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The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 CE to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians" who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty
Western Jin dynasty
in the early 4th century. The period ended with the unification of northern China by the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
in the early 5th century. The term "Sixteen Kingdoms" was first used by the 6th-century historian Cui Hong in the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms and refers to the five Liangs (Former, Later, Northern, Southern and Western), four Yans (Former, Later, Northern, and Southern), three Qins (Former, Later and Western), two Zhaos (Former and Later), Cheng Han
Cheng Han
and Xia. Cui Hong did not count several other kingdoms that appeared at the time including the Ran Wei, Zhai Wei, Chouchi, Duan Qi, Qiao Shu, Huan Chu, Tuyuhun
Tuyuhun
and Western Yan. Nor did he include the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
and its predecessor Dai, because the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
eventually became the ruling dynasty of northern China. Classical Chinese historians called the period the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
of the Five Barbarians
Five Barbarians
because most of the kingdoms were founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, and Dingling rulers who took on Chinese dynastic names. Among the handful of the states founded by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
(Former Liang, Western Liang, Ran Wei
Ran Wei
and Northern Yan), several founders had close relations with ethnic minorities. The father of Ran Min, the founder of the Ran Wei, was adopted into a Jie ruling family. Feng Ba, who is considered by some historians to be the founder of the Northern Yan, had been assimilated into Xianbei culture. Gao Yun, considered by other historians to be the Northern Yan founder, was an ethnic Korean who had been adopted by Xianbei nobility. Due to fierce competition among the states and internal political instability, the kingdoms of this era were mostly short-lived. From 376 to 383, the Former Qin
Former Qin
briefly unified northern China, but its collapse led to even greater political fragmentation. The Sixteen Kingdoms is considered to be one of the most chaotic periods in Chinese history. The collapse of the Western Jin
Western Jin
Dynasty and the rise of barbarian regimes in China during this period resembles the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire amidst invasions by the Huns
Huns
and Germanic tribes in Europe, which also occurred in the 4th to 5th centuries.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Liu Yuan and the Former Zhao 1.3 Shi Le and the Later Zhao 1.4 Former Qin
Former Qin
and the brief unification of northern China 1.5 Fragmentation after the Battle of Feishui

1.5.1 Later Liang breaks down into Northern, Southern and Western Liang 1.5.2 Later Yan
Later Yan
breaks down into Northern and Southern Yan

1.6 Eastern Jin efforts to retake the North 1.7 Northern Wei
Northern Wei
and the reunification of northern China 1.8 Maps

2 Chronology 3 Involvement of other ethnicities

3.1 Religion

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

History[edit] Background[edit] Main articles: Five Barbarians
Five Barbarians
and Uprising of the Five Barbarians From the late Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
to the early Jin dynasty (265–420), large numbers of non- Han Chinese
Han Chinese
peoples living along China's northern periphery settled in northern China. Some of these migrants such as the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and Xianbei
Xianbei
had been pastoralist nomads from the northern steppes. Others such as the Di and Qiang were farmers and herders from the mountains of western Sichuan. As migrants, they lived among Han Chinese and were sinified to varying degrees. Many worked as farm laborers. Some attained official positions in the court and military. They also faced discrimination and retained clan and tribal affiliations. The War of the Eight Princes
War of the Eight Princes
(291–306) during the reign of the second Jin ruler Emperor Hui severely divided and weakened imperial authority. Hundreds of thousands were killed and millions were uprooted by the internecine fighting. Popular rebellions against heavy taxation and repression erupted throughout the country. In Sichuan, Li Xiong, a Di chieftain, led a successful rebellion and founded Cheng Han kingdom in 304. Thus began the creation of independent kingdoms in northern China as Jin authority crumbled. Most of these kingdoms were founded by ethnic minority leaders who took on Chinese reign names. Liu Yuan and the Former Zhao[edit] Jin princes and military governors often recruited ethnic minorities into their armies in their suppression of rebellions and wars with each other. Also in 304, Liu Yuan, a Xiongnu
Xiongnu
chieftain, who had been fighting in the Jin civil war on the side of Prince Sima Ying, returned home to Shanxi
Shanxi
where he reorganized the five tribes of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and declared independence as the successor to the Han Dynasty. His regime, later renamed Zhao, is designated by historians as the Han Zhao or Former Zhao.[1] After Liu Yuan died in 310, his son Liu Cong killed older brother Liu He and claimed the throne. Liu Cong captured the Jin capital Luoyang and Emperor Hui in 311. In 316, Liu Cong's uncle Liu Yao seized Chang'an
Chang'an
and the Emperor Min, ending the Western Jin
Western Jin
Dynasty. Sima Rui, a Jin prince who had moved to the South, continued the dynasty as the Eastern Jin from Jiankang
Jiankang
(modern day Nanjing). The collapse of Jin authority in the North led other leaders to declare independence. In 313, Zhang Gui, the ethnic Han governor of Liangzhou founded the Former Liang
Former Liang
in modern-day Gansu. In 315, Tuoba
Tuoba
Yilu, a Xianbei chieftain, founded the Dai in modern-day Inner Mongolia. Shi Le and the Later Zhao[edit] After Liu Cong's death, the kingdom was split between Liu Yao and General Shi Le. Shi Le was an ethnic Jie who had worked as an indentured farm laborer before joining Liu Yuan's rebellion and becoming a powerful general in Hebei. In 319, he founded a rival Zhao Kingdom, known as the Later Zhao
Later Zhao
and in 328 conquered Liu Yao's Former Zhao. Shi Le instituted a dual-system of government that imposed separate rules for Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and non-Han Chinese, and managed to control much of northern China. After his death, his sons were locked in a fratricidal succession struggle and the kingdom was ended in 350 by General Ran Min, an ethnic Han who seized the throne and founded the Ran Wei. Ran Min
Ran Min
favored Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and massacred thousands of Jie. He was defeated and killed in 352 by the Murong
Murong
Xianbei
Xianbei
from Liaodong. In 337, Murong
Murong
Huang founded the Former Yan
Former Yan
in Liaodong, which by 356 had expanded into much of Hebei, Henan
Henan
and Shandong. For a time, the Former Yan
Former Yan
vied for supremacy in northern China with the Former Qin. Former Qin
Former Qin
and the brief unification of northern China[edit]

Territory of the Former Qin
Former Qin
kingdom and the Jin dynasty in 376.

The Former Qin
Former Qin
was founded in 351 by Fu Jian (317–355), a Di general, who had served under the Later Zhao
Later Zhao
and surrendered to the Jin before declaring independence in Shaanxi. After his death in 355, the kingdom was briefly handed to his son Fu Sheng, before his nephew Fu Jian (337–385) took control of the leadership. Under the younger Fu Jian, who was guide by Wang Meng, a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
advisor, the Former Qin strengthened rapidly. From 370-76, the Former Qin
Former Qin
extinguished the Former Yan, Dai and Former Liang
Former Liang
to unite all of northern China. Fu Jian also captured Sichuan
Sichuan
from the Eastern Jin and wanted to conquer the rest of southern China. Wang Meng opposed this move, citing the need for the Former Qin
Former Qin
to consolidate control over various ethnicities in northern China. But the Qiang chieftain Yao Chang and the Xianbei
Xianbei
general Murong
Murong
Chui both supported the idea. In 383, after Wang Meng's death, Fu Jian launched a massive invasion of southern China, but was routed in the Battle of Feishui
Battle of Feishui
in modern-day Anhui. Fragmentation after the Battle of Feishui[edit] After the Battle of Feishui, the power of the Former Qin
Former Qin
quickly unraveled as various regimes in the North broke loose. In 384, Murong Chui founded the Later Yan
Later Yan
in Hebei. Other Murong
Murong
royals founded the Western Yan
Western Yan
in Shanxi. Yao Chang founded the Later Qin
Later Qin
in eastern Gansu. Fu Jian was killed by Yao Chang, but the Former Qin
Former Qin
survived by relocating from Shaanxi
Shaanxi
to Gansu
Gansu
and then Qinghai. In 385, Qifu Guoren, a Xianbei
Xianbei
former vassal under Fu Jian, founded the Western Qin. In 386, Lü Guang, a Di general of the Former Qin, founded the Later Liang in western Gansu. Tuoba Gui
Tuoba Gui
revived the Dai as the Northern Wei. In 388, Zhai Liao, an ethnic Dingling leader in Henan founded the Zhai Wei, which was wedged between the Later Yan, Western Yan and Eastern Jin. As many as seven kingdoms coexisted for nine years. The Later Qin, which ended the Former Qin
Former Qin
in 394, the Western Qin
Western Qin
in 400, and Later Liang in 403, extended its control over much of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia. But in 407, Helian Bobo, a Xiongnu chieftain, rebelled and founded the Xia in northern Shaanxi, and the Western Qin
Western Qin
was revived in the southern Shaanxi. In 416, the Eastern Jin under General Liu Yu launched a northern expedition that captured Luoyang
Luoyang
and Chang'an
Chang'an
and extinguished the Later Qin. The Eastern Jin could not hold these cities as Liu Yu returned south to seize the Jin throne. The Xia kingdom quickly seized Chang'an. Later Liang breaks down into Northern, Southern and Western Liang[edit] In the Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
of western Gansu, the Later Liang splintered into the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
and Southern Liang in 397. The Southern Liang was founded by Tufa Wugu in Ledu, Qinghai. The Northern Liang
Northern Liang
was founded by a Han Chinese, Duan Ye in Zhangye, Gansu
Gansu
with the support of Juqu Mengxun, a Xiongnu, who then seized control of the kingdom in 401. In 405, the Li Gao, the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
commander at Dunhuang
Dunhuang
broke away from the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
and founded the short-lived Western Liang. The Western Liang was reabsorbed by the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
in 421. Li Gao's descendants would go on to found the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
in the 7th century. The Southern Liang was conquered by the Western Qin
Western Qin
in 414, and the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
lasted until 439, when it surrendered to the Northern Wei. Later Yan
Later Yan
breaks down into Northern and Southern Yan[edit] The Later Yan
Later Yan
conquered the Zhai Wei
Zhai Wei
in 392 and the Western Yan
Western Yan
in 394, but lost a series of engagements to the Northern Wei. In 397, the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
captured Hebei
Hebei
and splitting the Later Yan
Later Yan
into two. Murong
Murong
Bao moved the Later Yan
Later Yan
capital north to Liaoning
Liaoning
but Murong
Murong
De refused to move north and founded the Southern Yan
Southern Yan
in Henan
Henan
and Shandong. The Southern Yan
Southern Yan
was extinguished by the Eastern Jin in 410. The Later Yan
Later Yan
lasted until 407 when General Feng Ba, killed Emperor Murong
Murong
Xi and installed Gao Yun. Gao Yun, a descendant of Goguryeo royalty who was adopted into the Murong
Murong
court, is considered either the last emperor of the Later Yan
Later Yan
or the founding emperor of the Northern Yan. In 409, he was killed by Feng Ba, a Han Chinese assimilated to Xianbei
Xianbei
culture, who took control of the Northern Yan. Eastern Jin efforts to retake the North[edit] Main articles: Huan Wen's expeditions
Huan Wen's expeditions
and Liu Yu's expeditions During its century-long rule of southern China, the Eastern Jin Dynasty, though beset by local rebellions and insurrections, made several attempts to recapture the North, and managed to make some inroads, but were ultimately unsuccessful.[2] In 313, Sima Rui, the Yuan Emperor gave Zu Ti 1,000 men and 3,000 bolts of cloth for a northern expedition. Despite meager resources, Zu Ti managed to recapture a large swath of Henan
Henan
south of the Yellow River
Yellow River
and repeatedly defeated Shi Le's Later Zhao
Later Zhao
forces. Eastern Jin Emperors were wary of generals acquiring too much power and prestige from successful northern expeditions and becoming threatening to the throne. The Yuan Emperor did not entrust Zu Ti with the command of much larger expeditionary force in 321. A disappointed Zu Ti died of illness. The expeditionary force was called back to Jiankang
Jiankang
to quell an insurrection, and Shi Le retook Henan. In 347, Jin general Huan Wen invaded Sichuan
Sichuan
and ended the Cheng Han kingdom. He then launched successive expeditions against northern kingdoms, briefly retaking Chang'an
Chang'an
from the Former Qin
Former Qin
in 354 and Luoyang
Luoyang
from Qiang chieftain Yao Xiang in 356. In 369, he led a large force across the Yellow River
Yellow River
into Hebei
Hebei
but was defeated by the Former Yan. In 383, the Eastern Jin reclaimed Henan
Henan
south of the Yellow River
Yellow River
after turning back the Former Qin
Former Qin
in the Battle of Feishui in 383, but lost that territory once the northern kingdoms strengthened again. Huan Wen had pretensions to seize power and deposed Emperor Fei in favor of Emperor Jianwen in 371. His son Huan Xuan
Huan Xuan
briefly took the throne from Emperor An in a palace coup in 403, but was defeated by general Liu Yu. Liu Yu also used northern expeditions to build up his power. In 409-10, he led Jin forces in attacking and destroying the Southern Yan in Shandong. In 416, he took advantage of the death of the Later Qin ruler, invaded Henan
Henan
and captured Luoyang, and then turned toward Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and seized Chang'an. The last Later Qin
Later Qin
ruler Yao Hong surrendered and was sent to Jiankang
Jiankang
and executed. With the Later Qin destroyed, several smaller states in the northwest, Western Qin, Northern Liang
Northern Liang
and Western Liang, nominally submitted to Jin authority. But Liu Yu retreated back to Jiankang
Jiankang
to plan his takeover of the Jin throne, and Chang'an
Chang'an
was taken by the Xia forces. In 420, Liu Yu forced the Emperor Gong to abdicate and declared himself emperor of the Liu Song Dynasty. In 423, he planned to launch an expedition against the Northern Wei, but died of illness. The Liu Song dynasty ruled southern China until 479. Northern Wei
Northern Wei
and the reunification of northern China[edit] The ancestral home of the Tuoba
Tuoba
Xianbei
Xianbei
was the Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
range of Inner Mongolia. In 258, the clan migrated south to the Yin Mountains and spread into the Ordos Loop
Ordos Loop
region. In 315, chief Tuoba Yilu was recognized as the Prince of Dai by the Jin Emperor. In 338, Tuoba
Tuoba
Shiyijian formally declared Dai's independence and built the capital at Shengle (modern day Horinger County, Hohhot). In 376, the Former Qin
Former Qin
attacked Shengle and drove the Tuoba
Tuoba
into the northern steppes; Tuoba
Tuoba
Shiyijian was killed by his son. In 386, Tuoba
Tuoba
Shiyijian's grandson Tuoba Gui
Tuoba Gui
revived the kingdom, which he renamed Wei; it is known to historians as the Northern Wei. From near Hohhot, Tuoba Gui
Tuoba Gui
expanded southward, capturing Shanxi
Shanxi
and Hebei
Hebei
from the Former Yan
Former Yan
and Henan
Henan
from the Liu Song dynasty. In 398, he moved the capital to Pingcheng (modern day Datong) and declared himself the Emperor Daowu. In 423, Tuoba
Tuoba
Gui's grandson Tuoba
Tuoba
Tao took the throne as Emperor Taiwu and began the quest to unify the North. Under his leadership, the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
subdued the Rouran
Rouran
nomads to the north and began the conquest of Shaanxi, Ningxia, and Gansu. In 427, he captured the Xia capital, Tongwancheng
Tongwancheng
in modern-day Jingbian County, Shaanxi. The Xia under Helian Ding moved to Pingliang, Gansu. and conquered the Western Qin
Western Qin
at Jincheng (modern day Lanzhou) in 431. Helian Ding sought an alliance with the Liu Song dynasty
Song dynasty
but was driven further west by the Northern Wei. Helian Ding wanted to invade the Northern Liang but was captured in a raid by the Tuyuhun
Tuyuhun
nomads and executed by the Northern Wei. In 436, the Tuoba
Tuoba
Tao, as Emperor Taiwu, led an expedition against the Northern Yan. Feng Hong, the younger brother of Feng Ba, fled to Goguryeo, where he was killed. The last ruler of the Northern Liang, Juqu Mujian, surrendered in 439, completing the Northern Wei's unification of northern China and marking the end of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
period. Chinese history then entered the Northern and Southern Dynasties period as parallel series of dynasties in the North and South co-existed until the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
united the country in 589. The Tuobas were eventually sinified, changing their name to Yuan, and held on to northern China through the 550s. Maps[edit]

317 AD

326 AD

338 AD

350 AD

376 AD

391 AD

398 AD

402 AD

406 AD

416 AD

423 AD

436 AD

Chronology[edit]

Chronology of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
with Ethnicity of Founders

     Xianbei
Xianbei
     Xiongnu      Jie      Di      Qiang      Dingling      Han Chinese

303 Jin Dynasty's rule over northern China and Sichuan
Sichuan
begins to break down in 304 WESTERN JIN DYNASTY* 266-317

304

Cheng Han 304-47

Former Zhao 304-29

314

Former Liang 314-76

315 Dai* 315-76

317

318

EASTERN JIN DYNASTY* 318-420

319

Later Zhao 319-51

329

330

337

Former Yan 337-70

347

350

Ran Wei* 350-52

351

Former Qin 351-94

352

353

370

376

377 From 376 to 383, Former Qin
Former Qin
briefly unites northern China

384 NORTHERN WEI DYNASTY* 386-534

Later Qin 384-421 Western Yan* 384-94

Later Yan 384-409

385

Western Qin 385-400

388

Zhai Wei* 388-92

389

Later Liang 389-403

392

394

397

Southern Liang 397-414 Northern Liang 397-439

398

Southern Yan 398-410

400 Western Liang 400-21

403

404

407

Xia 407-31

409

Western Qin resurrected 409-31

Northern Yan 409-36

410

414

417

420

LIU SONG DYNASTY* 420-79

421

431

436

439

440 In 439, the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
reunites northern China

asterisk (*) denotes kingdoms not counted among the sixteen in the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms

Involvement of other ethnicities[edit]

"Carpe diem": a mural painting showing the leisurely life scene, from a tomb in Chiu-ch'üan, Later Liang - Northern Liang.

The Goguryeo
Goguryeo
kingdom was a powerful and influential state in northeast China at the beginning of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
period. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was attacked by the Murong
Murong
Xianbei
Xianbei
numerous times, and in 342 Prince Murong
Murong
Huang of Former Yan
Former Yan
captured the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
capital Hwando
Hwando
(Wandu in Chinese). Under the powerful and dynamic leadership of feudal kings, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
during the reign of Gwanggaeto the Great
Gwanggaeto the Great
successfully invaded the kingdoms of Baekje, Silla, and Dongbuyeo. Riding its success, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
campaigned against the Later Yan, obtaining the Liao River region. King Murong
Murong
Xi of Later Yan
Later Yan
twice launched retaliatory attacks to reclaim the Liao River
Liao River
watershed territory, but was only partially successful. At Northern Yan's destruction by the Northern Wei, Yan king Feng Hong fled to Goguryeo
Goguryeo
to seek asylum. Although granted asylum, Hong was said to have acted as if he was still king, issuing orders and demanding respect, and was executed by King Jangsu of Goguryeo. The Yuwen
Yuwen
Xianbei
Xianbei
group Kumo Xi, who lived north of Youzhou, and the Khitan began increasing in strength. In 414, the Kumo Xi tribes sent a trade caravan to Northern Yan, then joined with the Khitan in declaring allegiance to Northern Yan, and then to Northern Wei
Northern Wei
after its destruction of Northern Yan. Thus, the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
(essentially the Tuoba
Tuoba
Xianbei), held de facto rule over the entire Mongolian Plateau and the Liao River
Liao River
region. In the Western Regions
Western Regions
(modern Xinjiang) of the former Han Empire lay the kingdoms of Shanshan, Qiuzi, Yutian, Dongshi, and Shule. These kingdoms were often controlled or influenced by the various Liang kingdoms that existed during the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
period. The Former Liang organized Gaochang Commandery (Chinese: 高昌郡) and Tiandi County (Chinese: 闐地縣) in the west, both under the administration of the Gaochang Governor. Day-to-day administration was run out of several forts: Western Regions
Western Regions
Chief Clerk, Wu and Ji Colonel, and Jade Gate Commissioner of the Army. Other Liangzhou states generally followed this administrative system. In 382, the Former Qin
Former Qin
king Fu Jian sent General Lü Guang on a military expedition to the Dayuan kingdom and promoted him to Protector General of the western border regions. After Qin collapsed and Lü Guang founded the Northern Liang, the western border forts and the Shanshan
Shanshan
kingdom all became parts of or vassals to the Northern Liang. Religion[edit]

The White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang, commemorating Kumarajiva's white horse which carried the scriptures to China, c. 384 CE.

Several rulers of the northern kingdoms patronized Buddhism which spread across northern China during the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
and flourished during the subsequent Northern Dynasties. The Former Qin
Former Qin
ruler Fu Jian was a strong patron of Buddhist scholarship. After capturing Xiangyang
Xiangyang
in 379, he invited the monk Dao An to Chang'an
Chang'an
to catalogue Buddhist scriptures. When the teachings of the famed Kuchean monk, Kumārajīva, reached Chang'an, Dao An advised Fu Jian to invite the Kumārajīva. In 382, Fu Jian sent general Lü Guang to conquer the Western Regions
Western Regions
(Tarim Basin) and bring Kumārajīva
Kumārajīva
to Chang'an. Lü Guang captured Kucha
Kucha
and seized Kumārajīva, but the Former Qin
Former Qin
kingdom collapsed after the Battle of Feishui in 383. Lü Guang founded the Later Liang and held Kumārajīva
Kumārajīva
captive in western Gansu
Gansu
for 18 years. In 401, the Later Qin ruler, Yao Xing conquered the Former Liang
Former Liang
and Kumārajīva
Kumārajīva
was able to settle in Chang'an
Chang'an
and become one of the most influential translators of Buddhist sutras into Chinese. The first grottoes in the Mogao Caves
Mogao Caves
of Dunhuang
Dunhuang
were carved in the Former Qin. Work on the Maijishan Grottoes
Maijishan Grottoes
began during the Later Qin. The Bingling Grottoes were started during the Western Qin. Numerous other grottoes were built in the Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
under the Northern Liang. See also[edit]

Five Barbarians Family trees of the rulers of the Sixteen Kingdoms Ethnic groups in Chinese history Sinicization Battle of Fei River

Notes[edit]

^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Li and Zheng, pg 391

References[edit]

Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp, ISBN 7-204-04420-7, 2001.

Preceded by Western Jin Dynasties in Chinese history 304–439 Succeeded by Southern and Northern Dynasties

v t e

Sixteen Kingdoms

History

Uprising of the Five Barbarians Disaster of Yongjia Shi Le's unification of North China Wei–Jie war Wei- Xianbei
Xianbei
war Fu Jian's unification of North China Huan Wen's expeditions Battle of Fei River Liu Yu's expeditions

The 16 Kingdoms

Cheng Han Former Zhao Later Zhao Former Liang Later Liang Western Liang Northern Liang Southern Liang Former Qin Later Qin Western Qin Former Yan Later Yan Northern Yan Southern Yan Xia

Other states

Ran Wei Northern Wei Western Shu Western Yan Duan Yuwen Chouchi Zhai Wei Dai Huan Chu Duan Qi

Involved

Jin Dynasty Jie Xiongnu Qiang Xianbei Di

Key personalities

Liu Yuan Shi Le Sima Yue Ran Min Huan Wen Fu Jian Xie Xuan Liu Yu

Histories of the Era

Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms Book of Jin

v t e

Rulers of the Sixteen Kingdoms

Cheng Han

Li Te Li Liu Li Xiong Li Ban Li Qi Li Shou Li Shi

Han Zhao

Liu Yuan Liu He Liu Cong Liu Can (Jin Zhun) Liu Yao Liu Xi

Later Zhao

Shi Le Shi Hong Shi Hu Shi Shi Shi Zun Shi Jian Shi Zhi

Former Liang

Zhang Shi Zhang Mao Zhang Jun Zhang Chonghua Zhang Yaoling Zhang Zuo Zhang Xuanjing Zhang Tianxi

Later Liang

Lü Guang Lü Shao Lü Zuan Lü Long

Western Liang

Li Gao Li Xin Li Xun

Northern Liang

Duan Ye Juqu Mengxun Juqu Mujian Juqu Wuhui Juqu Anzhou

Southern Liang

Tufa Wugu Tufa Lilugu Tufa Rutan

Former Qin

Fu Jiàn Fu Sheng Fu Jiān Fu Pi Fu Deng Fu Chong

Later Qin

Yao Chang Yao Xing Yao Hong

Western Qin

Qifu Guoren Qifu Gangui Qifu Chipan Qifu Mumo

Former Yan

Murong
Murong
Huang Murong
Murong
Jun Murong
Murong
Wei

Later Yan

Murong
Murong
Chui Murong
Murong
Bao Murong
Murong
Xiang Murong
Murong
Lin Lan Han Murong
Murong
Sheng Murong
Murong
Xi Murong
Murong
Yun

Northern Yan

Gao Yun Feng Ba Feng Hong

Southern Yan

Murong
Murong
De Murong
Murong
Chao

Xia

Helian Bobo Helian Chang Helian Ding

Western Yan

Murong
Murong
Hong Murong
Murong
Chong Duan Sui Murong
Murong
Yi Murong
Murong
Yao Murong
Murong
Zhong Murong
Murong
Yong

Dai

Tuoba
Tuoba
Yilu Tuoba
Tuoba
Pugen Son of Tuoba
Tuoba
Pugen Tuoba
Tuoba
Yulü Tuoba
Tuoba
Heru Tuoba
Tuoba
Hena Tuoba
Tuoba
Yihuai Tuoba
Tuoba
Hena (2nd reign) Tuoba
Tuoba
Yihuai (2nd reign) Tuoba
Tuoba
Shiyijian

Ran Wei

Ran Min

Zhai Wei

Zhai Liao Zhai Zhao

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC

History of Imp

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