (especially amongst the West Slavs) such as the historical Bohemian (Czech) Hussites. The third largest religion amongst the Slavs
is Islam. Muslim Slavs include the Bosniaks, Pomaks, Gorani, Torbesis, and other Muslims of the former Yugoslavia
as well as certain East Slavs
East Slavs
who settled in the Crimean Peninsula and converted to the Islamic faith via influence from the Crimean Tatars. Modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are considerably diverse both genetically and culturally, and relations between them – even within the individual ethnic groups themselves – are varied, ranging from a sense of connection to mutual feelings of hostility.[8]


1 Ethnonym 2 Origin

2.1 First mentions 2.2 Migrations

3 Middle Ages

3.1 Early Slavic states

4 Modern history

4.1 Pan-Slavism

5 Languages 6 Ethno-cultural subdivisions 7 Religion 8 Relations with non-Slavic people 9 Population 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Ethnonym[edit] Main article: Slavs
(ethnonym) The oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the 6th century AD Procopius, writing in Byzantine Greek, using various forms such as Sklaboi (Σκλάβοι), Sklabēnoi (Σκλαβηνοί), Sklauenoi (Σκλαυηνοί), Sthlabenoi (Σθλαβηνοί), or Sklabinoi (Σκλαβῖνοι),[9] while his contemporary Jordanes
refers to the Sclaveni
in Latin.[10] The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic, dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne (Словѣне). These forms point back to a Slavic autonym which can be reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural Slověne. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is usually considered a derivation from slovo ("word"), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)," i. e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic *němъ "mute, mumbling"). The word slovo ("word") and the related slava ("glory, fame") and slukh ("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew- ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος (kléos "fame"), whence comes the name Pericles, Latin
clueo ("be called"), and English loud. Origin[edit] Main article: Early Slavs See also: History of the Slavic languages First mentions[edit]

Slavic peoples in 6th century

The Slavs
under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni
make their first appearance in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–565), such as Procopius
of Caesarea, Jordanes
and Theophylact Simocatta
Theophylact Simocatta
describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube
and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire. Procopius
wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni
and the Antae actually had a single name in the remote past; for they were both called Sporoi in olden times." He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, and that they believe in one god, "the maker of lightning" (Perun), to whom they made sacrifice. They lived in scattered housing, and constantly changed settlement. Regarding warfare, they were mainly foot soldiers with small shields and battleaxes, lightly clothed, some entering battle naked with only their genitals covered. Their language is "barbarous" (that is, not Greek-speaking), and the two tribes do not differ in appearance, being tall and robust, "while their bodies and hair are neither very fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline entirely to the dark type, but they are all slightly ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts..."[11] Jordanes
described the Sclaveni
having swamps and forests for their cities.[12] Another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers, lakes, and marshes.[13]

Slavic tribes from the 7th to 9th centuries in Europe

Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius (577–579) that slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I. The Avars asked the Slavs
to accept the suzerainty of the Avars; he however declined and is reported as saying: "Others do not conquer our land, we conquer theirs – so it shall always be for us".[14] The relationship between the Slavs
and a tribe called the Veneti east of the River Vistula
in the Roman period is uncertain. The name may refer both to Balts
and Slavs. Migrations[edit]

The origin and migration of Slavs
in Europe
the between 5th and 10th centuries.

According to eastern homeland theory, prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic-speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies of Eurasia
– such as the Sarmatian, Hun and Gothic empires. The Slavs
emerged from obscurity when the westward movement of Germans
in the 5th and 6th centuries CE (thought to be in conjunction with the movement of peoples from Siberia
and Eastern Europe: Huns, and later Avars and Bulgars) started the great migration of the Slavs, who settled the lands abandoned by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns
and their allies: westward into the country between the Oder and the Elbe- Saale
line; southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of present-day Austria, the Pannonian plain
Pannonian plain
and the Balkans; and northward along the upper Dnieper
river. It has also been suggested that some Slavs
may have migrated with the movement of the Vandals
to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and even as far as North Africa.[15] Around the 6th century, Slavs
appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers.[16][page needed] The Byzantine records note that grass would not regrow in places where the Slavs
had marched through, so great were their numbers. After a military movement even the Peloponnese
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
were reported to have Slavic settlements.[17] This southern movement has traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion.[18] By the end of the 6th century, Slavs
had settled the Eastern Alps regions. Middle Ages[edit] Early Slavic states[edit]

Great Moravia
was the first major Slavic state, 833-907 A.D.

Reconstruction of a Slavic Grod in Birów, Poland

Glagolitic script
Glagolitic script
is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. Created in the 9th century by a Byzantine monk Saint Cyril.

When their migratory movements ended, there appeared among the Slavs the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a prince with a treasury and a defense force. In the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, who supported the Slavs
fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, which, however, most probably did not outlive its founder and ruler. This provided the foundation for subsequent Slavic states to arise on the former territory of this realm with Carantania
being the oldest of them. Very old also are the Principality of Nitra
Principality of Nitra
and the Moravian principality (see under Great Moravia). In this period, there existed West Slavic tribes and states such as the Balaton Principality, but the subsequent expansion of the Magyars into the Carpathian Basin, as well as the Germanization
of Austria
gradually separated the South Slavs
from the West and East Slavs. The First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
was founded in 681, and the Slavic language
Slavic language
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
became the main and official of the empire in 864. Bulgaria
was instrumental in the spread of Slavic literacy and Christianity to the rest of the Slavic world. Modern history[edit] As of 1878, there were only three free Slavic states in the world: the Russian Empire, Serbia
and Montenegro. Bulgaria
was also free but was de jure vassal to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
until official independence was declared in 1908. In the entire Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
of approximately 50 million people, about 23 million were Slavs. The Slavic peoples who were, for the most part, denied a voice in the affairs of the Austria-Hungary, were calling for national self-determination. Because of the vastness and diversity of the territory occupied by Slavic people, there were several centers of Slavic consolidation. In the 19th century, Pan-Slavism
developed as a movement among intellectuals, scholars, and poets, but it rarely influenced practical politics and did not find support in some Slavic nations. Pan-Slavism
became compromised when the Russian Empire started to use it as an ideology justifying its territorial conquests in Central Europe
Central Europe
as well as subjugation of other Slavic ethnic groups such as Poles
and Ukrainians, and the ideology became associated with Russian imperialism. During World War I, representatives of the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
set up organizations in the Allied countries to gain sympathy and recognition.[19] In 1918, after World War I ended, the Slavs
established such independent states as Czechoslovakia, the Second Polish Republic, and the State of Slovenes, Croats
and Serbs
(which merged into Yugoslavia). During World War II, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
planned to kill, deport, or enslave the Slavic and Jewish population of occupied Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
to create Living space for German settlers,[20] and also planned the starvation of 80 million people in the Soviet Union.[21] The partial fulfilment of these plans resulted in the deaths of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war.[22] The first half of the 20th century in Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was marked by a succession of wars, famines and other disasters, each accompanied by large-scale population losses.[23] Stephen J. Lee estimates that, by the end of World War II in 1945, the Russian population was about 90 million fewer than it could have been otherwise.[24] The common Slavic experience of communism combined with the repeated usage of the ideology by Soviet propaganda after World War II within the Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
(Warsaw Pact) was a forced high-level political and economic hegemony of the USSR dominated by Russians. A notable political union of the 20th century that covered most South Slavs
South Slavs
was Yugoslavia, but it ultimately broke apart in the 1990s along with the Soviet Union. The word "Slavs" was used in the national anthem of Yugoslavia (1943–1992) and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1992–2003), later Serbia
and Montenegro
(2003–2006). Former Soviet states, as well as countries that used to be satellite states or territories of the Warsaw Pact, have numerous minority Slavic populations, many of whom are originally from the Russian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
and Byelorussian SSR. As of now, Kazakhstan
has the largest Slavic minority population with most being Russians (Ukrainians, Belarusians
and Poles
are present as well but in much smaller numbers). Pan-Slavism[edit] Pan-Slavism, a movement which came into prominence in the mid-19th century, emphasized the common heritage and unity of all the Slavic peoples. The main focus was in the Balkans
where the South Slavs
South Slavs
had been ruled for centuries by other empires: the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Venice. The Russian Empire used Pan-Slavism
as a political tool; as did the Soviet Union, which gained political-military influence and control over most Slavic-majority nations between 1939 and 1948 and retained a hegemonic role until the period 1989–1991.

South Slavic languages. Slovene   Pannonian Slovene   Styrian Slovene   Carinthian Slovene   Carniolan Slovene   Rovte Slovene   Litoral Slovene Croatian   Chakavian Croatian   Kajkavian Croatian   Shtokavian Croatian Bosnian   Bosniak   Bosnian Serbian   Shtokavian Serbian   Šumadija–Vojvodina dialect   Kosovo-Resava dialect Montenegrin   Montenegrin Torlakian (transitional dialect)   Torlakian Macedonian   Northern Macedonian   Western Macedonian   Central Macedonian   Southern Macedonian   Eastern Macedonian Bulgarian   Western Bulgarian   Rup Bulgarian   Balkan Bulgarian   Moesian Bulgarian

East Slavic languages.   Russian   Belarusian   Ukrainian   Rusyn

West Slavic languages.   Polish   Kashubian   Silesian   Polabian †

  Lower Sorbian   Upper Sorbian

  Czech   Slovak

Languages[edit] Main article: Slavic languages Proto-Slavic, the supposed ancestor language of all Slavic languages, is a descendant of common Proto-Indo-European, via a Balto-Slavic stage in which it developed numerous lexical and morphophonological isoglosses with the Baltic languages. In the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis, "the Indo-Europeans who remained after the migrations [from the steppe] became speakers of Balto-Slavic".[25] Proto-Slavic is defined as the last stage of the language preceding the geographical split of the historical Slavic languages. That language was uniform, and on the basis of borrowings from foreign languages and Slavic borrowings into other languages, cannot be said to have any recognizable dialects – this suggests that there was, at one time, a relatively small Proto-Slavic homeland.[26] Slavic linguistic unity was to some extent visible as late as Old Church Slavonic manuscripts which, though based on local Slavic speech of Thessaloniki, could still serve the purpose of the first common Slavic literary language.[27] Slavic studies began as an almost exclusively linguistic and philological enterprise. As early as 1833, Slavic languages
Slavic languages
were recognized as Indo-European. Standardised Slavic languages
Slavic languages
that have official status in at least one country are: Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, and Ukrainian. The alphabets used for Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are frequently connected to the dominant religion among the respective ethnic groups. Orthodox Christians use the Cyrillic alphabet while Roman Catholics use the Latin
alphabet; the Bosniaks, who are Muslim, also use the Latin alphabet. Additionally, some Eastern Catholics and Roman Catholics use the Cyrillic alphabet. Serbian and Montenegrin use both the Cyrillic and Latin
alphabets. There is also a Latin
script to write in Belarusian, called the Lacinka alphabet. Ethno-cultural subdivisions[edit]

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v t e

are customarily divided along geographical lines into three major subgroups: West Slavs, East Slavs, and South Slavs, each with a different and a diverse background based on unique history, religion and culture of particular Slavic groups within them. Apart from prehistorical archaeological cultures, the subgroups have had notable cultural contact with non-Slavic Bronze- and Iron Age
Iron Age
civilisations. Modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are considerably diverse both genetically and culturally, and relations between them – even within the individual ethnic groups themselves – are varied, ranging from a sense of connection to mutual feelings of hostility.[28][page needed] West Slavs
West Slavs
have origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe
after the East Germanic tribes
East Germanic tribes
had left this area during the migration period.[29] They are noted as having mixed with Germanics, Hungarians, Celts
(particularly the Boii), Old Prussians, and the Pannonian Avars.[30] The West Slavs
West Slavs
came under the influence of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
(Latin) and of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church. East Slavs
East Slavs
have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed and contacted with Finno-Ugrics, Balts, and Caucasians.[31][32] Their early Slavic component, Antes, mixed or absorbed Iranians, and later received influence from the Khazars
and Vikings.[33] The East Slavs
East Slavs
trace their national origins to the tribal unions of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Khaganate, beginning in the 10th century. They came particularly under the influence of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and of the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churchs. They later became established in the 16th century in the area north surrounding the Sarmatic Plain
Sarmatic Plain
and in the steppes of modern-day eastern Ukraine. South Slavs
South Slavs
from most of the region have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with the local Proto-Balkanic tribes (Illyrian, Dacian (Romanian), Thracian, Paeonian, Hellenic tribes), and Celtic tribes (particularly the Scordisci), as well as with Romans (and the Romanized remnants of the former groups), and also with remnants of temporarily settled invading East Germanic, Asiatic or Caucasian tribes such as Gepids, Huns, Avars and Bulgars.[citation needed] The original inhabitants of present-day Slovenia
and continental Croatia have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with Romans and romanized Celtic and Illyrian people as well as with Avars and Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(Lombards and East Goths). The South Slavs
South Slavs
(except the Slovenes
and Croats) came under the cultural sphere of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and Islam, while the Slovenes
and the Croats were influenced by the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
(Latin) and thus by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in a similar fashion to that of the West Slavs. Religion[edit] The pagan Slavic populations were Christianized between the 7th and 12th centuries. Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
is predominant in the East and South Slavs, while Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
is predominant in West Slavs
West Slavs
and the western South Slavs. The religious borders are largely comparable to the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
which began in the 11th century. The majority of contemporary Slavic populations who profess a religion are Orthodox, followed by Catholic, while a small minority are Protestant. There are minor Slavic Muslim groups. Religious delineations by nationality can be very sharp; usually in the Slavic ethnic groups the vast majority of religious people share the same religion. Some Slavs
are atheist or agnostic: in the Czech Republic 20% were atheists according to a 2012 poll.

Mainly Eastern Orthodoxy:

Russians Ukrainians
(incl. Rusyns)[34] Serbs Bulgarians Belarusians Macedonians[35] Montenegrins

Mainly Roman Catholicism:

Poles[36] (incl. Silesians, Kashubians) Czechs
(incl. Moravians) Croats
(incl. Šokci) Slovaks Slovenes Sorbs Bunjevci Banat Bulgarians

Mainly Islam:

Bosniaks Pomaks Gorani Torbeshi

Relations with non-Slavic people[edit]

The Bulgars
were a Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribe that became Slavicized in the 7th century AD.

Throughout their history, Slavs
came into contact with non-Slavic groups. In the postulated homeland region (present-day Ukraine), they had contacts with the Iranic Sarmatians
and the Germanic Goths. After their subsequent spread, the Slavs
began assimilating non-Slavic peoples. For example, in the Balkans, there were Paleo-Balkan peoples, such as Romanized and Hellenized (Jireček Line) Illyrians, Thracians and Dacians, as well as Greeks
and Celtic Scordisci. Over time, due to the larger number of Slavs, most descendants of the indigenous populations of the Balkans
were Slavicized. The Thracians
and Illyrians
vanished as defined ethnic groups from the population during this period – although the modern Albanian nation claims descent from the Illyrians. Exceptions are Greece, where because Slavs
were fewer than Greeks, they came to be Hellenized (aided in time by more Greeks
returning to Greece in the 9th century and the role of the church and administration);[37] and Romania, where Slavic people settled en route for present-day Greece, Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria
and East Thrace, where the Slavic population gradually assimilated. Ruling status of Bulgars
and subsequent control of land cast the nominal legacy of Bulgarian country and people onto future generations, but Bulgars
were gradually also Slavicized into the present day South Slavic ethnic group Bulgarians. The Romance speakers within the fortified Dalmatian cities managed to retain their culture and language for a long time.[38] Dalmatian Romance was spoken until the high Middle Ages. But, they too were eventually assimilated into the body of Slavs. In the Western Balkans, South Slavs
South Slavs
and Germanic Gepids
intermarried with invaders, eventually producing a Slavicized population.[citation needed] In Central Europe, the West Slavs
West Slavs
intermixed with Germanic, Hungarian, and Celtic peoples, while in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
the East Slavs had encountered Uralic and Scandinavian peoples. Scandinavians (Varangians) and Finnic peoples were involved in the early formation of the Rus' state but were completely Slavicized after a century. Some Finno-Ugric tribes in the north were also absorbed into the expanding Rus population.[39] At the time of the Magyar migration, the present-day Hungary
was inhabited by Slavs, numbering about 200,000,[40] and by Romano- Dacians
who were either assimilated or enslaved by the Magyars.[40] In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchak and the Pecheneg, caused a massive migration of East Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north.[41] In the Middle Ages, groups of Saxon ore miners settled in medieval Bosnia, Serbia
and Bulgaria, where they were Slavicized.

The Limes Saxoniae
Limes Saxoniae
formed a defensive border between the Germanic Saxons
to the west and the Slavic Obotrites
to the east.

Polabian Slavs
Polabian Slavs
(Wends) settled in eastern parts of England
(the Danelaw), apparently as Danish allies.[42] Polabian-Pomeranian Slavs are also known to have even settled on Norse age Iceland. Saqaliba refers to the Slavic mercenaries and slaves in the medieval Arab world in North Africa, Sicily
and Al-Andalus. Saqaliba
served as caliph's guards.[43][44] In the 12th century, Slavic piracy in the Baltics increased. The Wendish Crusade
Wendish Crusade
was started against the Polabian Slavs in 1147, as a part of the Northern Crusades. Niklot, pagan chief of the Slavic Obodrites, began his open resistance when Lothar III, Holy Roman Emperor, invaded Slavic lands. In August 1160 Niklot
was killed, and German colonization (Ostsiedlung) of the Elbe-Oder region began. In Hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
and Lusatia, invaders started germanization. Early forms of germanization were described by German monks: Helmold
in the manuscript Chronicon Slavorum
Chronicon Slavorum
and Adam of Bremen in Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum.[45] The Polabian language survived until the beginning of the 19th century in what is now the German state of Lower Saxony.[46] In Eastern Germany, around 20% of Germans
have historic Slavic paternal ancestry, as revealed in Y-DNA testing.[47] Similarly, in Germany, around 20% of the foreign surnames are of Slavic origin.[48] Cossacks, although Slavic-speaking and practicing as Orthodox Christians, came from a mix of ethnic backgrounds, including Tatars and other Turks. Many early members of the Terek Cossacks
Terek Cossacks
were Ossetians. The Gorals
of southern Poland
and northern Slovakia
are partially descended from Romance-speaking Vlachs, who migrated into the region from the 14th to 17th centuries and were absorbed into the local population. The population of Moravian Wallachia
Moravian Wallachia
also descend of this population. Conversely, some Slavs
were assimilated into other populations. Although the majority continued towards Southeast Europe, attracted by the riches of the territory which would become Bulgaria, a few remained in the Carpathian Basin
Carpathian Basin
in Central Europe. There they were ultimately assimilated into the Magyar people. Numerous river and other placenames in Romania are of Slavic origin.[49][better source needed] Population[edit] There are an estimated 360 million Slavs

Nation Nation-state Numbers

Russians  RUS 130,000,000[50][51][better source needed]

Poles  POL 57,393,000[52]

Ukrainians  UKR 46,700,000–51,800,000[53]

Serbs  SRB 12,100,000[54]–12,500,000[55]

Czechs  CZE 12,000,000[56][not in citation given]

Bulgarians  BUL 10,000,000[57][58]

Belarusians  BLR 10,000,000[59]

Croats  CRO 8,000,000[60][61][62]

Slovaks  SVK 6,940,000[63]

Bosniaks  BIH 2,800,000–4,600,000

Slovenes  SVN 2,500,000[64]

Macedonians  MKD 2,200,000[65]

Montenegrins  MNE 500,000

See also[edit]

Ethnic groups in Europe Gord (archaeology) Lech and Čech List of modern ethnic groups List of Slavic tribes Panethnicity Pan-Slavic colors Slavic names Bulgarisation Russification Serbianisation Polonization


^ Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans
to 1500 ^ "Slavic Countries". WorldAtlas.  ^ Barford 2001, p. 1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (18 September 2006). "Slav (people) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 18 August 2010.  ^ Kamusella, Tomasz; Nomachi, Motoki; Gibson, Catherine (2016). The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137348395.  ^ Serafin, Mikołaj (January 2015). "Cultural Proximity of the Slavic Nations" (PDF). Retrieved April 28, 2017.  ^ Živković, Tibor; Crnčević, Dejan; Bulić, Dejan; Petrović, Vladeta; Cvijanović, Irena; Radovanović, Bojana (2013). The World of the Slavs: Studies of the East, West and South Slavs: Civitas, Oppidas, Villas and Archeological Evidence (7th to 11th Centuries AD). Belgrade: Istorijski institut. ISBN 8677431047.  ^ Robert Bideleux; Ian Jeffries (January 1998). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-16112-1.  ^ Procopius, History of the Wars,, VII. 14. 22–30, VIII.40.5 ^ Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, V.33. ^ "Procopius, History of the Wars, VII. 14. 22–30". Clas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2014.  ^ Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, V. 35. ^ Maurice's Strategikon: handbook of Byzantine military strategy, trans. G.T. Dennis (1984), p. 120. ^ Curta 2001, pp. 91–92, 315. ^ Mallory & Adams "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture ^ Cyril A. Mango (1980). Byzantium, the empire of New Rome. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-16768-8.  ^ Tachiaos, Anthony-Emil N. 2001. Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ^ Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou 1992: Middle Ages ^ "Austria-Hungary". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009.  ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe
between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9.  ^ Dorland, Michael (2009). Cadaverland: Inventing a Pathology of Catastrophe for Holocaust Survival: The Limits of Medical Knowledge and Memory in France. Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry series. Waltham, Mass: University Press of New England. p. 6. ISBN 1-58465-784-7.  ^ Rummel, Rudolph (1994). Death by Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-56000-145-4.  ^ Mark Harrison (2002). "Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment, and the Defence Burden, 1940–1945". Cambridge University Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-521-89424-7 ^ Stephen J. Lee (2000). "European dictatorships, 1918–1945". Routledge. p.86. ISBN 0-415-23046-2. ^ F. Kortlandt, The spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, vol. 18 (1990), pp. 131–140. Online version, p.4. ^ F. Kortlandt, The spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, vol. 18 (1990), pp. 131–140. Online version, p.3. ^ J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (2006), pp. 25–26. ^ Robert Bideleux; Ian Jeffries (January 1998). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-16112-1.  ^ Kobyliński, Zbigniew (1995). "The Slavs". In McKitterick, Rosamond. The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 1, C.500-c.700. The New Cambridge Medieval History. 1, C.500-c.700. Cambridge University Press. p. 531. ISBN 9780521362917.  ^ Roman Smal Stocki (1950). Slavs
and Teutons: The Oldest Germanic-Slavic Relations. Bruce.  ^ Raymond E. Zickel; Library of Congress. Federal Research Division (1 December 1991). Soviet Union: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8444-0727-2.  ^ Comparative Politics. Pearson Education India. pp. 182–. ISBN 978-81-317-6033-8.  ^ Vlasto 1970, p. 237. ^ "Religious preferences of the population of Ukraine". Sociology poll by Razumkov Centre, SOCIS, Rating and KIIS about the religious situation in Ukraine
(2015) ^ "FIELD LISTING :: RELIGIONS". CIA.  ^ GUS, Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludnosci 2011: 4.4. Przynależność wyznaniowa (National Survey 2011: 4.4 Membership in faith communities) p. 99/337 (PDF file, direct download 3.3 MB). ISBN 978-83-7027-521-1 Retrieved 27 December 2014. ^ Fine 1991, p. 41. ^ Fine 1991, p. 35. ^ Balanovsky, O; Rootsi, S; Pshenichnov, A; Kivisild, T; Churnosov, M; Evseeva, I; Pocheshkhova, E; Boldyreva, M; et al. (2008). "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context". AJHG. 82 (1): 236–250. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019. PMC 2253976 . PMID 18179905.  ^ a b A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 6 March 2009.  ^ Klyuchevsky, Vasily (1987). The course of the Russian history. v.1: "Myslʹ. ISBN 5-244-00072-1. Retrieved 9 October 2009.  ^ Shore, Thomas William (2008). Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A Study of the Settlement of England
and the Tribal Origin of the Old English People. READ BOOKS. pp. 84–102. ISBN 1-4086-3769-3.  ^ Lewis (1994). "Lewis 1994, ch 1". Archived from the original on 1 April 2001.  ^ Eigeland, Tor. 1976. "The golden caliphate". Saudi Aramco World, September/October 1976, pp. 12–16. ^ "Wend – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 13 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2008-05-07. Retrieved 4 April 2014.  ^ "Polabian language". Britannica.com. Retrieved 4 April 2014.  ^ "Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements". European Journal of Human Genetics. 21: 415–22. 2013. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.190. PMC 3598329 . PMID 22968131.  ^ "Y-chromosomal STR haplotype analysis reveals surname-associated strata in the East-German population". European Journal of Human Genetics. 14: 577–582. 2006. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201572. Retrieved 25 January 2006.  ^ Alexandru Xenopol, Istoria românilor din Dacia Traiană, 1888, vol. I, p. 540 ^ "Нас 150 миллионов -Русское зарубежье, российские соотечественники, русские за границей, русские за рубежом, соотечественники, русскоязычное население, русские общины, диаспора, эмиграция". Russkie.org. 20 February 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2013.  ^ [1] ^ including 36,522,000 single ethnic identity, 871,000 multiple ethnic identity (especially 431,000 Polish and Silesian, 216,000 Polish and Kashubian and 224,000 Polish and another identity) in Poland (according to the census 2011) and estimated 20,000,000 out of Poland Świat Polonii, witryna Stowarzyszenia Wspólnota Polska: "Polacy za granicą" Archived 24 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (Polish people abroad as per summary by Świat Polonii, internet portal of the Polish Association Wspólnota Polska) ^ Paul R. Magocsi (2010). A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-4426-1021-7.  ^ Theodore E. Baird; Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels (June 2011). "The Serbian Diaspora and Youth: Cross-Border Ties and Opportunities for Development" (PDF). University of Kent at Brussels: 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-18.  ^ " Serbs
around the World by region" (PDF). Serbian Unity Congress. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2013.  ^ "Tab. 6.2 Obyvatelstvo podle národnosti podle krajů" [Table. 6.2 Population by nationality, by region] (PDF). Czech Statistical Office (in Czech). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2012.  ^ Kolev, Yordan, Българите извън България 1878 – 1945, 2005, р. 18 Quote:"В началото на XXI в. общият брой на етническите българи в България и зад граница се изчислява на около 10 милиона души/In 2005 the number of Bulgarians is 10 million people ^ The Report: Bulgaria
2008. Oxford Business Group. 2008. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-902339-92-4. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ Karatnycky, Adrian (2001). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, 2000–2001. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-7658-0884-4. Retrieved 7 June 2015.  ^ Daphne Winland (2004), "Croatian Diaspora", in Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities, 2 (illustrated ed.), Springer Science+Business, p. 76, ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9, It is estimated that 4.5 million Croatians live outside Croatia ...  ^ "Hrvatski Svjetski Kongres". Archived from the original on 2003-06-23. Retrieved June 1, 2016. , Croatian World Congress, "4.5 million Croats
and people of Croatian heritage live outside of the Republic of Croatia
and Bosnia
and Herzegovina" ^ Palermo, Francesco (2011). "National Minorities in Inter-State Relations: Filling the Legal Vacuum?". In Francesco Palermo. National Minorities in Inter-State Relations. Natalie Sabanadze. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 90-04-17598-9.  ^ including 4,353,000 in Slovakia
(according to the census 2011), 147,000 single ethnic identity, 19,000 multiple ethnic identity (especially 18,000 Czech and Slovak and 1,000 Slovak and another identity) in Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(according to the census 2011), 53,000 in Serbia
(according to the census 2011), 762,000 in the USA (according to the census 2010), 2,000 single ethnic identity and 1,000 multiple ethnic identity Slovak and Polish in Poland
(according to the census 2011), 21,000 single ethnic identity, 43,000 multiple ethnic identity in Canada
(according to the census 2006) ^ Zupančič, Jernej (August 2004). "Ethnic Structure of Slovenia
and Slovenes
in Neighbouring Countries" (PDF). Slovenia: a geographical overview. Association of the Geographic Societies of Slovenia. Retrieved 10 April 2008.  ^ Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora; Gerovska, Dragica (1995). Матица на Иселениците на Македонија [Matrix of Expatriates of Macedonia] (in Macedonian). Skopje: Macedonian Expatriation Almanac '95. pp. 52–53. 


Primary sources

Moravcsik, Gyula, ed. (1967) [1949]. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (2nd revised ed.). Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies.  Scholz, Bernhard Walter, ed. (1970). Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories. University of Michigan Press. 

Secondary sources

Barford, Paul M. (2001). The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.  Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube
Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe
in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Curta Florin, https://www.academia.edu/229543/The_early_Slavs_in_Bohemia_and_Moravia_a_response_to_my_critics Dvornik, Francis (1962). The Slavs
in European History and Civilization. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.  Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.  Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1994) [1987]. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.  Lacey, Robert. 2003. Great Tales from English History. Little, Brown and Company. New York. 2004. ISBN 0-316-10910-X. Lewis, Bernard. Race and Slavery
in the Middle East. Oxford Univ. Press. Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, Maria. 1992. The "Macedonian Question": A Historical Review. © Association Internationale d'Etudes du Sud-Est Europeen (AIESEE, International Association of Southeast European Studies), Comité Grec. Corfu: Ionian University. (English translation of a 1988 work written in Greek.) Obolensky, Dimitri (1974) [1971]. The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. London: Cardinal.  Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Rębała, Krzysztof, et al.. 2007. Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper
basin. Journal of Human Genetics, May 2007, 52(5): 408–414. Vlasto, Alexis P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs
into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Slavs.

Look up Slav in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs, B. Malyarchuk, T. Grzybowski, M. Derenko, M. Perkova, T. Vanecek, J. Lazur, P. Gomolcaknd I. Tsybovsky, Oxford Journals Texts on Wikisource:

"Slavs". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  "Slavs". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  Leopold Lénard (1913). "The Slavs". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

v t e

Slavic ethnic groups

East Slavs


Litvins Poleshuks


Albazinians Don Cossacks Lipovans Pomors



Tavria Zaporozhians Black Sea
Black Sea

Slobozhanians Volynians Podolyans Dniprians Siverians Poleshuks Galicians

Boykos Hutsuls Lemkos


Boykos Hutsuls Lemkos Pannonian Rusyns

West Slavs



Kashubians Poles

Masovians Masurians Kociewiacy Krakowiacy Warmiak

Silesians Slovaks Sorbs

South Slavs

Bosniaks Bulgarians

Pomaks Macedonians


Bunjevci Burgenland Croats Janjevci Krashovani Molise Croats Šokci



Montenegrins Ethnic Muslims Serbs Slovenes Gorani Yugoslavs Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia

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