Treaty of Nerchinsk
Commanders and leaders
Kangxi Emperor Haise (海色) Hife (希福) Minggadari (明安达理) Sarhuda Lin Hsing-chu Ho Yu Byeon Geup Shin Ryu Yerofey Khabarov Onufriy Stepanov Afanasy Pashkov Alexei Tolbuzin Afanasy Beiton
Qing: 3,000 men including both Manchu Bannermen and Han Chinese soldiers Joseon: 200 gunners; 60 officers and interpreters Russia: 2,000 men
Casualties and losses
Qing: several hundreds (debated) Joseon: 32 (7 killed, 24 injured, 1 died from wounds) Russia: ~800 men
The region of the conflict depicted on a British map about a century
after the events, when most of it became parts of the Chinese
Sino-Russian border conflicts
1 Background 2 Qing perspective 3 Russian perspective 4 Treaties 5 See also 6 References
The southeast corner of
December 1639-May 1640 : 1st battle - the natives and the Qing : Battle of Gualar (Russian: селение Гуалар) : between 2 regiments of Manchu and a detachment of 500 Solon-Daurs led by the Solon-Evenk leader Bombogor (Chinese: 博木博果尔 or 博穆博果尔 pinyin :Bomboguoer) while the second native leader Bardači (Chinese: 巴尔达齐 or 巴尔达奇) kept neutral. September 1640 : 2nd battle - the natives and the Qing : Battle of Yaksa (Russian: Якса): between the natives (Solon, Daur, Oroqen) and the Manchus. May 1643 : 3rd battle. The native tribes submitted to the Qing Empire.
1643-1644 : Vasili Poyarkov
Winter 1643 - Spring 1644 : a detachment of a Russian expedition
led by the Cossack
1649-1653 : Yerofey Khabarov
1650-1651 : Occupation of the Daur's fort
1654-1658 : Onufriy Stepanov
March–April 1655 : Siege of Komar 1655 : Russian Tsardom has established a "military governor of the Amur region". 1657 : 2nd Battle of Sharhody.
1654-1658 : The Sino-Korean alliances expeditions against Russians In the following operations significant Korean forces were included into Manchu-led troops. The campaigns became known in Korean historiography as Naseon Jeongbeol (나선정벌, literally Russian conquest).
January 1654 : the first time a Korean contingent arrived to join
a Manchu army near Ninguta.
July 1654 : Battle of Hutong (on lower reaches of the
1685-1687 : The Albazin/Yakesa Campaign-Former Ming loyalist Han
Chinese troops who had served under
May–July 1685 : The siege of
see also Outer Manchuria
"[the Russian reinforcements were coming down to the fort on the river] Thereupon he [Marquis Lin] ordered all our marines to take off their cloths and jump into the water. Each wore a rattan shield on his head and held a huge sword in his hand. Thus they swam forward. The Russians were so frightened that they all shouted: 'Behold, the big-capped Tartars!' Since our marines were in the water, they could not use their firearms. Our sailors wore rattan shields to protect their heads so that enemy bullets and arrows could not pierce them. Our marines used long swords to cut the enemy's ankles. The Russians fell into the river, most of them either killed or wounded. The rest fled and escaped. Lin Hsing-chu had not lost a single marine when he returned to take part in besieging the city." written by Yang Hai-Chai who was related to Marquis Lin, a participant in the war
The Amur Basin with modern national borders.
The Amur Basin in 1860
This section retells the story from the Russian side (or rather from a
Western reading of Russian sources). The sources, for the most part
are Forsyth, Lincoln, and March.
Russian expansion into
Changes in the Russo-Chinese border in the 17-19th centuries
In 1689, by the Treaty of Nerchinsk, the Russians abandoned the whole
Amur country including Albazin. The frontier was established as the
Argun River and the Stanovoy Range. In 1727 the Treaty of Kyakhta
confirmed and clarified this border and regulated Russo-Chinese trade.
In 1858, almost two centuries after the fall of Albazin, by the Treaty
Manchuria under Qing rule Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) Sino-Soviet border conflict
^ Wurm 1996, p. 828.
^ a b CJ. Peers, Late Imperial Chinese Armies 1520-1840, 33
^ China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia By Peter C.
Perdue Published by Harvard University Press, 2005
^ А.М.Пастухов (A.M. Pastukhov) К вопросу о
характере укреплений поселков
приамурских племен середины XVII века и
значении нанайского термина «гасян»
(Regarding the fortification techniques used in the settlements of the
Amur Valley tribes in the mid-17th century, and the meaning of the
Nanai word "гасян" (gasyan)) (in Russian)
^ Kang 2013, p. 1.
^ Kang 2013, p. 17.
^ A.M. Pastukhov, "Корейская пехотная тактика
самсу в XVII веке и проблема участия
корейских войск в Амурских походах
маньчжурской армии " (Korean infantry tactic samsu
(三手) in the 17th century, and the issues related to the Korean
troops' participation in the Manchus' Amur campaigns) (in Russian)
^ Robert H. Felsing (1979). The Heritage of Han: The Gelaohui and the
1911 Revolution in Sichuan. University of Iowa. p. 18.
^ Louise Lux (1998). The Unsullied Dynasty & the Kʻang-hsi
Emperor. Mark One Printing. p. 270.
^ Mark Mancall (1971).
Bisher, Jamie (2006). White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the
Trans-Siberian. Routledge. ISBN 1135765952. Retrieved 24 April
Bisher, Jamie (2006). White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the
Trans-Siberian. Routledge. ISBN 1135765960. Retrieved 24 April
Felsing, Robert H. (1979). The Heritage of Han: The Gelaohui and the
1911 Revolution in Sichuan. University of Iowa. Retrieved 10 March
Grant, R. G. (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of
Combat (illustrated ed.). Dk Pub. ISBN 0756613604. Retrieved 23
KANG, Hyeokhweon. Shiau, Jeffrey, ed. "Big Heads and Buddhist
Demons:The Korean Military Revolution and Northern Expeditions of 1654
and 1658" (PDF). Emory Endeavors in World History (2013 ed.). 4:
Transnational Encounters in Asia: 1–22. Archived from the original
(PDF) on March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
Kim, Loretta Eumie. Harvard University, ProQuest Dissertations
Publishing, 2009. 3350967.
Lux, Louise (1998). The Unsullied Dynasty & the Kʻang-hsi
Emperor. Mark One Printing. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
Mancall, Mark (1971).
1. Page 133 -152 China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia By Peter C. Perdue Published by Harvard University Press, 2005
Stephan, John J. (1996). The Russian Far East: A History (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804727015. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tyron, Darrell T., eds. (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, Volume 1. International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110134179. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
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