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Skype
Skype
(/skaɪp/) is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One
Xbox One
console, and smartwatches via the Internet
Internet
and to regular telephones.[9] Skype additionally provides instant messaging services. Users may transmit both text and video messages, and may exchange digital documents such as images, text, and video. Skype
Skype
allows video conference calls. Skype
Skype
implements a freemium business model. Much of the service is free, but Skype
Skype
Credit or a subscription is required to call a landline or a mobile phone number. At the end of 2010, there were over 660 million worldwide users, with over 300 million estimated active each month as of August 2015.[10] At one point in February 2012, there were 34 million users concurrently online on Skype.[11] First released in August 2003, Skype
Skype
was created by the Swede Niklas Zennström and the Dane Janus Friis, in cooperation with Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, and Jaan Tallinn, Estonians
Estonians
who developed the backend that was also used in the music-sharing application Kazaa. In September 2005, eBay acquired Skype
Skype
for $2.6 billion.[12] In September 2009,[13] Silver Lake, Andreessen Horowitz, and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board announced the acquisition of 65% of Skype
Skype
for $1.9 billion from eBay, which attributed to the enterprise a market value of $2.92 billion. Microsoft
Microsoft
bought Skype
Skype
in May 2011 for $8.5 billion. Skype
Skype
division headquarters are in Luxembourg, but most of the development team and 44% of all the division's employees are still situated in Tallinn
Tallinn
and Tartu, Estonia.[14][15][16] Skype
Skype
allows users to communicate over the Internet
Internet
by voice using a microphone, by video using a webcam, and by instant messaging. Skype-to- Skype
Skype
calls to other users are free of charge, while calls to landline telephones and mobile phones (over traditional telephone networks) are charged via a debit-based user account system called Skype
Skype
Credit. Some network administrators have banned Skype
Skype
on corporate, government, home, and education networks,[17] citing such reasons as inappropriate usage of resources, excessive bandwidth usage and security concerns.[18] Skype
Skype
originally featured a hybrid peer-to-peer and client–server system.[19] Skype
Skype
has been powered entirely by Microsoft-operated supernodes since May 2012.[20] The 2013 mass surveillance disclosures revealed that Microsoft
Microsoft
had granted intelligence agencies unfettered access to supernodes and Skype
Skype
communication content.[21] Throughout 2016 and 2017, Microsoft
Microsoft
redesigned its Skype
Skype
clients in a way that transitioned Skype
Skype
from peer-to-peer service to a centralized Azure service and adjusted the user interfaces of apps to make text-based messaging more prominent than voice calling. Skype
Skype
for Windows,[1] iOS,[22] Android,[23] Mac[24] and Linux[25] received significant, visible overhauls.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Microsoft
Microsoft
acquisition

3 Features 4 Usage and traffic 5 System and software

5.1 Client applications and devices

5.1.1 Windows
Windows
app 5.1.2 Other desktop apps 5.1.3 Other mobile devices 5.1.4 Skype
Skype
phones 5.1.5 Other platforms 5.1.6 Third party licensing

5.2 Protocol 5.3 Protocol detection and control 5.4 Audio codecs 5.5 Video codecs 5.6 Skype
Skype
Qik

6 Security and privacy

6.1 Service in the People's Republic of China

7 Localization 8 URIs 9 Customer service 10 Educational use 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The name for the software is derived from "Sky peer-to-peer", which was then abbreviated to "Skyper". However, some of the domain names associated with "Skyper" were already taken.[26] Dropping the final "r" left the current title "Skype", for which domain names were available.[27] History[edit] Main article: Skype
Skype
Technologies Skype
Skype
was founded in 2003 by Niklas Zennström, from Sweden, and Janus Friis, from Denmark.[28] The Skype
Skype
software was created by Estonians Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, and Jaan Tallinn. The first public beta version was released on 29 August 2003.[29] In June 2005, Skype
Skype
entered into an agreement with the Polish web portal Onet.pl for an integrated offering on the Polish market.[30] On 12 September 2005, eBay Inc. agreed to acquire Luxembourg-based Skype Technologies SA for approximately US$2.5 billion in up-front cash and eBay stock, plus potential performance-based consideration.[31] On 1 September 2009, eBay announced it was selling 65% of Skype
Skype
to Silver Lake, Andreessen Horowitz, and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board for US$1.9 billion, valuing Skype
Skype
at US$2.75 billion.[32] Microsoft
Microsoft
acquisition[edit] On 10 May 2011, Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation acquired Skype
Skype
Communications, S.à r.l for US$8.5 billion.[33] The company was incorporated as a division of Microsoft, which acquired all its technologies with the purchase. The acquisition was completed on 13 October 2011.[33][34] Shortly after its acquisition, Microsoft
Microsoft
began integrating the Skype service with its own products. Along with taking over development of existing Skype
Skype
desktop and mobile apps, the company developed a dedicated client app for its newly released, touch-focused Windows
Windows
8 and Windows
Windows
RT operating systems. This was made available from Windows Store when the new OS launched on 26 October 2012. The following year, it became the default messaging app for Windows
Windows
8.1, replacing the Windows
Windows
8 Messaging app at the time, and became pre-installed software on every device that came with or upgraded to 8.1. When the company introduced Office 2013
Office 2013
on 27 February 2013, it was announced that 60 Skype
Skype
world minutes per month would be included in Office 365
Office 365
consumer plans (Home and Personal, and University). Furthermore, Microsoft
Microsoft
discontinued two of its own products in favor of Skype: In a month-long transition period from 8 to 30 April 2013, Microsoft
Microsoft
phased out its long-standing Windows
Windows
Live Messenger instant messaging service in favor of Skype, although Messenger continued in mainland China.[35][36] On 11 November 2014, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that in 2015, Lync would be replaced by Skype
Skype
for Business. The latest version of the communication software combines features of Lync and the consumer Skype
Skype
software. There are two user interfaces – organizations can switch their users from the default Skype
Skype
for Business interface to the Lync interface.[37] Features[edit] Main article: Features of Skype Registered users of Skype
Skype
are identified by a unique Skype
Skype
Name and may be listed in the Skype
Skype
directory.[38] Skype
Skype
allows these registered users to communicate through both instant messaging and voice chat. Voice chat allows telephone calls between pairs of users and conference calling and uses a proprietary audio codec. Skype's text chat client allows group chats, emoticons, storing chat history, and editing of previous messages. Offline messages were implemented in a beta of version 5 but removed after a few weeks without notification. The usual features familiar to instant messaging users—user profiles, online status indicators, and so on—are also included. The Online Number, a.k.a. SkypeIn, service allows Skype
Skype
users to receive calls on their computers dialed by conventional phone subscribers to a local Skype
Skype
phone number; local numbers are available for Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, Nepal, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[39][40] A Skype
Skype
user can have local numbers in any of these countries, with calls to the number charged at the same rate as calls to fixed lines in the country. The countries on this growing list are referred to collectively as the SkypeIn Countries. Skype
Skype
supports conference calls, video chats, and screen sharing between 25 people at a time for free.[41][42] Skype
Skype
does not provide the ability to call emergency numbers, such as 112 in Europe, 911 in North America, or 100 in India and Nepal.[43] However, as of December 2012, there is limited support for emergency calls in the United Kingdom, Australia, Denmark, and Finland.[44] The U.S. Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) has ruled that, for the purposes of section 255 of the Telecommunications Act, Skype
Skype
is not an "interconnected VoIP
VoIP
provider".[45] As a result, the U.S. National Emergency Number Association recommends that all VoIP
VoIP
users have an analog line available as a backup.[46] On 14 July 2011, Skype
Skype
partnered with Comcast to bring its video chat service to Comcast subscribers via their HDTV sets.[47] On 17 June 2013, Skype
Skype
released a free video messaging service, which can be operated on Windows, Mac OS, iOS, Android and BlackBerry.[48] On 12 August 2013, Skype
Skype
released the 4.10 update to the app for Apple iPhone and iPad that allows HD quality video for iPhone 5 and fourth-generation iPads.[49] On 20 November 2014, Microsoft
Microsoft
Office's team announced that a new chat powered by Skype
Skype
is going to be implemented in their software, giving tools to be able to chat with co-workers in the same document.[50] On 15 September 2015, Skype
Skype
announced the release of Mojis, "a brand new way to express yourself on Skype." Mojis are short clips/gifs featuring characters from films and TV shows to be entered into conversations with the same ease as emoticons. They are working with Universal Studios, Disney Muppets, BBC and other studios to add to the available collection of Mojis.[51] On 21 December 2015, Gurdeep Singh Pall, Corporate Vice President of Skype, announced that Microsoft
Microsoft
acquired the technology from Talko, "maker of an innovative mobile app for on-the-go business communications (...) Together, the new technology and talent will help us deliver great new features and capabilities in both Skype
Skype
and Skype for Business."[52] In January 2016, Skype
Skype
announced it would roll out free group video calling to users on mobile devices, including iOS and Android. In February 2016, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that it had started to introduce group calling on smartphones and tablets in North America and Western Europe.[53] In July 2016, Skype
Skype
introduced an early Alpha version of a new Skype for Linux
Linux
client, built with WebRTC
WebRTC
technology, after several petitions had asked Microsoft
Microsoft
to continue development for Linux.[54][55] On 30 September 2016, Skype
Skype
updated their iOS app with new features, including an option to call contacts on Skype
Skype
through Siri voice commands.[56] On 27 October 2016 Microsoft
Microsoft
launched Skype for Business for Mac.[57] In February 2017, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced plans to discontinue its Skype Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
service globally. The application was delisted, and the service itself became non-functional from 31 March 2017.[58][59] On 5 June 2017, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced its plans to revamp Skype
Skype
with similar features to Snapchat, allowing users to share temporary copies of their photos and video files.[60] In late June 2017, Microsoft
Microsoft
rolled out their latest update for iOS, incorporating a revamped design and new third-party integrations, with platforms including Gfycat, YouTube, and UpWorthy.[61] It was not well received, with numerous "1 star" reviews and complaints that the new client broke existing functionality.[62] In December 2017, Microsoft
Microsoft
added " Skype
Skype
Interviews", a shared code editing system for those wishing to run job interviews for programming roles.[63][64] Usage and traffic[edit]

Usage and traffic

Date Total user accounts (millions) [65][66][67][68][69][69][70][71] Active users, daily use (millions) [72][73][74] Skype
Skype
to Skype
Skype
minutes (billions) [75] SkypeOut minutes (billions) Revenue USD (millions)

Q4 2005 74.7 10.8 N/A N/A N/A

Q1 2006 94.6 15.2 6.9 0.7 35

Q2 2006 113.1 16.6 7.1 0.8 44

Q3 2006 135.9 18.7 6.6 1.1 50

Q4 2006 171.2 21.2 7.6 1.5 66

Q1 2007 195.5 23.2 7.7 1.3 79

Q2 2007 219.6 23.9 7.1 1.3 90

Q3 2007 245.7 24.2 6.1 1.4 98

Q4 2007 276.3 27.0 11.9 1.6 115

Q1 2008 309.3 31.3 14.2 1.7 126

Q2 2008 338.2 32.0 14.8 1.9 136

Q3 2008 370 33.7 16.0 2.2 143

Q4 2008 405 36.5 20.5 2.6 145

Q1 2009 443 42.2 23.6 2.9 153

Q2 2009 483 ? 25.5 3.0 170

Q3 2009 521 ? 27.7 3.1 185

Q4 2009 560 ? 36.1 ? ?

Q1 2010 ? ? 190 12.8 860

Q2 2010 ? ? ? ? ?

Q3 2010 ? ? ? ? ?

Q4 2010 ? ? ? ? ?

Q1 2011 ? ? ? ? ?

Q2 2011 ? ? ? ? ?

Q3 2011 663 ? ? ? ?

Q4 2011 ? ? ? ? ?

Q1 2012 ? ? ? ? ?

Q2 2012 ? ? ? ? ?

Users may have more than one account; it is not possible to count users, only accounts. The volume of international traffic routed via Skype
Skype
is significant. In 2009 it was considered the largest international voice carrier (by minutes of calls).[76]

Year International call market share

2005 2.9%[77]

2006 4.4%[77]

2008 8%[76]

2009 12%[75]

2010 13%[78]

2012 33%[79]

2013 36%[80]

2014 40%[81]

In January 2011, after the release of video calling on the Skype client for iPhone, Skype
Skype
reached a record 27 million simultaneous online users.[82] This record was broken with 29 million simultaneous online users on 21 February 2011[83] and again on 28 March 2011 with 30 million online users.[84] On 25 February 2012, Skype
Skype
announced that it has over 32 million users for the first time ever.[85] By 5 March 2012, it had 36 million simultaneous online users,[86] and less than a year later, on 21 January 2013, Skype
Skype
had more than 50 million concurrent users online.[87] In June 2012, Skype
Skype
had surpassed 70 million downloads on an Android device.[88] On 19 July 2012, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that Skype
Skype
users had logged 115 billion minutes of calls in the quarter, up 50% since the last quarter.[89] On 15 January 2014, TeleGeography estimated that Skype-to-Skype international traffic has gone up to 36% in 2013 to 214 billion minutes.[90] System and software[edit] Client applications and devices[edit] Windows
Windows
app[edit] Skype
Skype
has changed many times on Windows. It has offered a desktop-only app since 2003. Later, a mobile version was created for Windows Phones. In 2012, Skype
Skype
introduced a new version for Windows
Windows
8 similar to the Windows
Windows
Phone version.[91] On 7 July 2015 Skype
Skype
modified the app to direct Windows
Windows
users to download the desktop version of the app, but it was set to continue working on Windows
Windows
RT until October 2016.[92] In November 2015, Skype
Skype
introduced three new apps, called Messaging, Skype
Skype
Video, and Phone, intended to provide an integrated Skype
Skype
experience in Windows
Windows
10.[93][94] On 24 March 2016, Skype announced the integrated apps did not satisfy most users' needs and announced that they and the desktop app would eventually be replaced with a new UWP app,[95] which was released as a preview version for the Windows
Windows
10 Anniversary Update and dubbed as the stable version with the release of the Windows
Windows
10 Creators Update. The latest version of Skype
Skype
for Windows
Windows
is Skype
Skype
11, which is based on the Universal Windows
Windows
Platform and runs on various Windows
Windows
10-related systems, including Xbox
Xbox
One, Windows
Windows
phones, and Microsoft
Microsoft
Hololens. Microsoft
Microsoft
still offers the older Skype
Skype
8, which is Win32-based and runs on all systems from Windows
Windows
XP (which is otherwise unsupported by Microsoft) to the most recent release of Windows
Windows
10.[96] In late 2017 this version was upgraded to Skype
Skype
12.9 in which several features were both removed and added.[97] Other desktop apps[edit]

macOS (10.9 or newer)[96] Linux
Linux
(Ubuntu, Debian, openSUSE, Fedora)[96]

Other mobile devices[edit]

iOS Android Nokia X[98]

Skype
Skype
was previously available on selected Symbian, BlackBerry OS
BlackBerry OS
and BlackBerry 10
BlackBerry 10
devices. In May 2009 a Version 3.0 was available on Windows
Windows
Mobile 5 to 6.1, and in September 2015 a Version 2.29[99] was available on Windows
Windows
Phone 8.1; in 2016 Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that this would stop working in early 2017 once Skype's transition from peer-to-peer to client-server is complete.[100] Skype
Skype
phones[edit] On 29 October 2007, Skype
Skype
launched its own mobile phone under the brand name 3 Skypephone, which runs a BREW OS.[101] Skype
Skype
also offers a Skype
Skype
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Phone, which is a wireless mobile phone that allows users to make Skype
Skype
calls, using a wireless Internet connection. The Skype
Skype
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Phone has an on-screen menu that lets Skype
Skype
users see who is online and available to talk, similar to what is seen on a PC. It can also be used to talk with non- Skype
Skype
users. SkypeOut minutes can be used to call any phone for a low price and no monthly fee. The Skype
Skype
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
phone does not contain a web browser and so can not access hotspots that require web-based login or authentication.[102] Other platforms[edit]

The Nokia N800, N810, and N900 Internet
Internet
tablets, which run Maemo The Nokia N9, which runs MeeGo, comes with Skype
Skype
voice calling and text messaging integrated; however, it lacks video-calling. Both the Sony mylo COM-1 and COM-2 models The PlayStation Portable
PlayStation Portable
Slim and Lite series, though the user needs to purchase a specially designed microphone peripheral. The PSP-3000 has a built-in microphone, which allows communication without the Skype
Skype
peripheral.[103] The PSP Go
PSP Go
has the ability to use Bluetooth connections with the Skype
Skype
application, in addition to its built-in microphone.[104] Skype
Skype
for PlayStation Vita
PlayStation Vita
may be downloaded via the PlayStation Network in the U.S. It includes the capability to receive incoming calls with the application running in the background. Samsung Smart TV
Samsung Smart TV
had a Skype
Skype
app, which could be downloaded for free.[105] It used the built-in camera and microphone for the newer models. Alternatively, a separate mountable Skype
Skype
camera with built-in speakers and microphones is available to purchase for older models.[106] This functionality has now been disabled along with any other "TV Based" Skype
Skype
clients. Some devices are made to work with Skype
Skype
by talking to a desktop Skype client or by embedding Skype
Skype
software into the device. These are usually either tethered to a PC or have a built-in Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
client to allow calling from Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
hotspots, like the Netgear
Netgear
SPH101 Skype
Skype
Wi-Fi Phone, the SMC WSKP100 Skype
Skype
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Phone, the Belkin
Belkin
F1PP000GN-SK Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Skype
Skype
Phone, the Panasonic
Panasonic
KX-WP1050 Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Phone for Skype Executive Travel Set, the IPEVO So-20 Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Phone for Skype
Skype
and the Linksys
Linksys
CIT200 Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Phone.

Third party licensing[edit] Third-party developers, such as Truphone, Nimbuzz, and Fring, previously allowed Skype
Skype
to run in parallel with several other competing VoIP/IM networks ( Truphone
Truphone
and Nimbuzz
Nimbuzz
provide TruphoneOut and NimbuzzOut as a competing paid service) in any Symbian
Symbian
or Java environment. Nimbuzz
Nimbuzz
made Skype
Skype
available to BlackBerry
BlackBerry
users and Fring provided mobile video calling over Skype
Skype
as well as support for the Android platform. Skype
Skype
disabled Fring users from accessing Skype in July 2010.[107] Nimbuzz
Nimbuzz
discontinued support on request of Skype
Skype
in October 2010.[108] Before and during the Microsoft
Microsoft
acquisition, Skype
Skype
withdrew licensing from several third parties producing software and hardware compatible with Skype. The Skype
Skype
for Asterisk product from Digium
Digium
was withdrawn as "no longer available for sale".[109] The Senao SN358+ long-range (10–15 km) cordless phone was discontinued due to loss of licenses to participate in the Skype
Skype
network as peers. In combination, these two products made it possible to create roaming cordless mesh networks with a robust handoff. Protocol[edit] Main article: Skype
Skype
protocol Skype
Skype
uses a proprietary Internet
Internet
telephony (VoIP) network called the Skype
Skype
protocol. The protocol has not been made publicly available by Skype, and official applications using the protocol are closed-source. Part of the Skype
Skype
technology relies on the Global Index P2P protocol belonging to the Joltid Ltd. corporation. The main difference between Skype
Skype
and standard VoIP
VoIP
clients is that Skype
Skype
operates on a peer-to-peer model (originally based on the Kazaa
Kazaa
software[110]), rather than the more usual client–server model (note that the very popular Session Initiation Protocol
Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP) model of VoIP
VoIP
is also peer-to-peer, but implementation generally requires registration with a server, as does Skype). On 20 June 2014, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced the deprecation of the old Skype protocol. Within several months from this date, in order to continue using Skype
Skype
services, Skype
Skype
users will have to update to Skype applications released in 2014. The new Skype
Skype
protocol—Microsoft Notification Protocol 24. The deprecation became effective in the second week of August 2014. Transferred files are now saved on central servers. As far as networking stack support is concerned, Skype
Skype
only supports the IPv4
IPv4
protocol. It lacks support for the next-generation Internet protocol, IPv6.[111] Protocol detection and control[edit] Many networking and security companies claim to detect and control Skype's protocol for enterprise and carrier applications. While the specific detection methods used by these companies are often private, Pearson's chi-squared test
Pearson's chi-squared test
and naive Bayes classification are two approaches that were published in 2008.[112] Combining statistical measurements of payload properties (such as byte frequencies and initial byte sequences) as well as flow properties (like packet sizes and packet directions) has also shown to be an effective method for identifying Skype's TCP- and UDP-based protocols.[113] Audio codecs[edit] Skype
Skype
2.x used G.729, Skype
Skype
3.2 introduced SVOPC, and Skype
Skype
4.0 added a Skype-created codec called SILK, intended to be "lightweight and embeddable".[114] Additionally, Skype
Skype
has released Opus as an open-source codec, which integrates the SILK
SILK
codec principles for voice transmission with the CELT
CELT
codec principles for higher-quality audio transmissions, such as live music performances. Opus was submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force
Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) in September 2010.[115] Since then, it has been standardized as RFC 6716[116] Video codecs[edit] VP7
VP7
is used for versions prior to Skype
Skype
5.5.[117][118][119][120][121] As of version 7.0, H.264 is used for both group and one-on-one video chat, at standard definition, 720p
720p
and 1080p high-definition.[122][123] Skype
Skype
Qik[edit] Main article: Skype
Skype
Qik Skype
Skype
acquired the video service Qik in 2011. After shutting down Qik in April 2014, Skype
Skype
relaunched the service as Skype Qik on 14 October 2014. Although Qik offered video conferencing and Internet
Internet
streaming, the new service focuses on mobile video messaging between individuals and groups.[124] Security and privacy[edit] Main article: Skype
Skype
security Skype
Skype
was claimed initially to be a secure communication, with one of its early web pages stating "highly secure with end-to-end encryption".[125] Security services were invisible to the user, and encryption cannot be disabled. Skype
Skype
reportedly uses publicly documented, widely trusted encryption techniques: RSA for key negotiation and the Advanced Encryption Standard
Advanced Encryption Standard
to encrypt conversations.[126] However, it is impossible to verify that these algorithms are used correctly, completely, and at all times, as there is no public review possible without a protocol specification and/or the app source code. Skype
Skype
provides an uncontrolled registration system for users with no proof of identity. Instead, a free choice of nicknames permits users to use the system without revealing their identities to other users. It is trivial to set up an account using any name; the displayed caller's name is no guarantee of authenticity. A third-party paper analyzing the security and methodology of Skype was presented at Black Hat Europe 2006. It analyzed Skype
Skype
and found a number of security issues with the then-current security model.[127]

PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA
NSA
collects user data from companies like Skype
Skype
and Facebook.[128]

Skype
Skype
incorporates some features which tend to hide its traffic, but it is not specifically designed to thwart traffic analysis and therefore does not provide anonymous communication. Some researchers have been able to watermark the traffic so that it is identifiable even after passing through an anonymizing network.[129] In an interview, Kurt Sauer, the Chief Security Officer of Skype, said, "We provide a safe communication option. I will not tell you whether we can listen or not."[130] This does not deny the fact that the NSA
NSA
monitors Skype
Skype
conversations. Skype's client uses an undocumented and proprietary protocol. The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is concerned about user privacy issues arising from using proprietary software and protocols and has made a replacement for Skype
Skype
one of their high-priority projects.[131] Security researchers Biondi and Desclaux have speculated that Skype
Skype
may have a back door, since Skype
Skype
sends traffic even when it is turned off and because Skype has taken extreme measures to obfuscate their traffic and functioning of their app.[132] Several media sources reported that at a meeting about the "Lawful interception of IP based services" held on 25 June 2008, high-ranking unnamed officials at the Austrian interior ministry said that they could listen in on Skype
Skype
conversations without problems. Austrian public broadcasting service ORF, citing minutes from the meeting, reported that "the Austrian police are able to listen in on Skype
Skype
connections". Skype
Skype
declined to comment on the reports.[133][134] One easily demonstrated method of monitoring is to set up two computers with the same Skype
Skype
user ID and password. When a message is typed or a call is received on one computer, the second computer duplicates the audio and text. This requires knowledge of the user ID and password. The United States Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) has interpreted the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) as requiring digital phone networks to allow wiretapping if authorized by an FBI
FBI
warrant, in the same way as other phone services. In February 2009, Skype
Skype
said that, not being a telephone company owning phone lines, it is exempt from CALEA and similar laws, which regulate US phone companies, and in fact, it is not clear whether Skype
Skype
could support wiretapping even if it wanted to.[135] According to the ACLU, the Act is inconsistent with the original intent of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution;[136] more recently, the ACLU has expressed the concern that the FCC interpretation of the Act is incorrect.[137][138] It has been suggested that Microsoft
Microsoft
made changes to Skype's infrastructure to ease various wiretapping requirements;[139] however, Skype
Skype
denies the claims.[140] Some time before Skype
Skype
was sold in 2009, the company had started its own app, called Project Chess, to explore legal and technical ways to easily share calls with intelligence agencies and law enforcement.[141] On 20 February 2009, the European Union's Eurojust
Eurojust
agency announced that the Italian Desk at Eurojust
Eurojust
would "play a key role in the coordination and cooperation of the investigations on the use of internet telephony systems (VoIP), such as 'Skype'. ... The purpose of Eurojust's coordination role is to overcome the technical and judicial obstacles to the interception of internet telephony systems, taking into account the various data protection rules and civil rights"[142] In November 2010, a flaw was disclosed to Skype
Skype
that showed how hackers could secretly track any user's IP address.[143] As of 2015, this has still not been fixed.[144] In 2012, Skype
Skype
introduced automatic updates to better protect users from security risks but received some challenge from users of the Mac product, as the updates cannot be disabled from version 5.6 on,[145] both on Mac OS and Windows
Windows
versions, although in the latter, and only from version 5.9 on, automatic updating can be turned off in certain cases.[146] According to a 2012 Washington Post article, Skype
Skype
"has expanded its cooperation with law enforcement authorities to make online chats and other user information available to police"; the article additionally mentions Skype
Skype
made changes to allow authorities access to addresses and credit card numbers.[147] In November 2012, Skype
Skype
was reported to have handed over user data of a pro- Wikileaks
Wikileaks
activist to Dallas, Texas-based private security company iSIGHT Partners without a warrant or court order. The alleged handover would be a breach of Skype's privacy policy. Skype
Skype
responded with a statement that it launched an internal investigation to probe the breach of user data privacy.[148] 13 November 2012, a Russian user published a flaw in Skype's security, which allowed any person to take over a Skype
Skype
account knowing only the victim's email by following 7 steps.[149][150] This vulnerability was claimed to exist for months and existed for more than 12 hours since published widely. 14 May 2013, it was documented that a URL sent via a Skype
Skype
instant messaging session was usurped by the Skype
Skype
service and subsequently used in a HTTP HEAD
HTTP HEAD
query originating from an IP address
IP address
registered to Microsoft
Microsoft
in Redmond (the IP address
IP address
used was 65.52.100.214). The Microsoft
Microsoft
query used the full URL supplied in the IM conversation and was generated by a previously undocumented security service.[151] Security experts speculate the action was triggered by a technology similar to Microsoft's SmartScreen Filter used in its browsers.[152] The 2013 mass surveillance disclosures
2013 mass surveillance disclosures
revealed that agencies such as the NSA
NSA
and the FBI
FBI
have the ability to eavesdrop on Skype, including the monitoring and storage of text and video calls and file transfers.[21][153][154] The PRISM surveillance program, which requires FISA court authorization, reportedly has allowed the NSA unfettered access to its data center supernodes. According to the leaked documents, integration work began in November 2010, but it was not until February 2011 that the company was served with a directive to comply signed by the attorney general,[21] with NSA
NSA
documents showing that collection began on 31 March 2011.[155] On 10 November 2014, Skype
Skype
scored 1 out of 7 points on the Electronic Frontier Foundation's secure messaging scorecard. Skype
Skype
received a point for encryption during transit but lost points because communications are not encrypted with a key the provider doesn't have access to (i.e. the communications are not end-to-end encrypted), users can't verify contacts' identities, past messages are not secure if the encryption keys are stolen (i.e. the service does not provide forward secrecy), the code is not open to independent review (i.e. the code is not open-source), the security design is not properly documented, and there has not been a recent independent security audit.[156][157][158] AIM, BlackBerry
BlackBerry
Messenger, Ebuddy XMS, Hushmail, Kik Messenger, Viber
Viber
and Yahoo Messenger also scored 1 out of 7 points.[156] Service in the People's Republic of China[edit]

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2012)

Since September 2007, users in China trying to download the Skype software client have been redirected to the site of TOM Online, a joint venture between a Chinese wireless operator and Skype, from which a modified Chinese version can be downloaded.[159] The TOM client participates in China's system of Internet
Internet
censorship, monitoring text messages between Skype
Skype
users in China as well as messages exchanged with users outside the country.[160][161] Niklas Zennström, then chief executive of Skype, told reporters that TOM "had implemented a text filter, which is what everyone else in that market is doing. Those are the regulations." He also stated, "One thing that's certain is that those things are in no way jeopardising the privacy or the security of any of the users."[162] In October 2008, it was reported that TOM had been saving the full message contents of some Skype
Skype
text conversations on its servers, apparently focusing on conversations containing political issues such as Tibet, Falun Gong, Taiwan independence, and the Chinese Communist Party. The saved messages contain personally identifiable information about the message senders and recipients, including IP addresses, usernames, landline phone numbers, and the entire content of the text messages, including the time and date of each message. Information about Skype
Skype
users outside China who were communicating with a TOM- Skype
Skype
user was also saved. A server misconfiguration made these log files accessible to the public for a time.[161][163][164] Research on the TOM- Skype
Skype
venture has revealed information about blacklisted keyword checks, allowing censorship and surveillance of its users. The partnership has received much criticism for the latter. Microsoft
Microsoft
remains unavailable for comment on the issue.[165] According to reports from the advocacy group Great Fire, Microsoft
Microsoft
has modified censorship restrictions and ensured encryption of all user information.[165] Furthermore, Microsoft
Microsoft
is now partnered with Guangming Founder (GMF) in China.[166] All attempts to visit the official Skype
Skype
web page from mainland China redirects to skype.gmw.cn. The Linux
Linux
version of Skype
Skype
is unavailable. Localization[edit] Skype
Skype
comes bundled with the following locales and languages: Arabic, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese (Traditional and Simplified), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Nepali, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazilian and European), Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese. As the Windows
Windows
desktop app offers users the option of creating new language files, at least 80 other (full or partial) localizations are also available for many languages.[167] URIs[edit] Skype
Skype
uses URIs as skype:USER?call for a call.[168] Customer service[edit] As of February 2012, Skype
Skype
provides support through their web support portal, support community, @skypesupport on Twitter, and Skype Facebook
Facebook
page. Direct contact via email and live chat is available through their web support portal. Chat Support is a premium feature available to Skype
Skype
Premium and some other paid users. In January 2010, Skype
Skype
rescinded their policy of seizing funds in Skype
Skype
accounts that have been inactive (no paid call) for 180 days. This was in settlement of a class-action lawsuit.[169] Skype
Skype
also paid up to US$4 to persons who opted into the action. Skype's refund policy states that they will provide refunds in full if customers have used less than 1 euro of their Skype
Skype
Credit. "Upon a duly submitted request, Skype
Skype
will refund you on a pro rata basis for the unused period of a Product". Skype
Skype
has come under some criticism from users for the inability to completely close accounts. Users not wanting to continue using Skype can make their account inactive by deleting all personal information, except for the username.[170] Due to an outage happened on 21 September 2015, that affected several users in New Zealand, Australia and other countries, Skype
Skype
decided to compensate their customers with 20 minutes of free calls to over 60 landline and 8 mobile phone numbers.[171] Educational use[edit] Although Skype
Skype
is a commercial product, its free version is used with increasing frequency among teachers and schools interested in global education projects.[172] For example, Skype
Skype
is being used to facilitate language exchange: Students in different parts of the world are paired off, and each is a native speaker of the language that the other wishes to learn. In conversations over Skype, they alternate between the two languages.[173][174][175][176] Teachers are using Skype
Skype
in unique ways to fulfil educational goals. The video conferencing aspect of the software is valuable in that it provides a way to connect students who speak different languages, hold virtual field trips, and reach out to experts in varying fields of study. These experiences allow students a chance to apply what they are learning in the classroom to real-life experiences, and it also achieves further learning opportunities.[177][178] Skype
Skype
in the classroom is another free tool that Skype
Skype
has set up on its website. It provides teachers with a way to make their classrooms more interactive and interesting. Skype
Skype
in the classroom is a service that teachers can sign up for that will allow students to meet other students, talk to experts, and share ideas. Teachers can collaborate with other teachers around the world and design different learning experiences for their students. There are various Skype
Skype
lessons, in which students can participate. Teachers can also use Skype's search tool and find experts in the field of their choice.[179] Most of the schools in the United States and Europe often block Skype
Skype
from the school network for students and hence students have left no option but to unblock it through various VPNs and proxy. The nonprofit Paper Airplanes uses Skype
Skype
to teach English to Syrian students. As of 2017, 320 pairs of students meet once a week using Skype
Skype
as the platform for communication.[180] See also[edit]

Internet
Internet
portal

List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users Caller ID spoofing Comparison of instant messaging clients Comparison of instant messaging protocols Comparison of VoIP
VoIP
software Mobile VoIP Presence information Unified communications List of video telecommunication services and product brands

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Further reading[edit]

Rushe, Dominic. "Skype's secret Project Chess reportedly helped NSA access customers' data." The Guardian. 20 June 2013. Latest Products." Skype
Skype
Launches Video Messaging For Free" "New skype sign up process"

External links[edit]

Official website Skype
Skype
version numbering: The 3rd number meaning – How to know what is latest skype version number?, Skype
Skype
community website, 1 March 2013 Running multiple skype accounts at the same time – How can I run multiple Skype
Skype
accounts at the same time?, Skype
Skype
website > support > FAQ (See also: [http://www.howtogeek.com/221797/how-to-sign-into-two-or-more-skype-accounts-at-once

v t e

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Email clients

Apple Mail Claws Mail Enigmail GPG (Gpg4win) Kontact Outlook p≡p PGP Sylpheed Thunderbird

Secure communication

OTR

Adium BitlBee Centericq ChatSecure climm Jitsi Kopete MCabber Profanity

SSH

Dropbear lsh OpenSSH PuTTY SecureCRT WinSCP wolfSSH Xshell

TLS & SSL

Bouncy Castle BoringSSL Botan cryptlib GnuTLS JSSE LibreSSL MatrixSSL NSS OpenSSL mbed TLS RSA BSAFE SChannel SSLeay stunnel wolfSSL

VPN

Check Point VPN-1 Hamachi Openswan OpenVPN SoftEther VPN strongSwan Tinc

ZRTP

CSipSimple Jitsi Linphone Ring Zfone

P2P

Bitmessage RetroShare Tox

DRA

Matrix OMEMO

Conversations Cryptocat ChatSecure

Proteus Signal Protocol

Google Allo Facebook
Facebook
Messenger Signal TextSecure WhatsApp

Disk encryption (Comparison)

BestCrypt BitLocker CrossCrypt Cryptoloop DiskCryptor dm-crypt DriveSentry E4M eCryptfs FileVault FreeOTFE GBDE geli LUKS PGPDisk Private Disk Scramdisk Sentry 2020 TrueCrypt

History

VeraCrypt

Anonymity

GNUnet I2P Java Anon Proxy Tor Vidalia RetroShare Ricochet Wickr

File
File
systems (List)

EncFS EFS eCryptfs LUKS PEFS Rubberhose StegFS Tahoe-LAFS

Service providers

Freenet Tresorit TeamDrive Wuala

Educational

CrypTool

Related topics

Outline of cryptography Timeline of cryptography Hash functions

Cryptographic hash function List of hash functions

S/MIME

Category Commons Portal

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Instant messaging

Protocols (comparison)

Open

IMPP IRC Matrix MTProto RetroShare Signal Protocol SIP

MSRP SIMPLE

Tox XMPP

Jingle WFP

Zephyr DDP

Closed

MSNP OSCAR

TOC

Skype YMSG

Services

AIM BAND BlackBerry
BlackBerry
Messenger Discord Facebook
Facebook
Messenger Google Allo Google Hangouts Google Talk GroupMe Hike Messenger HipChat ICQ iGap iMessage IRC Networks KakaoTalk Kik Libon Line Marco Polo Microsoft
Microsoft
Messenger service Nimbuzz ooVoo Palringo Signal Skype Skype
Skype
Qik Slack Snapchat SNOW Tango Telegram QQ Threema Tox Trillian Upptalk Veon Viber WeChat WhatsApp Wickr Windows
Windows
Messenger service Yahoo! Messenger

Clients (comparison)

Single protocol

Allo AIM Baidu
Baidu
Hi BlackBerry
BlackBerry
Messenger CSipSimple Facebook
Facebook
Messenger FaceTime Fetion Gadu-Gadu GroupMe IBM Sametime ICQ IMVU Linphone Palringo RetroShare Ricochet Ring Signal Skype Telegram Tencent QQ Tox WeChat WhatsApp Wickr Wire Yahoo! Messenger

Multi-protocol

Adium Ayttm BitlBee Centericq eBuddy Empathy Fire Gizmo5 Instantbird Jitsi Kopete Messages/iChat Miranda IM Nimbuzz Pidgin QIP 2010 Skype
Skype
for Business Trillian Telepathy Upptalk Xfire

XMPP
XMPP
(Jabber)

Bombus ChatSecure Conversations Gajim Google Talk Psi Tkabber Spark

MSNP

aMSN emesene Windows
Windows
Live Messenger Windows
Windows
Messenger Skype

See also

Backchannel Buddy profile Chat log Chatbot Contact list Emoticon File
File
sharing Instant message service center LAN messenger Messaging apps Presence information Shoutbox SMS language Status message Videotelephony Voice over IP Webcam Web chat Circuit FirstClass Flock Fuze Box Glip Hall.com Lua Yammer

v t e

Microsoft

History Outline

People

Founders

Bill Gates Paul Allen

Board of directors

John W. Thompson
John W. Thompson
(Chairman) Satya Nadella
Satya Nadella
(CEO) Dina Dublon Maria Klawe David Marquardt Charles Noski Helmut Panke Mason Morfit John W. Stanton

Senior leadership team

Satya Nadella
Satya Nadella
(CEO) Scott Guthrie Amy Hood (CFO) Terry Myerson Harry Shum Phil Spencer

Corporate VPs

Gabe Aul
Gabe Aul
(VP) Joe Belfiore Richard Rashid
Richard Rashid
(SVP) S. Somasegar
S. Somasegar
(SVP)

Divisions

Engineering groups

Mobile Skype
Skype
unit

Digital Crimes Unit Garage Press Research Studios .NET Foundation Outercurve Foundation

Estates

Microsoft
Microsoft
Redmond campus Microsoft
Microsoft
Talo Microsoft
Microsoft
Algeria Microsoft
Microsoft
Egypt Microsoft
Microsoft
India Microsoft
Microsoft
Japan

Product families

Operating systems

Windows

Software

Office Servers Visual Studio

Hardware

HoloLens Surface Xbox

Web properties

Azure Bing Channel 9 CodePlex Developer Network MSN Mixer Office.com OneDrive Outlook.com Store TechNet

Conferences

Build Inspire MIX PDC TechEd WinHEC

Campaigns

Where do you want to go today?
Where do you want to go today?
(1994) Champagne (2002) Mojave Experiment (2006) I'm a PC
I'm a PC
(2008) Scroogled (2012)

Criticism

Bundling of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Clippy iLoo Internet
Internet
Explorer Microsoft
Microsoft
Bob _NSAKEY Windows

XP Vista 10

Litigation

Alcatel-Lucent v. Microsoft Apple v. Microsoft European Union Microsoft
Microsoft
competition case Microsoft
Microsoft
v. Lindows Microsoft
Microsoft
vs. MikeRoweSoft Microsoft
Microsoft
v. Shah United States v. Microsoft
Microsoft
(2001 antitrust case) Microsoft
Microsoft
Ireland case

Acquisitions

6Wunderkinder Altamira Software AltspaceVR aQuantive Azyxxi The Blue Ribbon SoundWorks Beam Bungie Calista Technologies Colloquis Connectix Consumers Software Danger Farecast FASA Studio Fast Search & Transfer Firefly Forethought GIANT Company Software GreenButton Groove Networks High Heat Major League Baseball Hotmail Jellyfish.com LinkedIn LinkExchange Lionhead Studios Maluuba Massive Incorporated Mobile Data Labs Mojang Nokia Devices and Services Onfolio Pando Networks Perceptive Pixel PlaceWare Powerset ProClarity Rare Revolution Analytics ScreenTonic Secure Islands Simplygon Skype Sunrise Atelier SwiftKey Winternals Software Teleo Telekinesys Research Tellme Networks Twisted Pixel Games Vermeer Technologies Visio Corporation Vivaty VoloMetrix VXtreme WebTV Networks Xamarin Yammer Yupi

Category Portal

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

Category Portal

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Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
components

Management tools

App Installer Command Prompt Control Panel

Applets

Device Manager Disk Cleanup Disk Defragmenter Driver Verifier Event Viewer IExpress Management Console Netsh Performance Monitor Recovery Console Resource Monitor Settings Sysprep System Configuration System File
File
Checker System Information System Policy Editor System Restore Task Manager Windows
Windows
Error Reporting Windows
Windows
Ink Windows
Windows
Installer PowerShell Windows
Windows
Update

Windows
Windows
Insider

WinRE WMI

Apps

Alarms & Clock Calculator Calendar Camera Character Map Cortana Edge Fax and Scan Feedback Hub Get Help Groove Music Magnifier Mail Messaging Maps Media Player Movies & TV Mobility Center Money News Narrator Notepad OneDrive OneNote Paint Paint 3D People Phone Companion Photos Quick Assist Snipping Tool Speech Recognition Skype Sports Sticky Notes View 3D Store Tips Voice Recorder Wallet Weather Windows
Windows
To Go Windows
Windows
Story Remix WordPad Xbox

Shell

Action Center Aero AutoPlay AutoRun ClearType Explorer Search

Indexing Service IFilter Saved search Namespace Special
Special
folder

Start menu Taskbar Task View Windows
Windows
Spotlight Windows
Windows
XP visual styles

Services

Service Control Manager BITS CLFS Multimedia Class Scheduler Shadow Copy Task Scheduler Error Reporting Wireless Zero Configuration

File
File
systems

CDFS DFS exFAT IFS FAT NTFS

Hard link Junction point Mount Point Reparse point Symbolic link TxF EFS

ReFS UDF

Server

Domains Active Directory DNS Group Policy Roaming user profiles Folder redirection Distributed Transaction Coordinator MSMQ Windows
Windows
Media Services Rights Management Services IIS Remote Desktop Services WSUS SharePoint Network Access Protection PWS DFS Replication Remote Differential Compression Print Services for UNIX Remote Installation Services Windows
Windows
Deployment Services System Resource Manager Hyper-V Server Core

Architecture

Architecture of Windows
Windows
NT Startup process

NT Vista

CSRSS Desktop Window Manager Portable Executable

EXE DLL

Enhanced Write Filter Graphics Device Interface hal.dll I/O request packet Imaging Format Kernel Transaction Manager Library files Logical Disk Manager LSASS MinWin NTLDR Ntoskrnl.exe Object Manager Open XML Paper Specification Registry Resource Protection Security Account Manager Server Message Block Shadow Copy SMSS System Idle Process USER WHEA Win32 console Winlogon WinUSB

Security

Security and Maintenance BitLocker Data Execution Prevention Family Safety Kernel Patch Protection Mandatory Integrity Control Protected Media Path User Account Control User Interface Privilege Isolation Windows
Windows
Defender Windows
Windows
Firewall

Compatibility

COMMAND.COM Virtual DOS machine Windows
Windows
on Windows WoW64 Windows
Windows
Subsystem for Linux

API

Active Scripting

WSH VBScript JScript

COM

ActiveX ActiveX
ActiveX
Document COM Structured storage DCOM OLE OLE Automation Transaction Server

DirectX .NET Framework Universal Windows
Windows
Platform Windows
Windows
Mixed Reality Windows
Windows
Runtime WinUSB

Games

Solitaire Collection

Discontinued

Games

3D Pinball Chess Titans FreeCell Hearts InkBall Hold 'Em Purble Place Reversi Spider Solitaire Solitaire Tinker

Apps

ActiveMovie Anytime Upgrade Address Book Backup and Restore Cardfile CardSpace Contacts Desktop Gadgets Diagnostics DriveSpace DVD Maker Easy Transfer Fax File
File
Manager Food & Drink Help and Support Center Health & Fitness HyperTerminal Internet
Internet
Explorer Journal Media Center Meeting Space Messaging Messenger Mobile Device Center Movie Maker MSN
MSN
Dial-up NetMeeting NTBackup Outlook Express Travel Photo Gallery Photo Viewer Program Manager Steps Recorder WinHelp Write

Others

ScanDisk File
File
Protection Media Control Interface Next-Generation Secure Computing Base POSIX subsystem Interix Video for Windows Windows
Windows
SideShow Windows
Windows
Services for UNIX Windows
Windows
System Assessment Tool WinFS

Spun off to Microsoft
Microsoft
Store

DVD Player Hover! Mahjong Minesweeper

v t e

Andreessen Horowitz

Founders

Marc Andreessen
Marc Andreessen
(co-founder) Ben Horowitz
Ben Horowitz
(co-founder)

General Partners

John O'Farrell Scott Weiss Jeff Jordan Peter Levine Chris Dixon Lars Dalgaard Vijay S. Pande Alex Rampell Martin Casado

Investments

Airbnb Apptio Facebook Foursquare Groupon Lytro Skype Twitter Thi

.