Skarżysko-Kamienna pronounced [skarˈʐɨskɔ
kaˈmʲɛnːa] ( listen) is a town in northern
Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in
Poland by Kamienna river, to the north
of Świętokrzyskie Mountains; one of the voivodship's major towns.
Prior to 1928, it bore the name of Kamienna; in less formal contexts
usually only the first part of the name (Skarżysko) is used. It
belongs to historic Polish province of Lesser Poland.
Skarżysko-Kamienna is an important railroad junction, with two main
Sandomierz - Koluszki) crossing there.
1.1 Second Polish Republic
1.2 German occupation of
1.3 Soviet liberation
2 Points of interest
3 International relations
3.1 Twin towns — Sister cities
In 1173, the knights' congress gathered in Milica village (now the
town's district) led by Casimir II The Just. Around 1885 Kamienna
became an important rail junction on the newly built
Ivangorod-Dąbrowa Railway. The main line of the railway connecting
Ivangorod (Dęblin) and
Dąbrowa Górnicza ran through the town from
north to south, and two branch lines to
Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski and
Koluszki radiated from the town east and west, respectively. This
spurred the growth of Kamienna from a village into a sizeable town by
1920, when it had about 20 enterprises employing 1000 workers, as well
as railway workshops employing an additional 1000 workers.
Second Polish Republic
In 1923, the commune of Kamienna was granted the status of a town. In
1922 the government of
Poland decided to build an ammunition factory
in Kamienna, to be called Państwowa Wytwornia Uzbrojenia Fabryka
Amunicji (P.W.U. Fabryka Amunicji, "National Armament Factory -
Ammunition Plant") It began production in 1924 supplying munitions to
the Polish Army. It employed 2760 workers in 1932, over 3000 in 1936,
and over 4500 in 1939, becoming the principal employer in the town and
driving its growth. The company still functions today under the
name Zakłady Metalowe MESKO S.A.).
In 1928, town's name was changed to Skarżysko-Kamienna. In 1937 the
town had 19,700 inhabitants, among them 2,800 Jews (about 14% of the
German occupation of
Following the September 1939 invasion of
Poland by Germany,
Skarżysko-Kamienna was under German occupation until liberated by the
Soviet army in January, 1945. The
Germans took over the ammunition
factory to support their own war effort, and from 1940 it was
controlled by the company Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft (HASAG),
which ran it as a subcontractor for the Wehrmacht. In 1940, the
Germans carried out mass executions of
Poles (360 people executed in
February and 760 in June).
The ghetto for the town's Jewish population was established by the
Germans in April or May, 1941. Between August 1942 and summer of 1943
Jews from all over the Radom district were brought to three camps
surrounding the munitions factory and forced to work there. According
to German records, of the total 17,210 brought in with 58 transports,
6,408 managed to survive long enough to be evacuated to other camps
Germans closed the factory in 1944. The ghetto was liquidated
in October, 1942, with some inhabitants judged fit for work moved to
the factory labour camps (about 500 out of 3000), and the rest were
Treblinka and murdered there. In the major monograph
on the subject, Death Comes in Yellow by Felicja Karay, it is
estimated that, given the incompleteness of German records which
likely underestimate the number of inmates, about 25,000 Jewish
inmates were brought into the camp and 7,000 were evacuated from it,
giving about 18,000 as the total number who died there.
Further information: Timeline of
Treblinka and Jewish ghettos in
On January 18, 1945 the town was liberated. About a dozen Jewish
survivors returned to
Skarżysko-Kamienna in the winter of 1945-1946
to retrieve Jewish property. Soon afterwards, in February 1946,
five of them were murdered for profit by a small group of local
criminals. The murderers, among them the head of the
Soviet-installed town police and another communist policeman, were put
to trial in Łodź. Three of them received the death penalty. The
remaining Jews left Poland, except for Dr. Zundel Kahanel and his
wife Bima who spent the rest of their lives in the city.
Meanwhile, in 1948 the leading
HASAG managers were tried in Leipzig,
then in the part of Germany occupied by the Soviet Union. Of the 25
tried, 4 were sentenced to death, 2 to life in prison, and 18 to terms
between one and five years.
In 1969, The
White Eagle Museum
White Eagle Museum was established. And in 1999,
Skarżysko County was established as a result of the Local Government
Reorganization Act (1998).
Points of interest
White Eagle Museum
White Eagle Museum (Polish: Muzeum im. Orła Białego) - a
regional museum with a large outdoor display of military equipment,
most items dating back to the
World War II
World War II period.
Indoor display - uniforms, ammunition, pistols and smaller guns,
soldier equipment, photographs and documents
Outdoor display - one of Poland's few ships displayed onshore (torpedo
boat Odważny - The Brave), planes, tanks (including one of world's
Sturmgeschütz IV vehicles), helicopters, cannons, etc.
Several scenes of Steven Spielberg's
Schindler's List were filmed at
Rejów Lake and stadium
The Sacred Heart of Jesus Church
Kamienna River in Skarżysko
Sanctuaty Our Lady of the Gate of Dawn
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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Skarżysko-Kamienna.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Skarżysko-Kamienna is twinned with:
Franklin Park, Illinois
^ a b c Official city website - history section
^ a b c d e f Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin
Dean,Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945: Ghettos in
German-Occupied Eastern Europe, Indiana University Press, 2012, pp.
^ Felicja Karay, Death Comes in Yellow:
Labor Camp, Taylor & Francis, 1997
^ a b Polin (2015). "Skarżysko-Kamienna". Spolecznosc Zydowska.
Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich POLIN. pp. 1/2. Retrieved 19
^ Source: Pinkas Hakehilot Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities,
Poland, Vol. VII, Districts Lublin, Kielce, Yad Vashem, Martyrs' and
Heros' Remembrance Authority, Jerusalem 1999
skarzysko.pl - official site of the town's municipality (in Polish)
(in English) (in German)
Coordinates: 51°07′N 20°54′E / 51.117°N 20.900°E /
Gminas of Skarżysko County
Skarżysko-Kamienna (urban gmina)