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Sindhis
Sindhis
(Sindhi: سنڌي‎ (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language
Sindhi language
and are native to the Sindh
Sindh
province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India. Today, Sindhis
Sindhis
are both in India
India
and Pakistan. Indian Sindhis are predominantly Hindu, while Pakistani Sindhis
Sindhis
are predominantly Muslim. Sindhi Muslim
Muslim
culture is highly influenced by Sufi
Sufi
doctrines and principles.[6] Some of the popular cultural icons are Raja Dahir, Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, Jhulelal, Sachal Sarmast
Sachal Sarmast
and Shambumal Tulsiani. After the partition of India
India
in 1947, most Sindhi Hindus
Sindhi Hindus
and Sindhi Sikhs migrated to India
India
and other parts of the world. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, Hindus
Hindus
constituted about 8% of the total population of Sindh
Sindh
province.[7] Most of them live in urban areas such as Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur
Sukkur
and Mirpur Khas. Hyderabad is the largest centre of Sindhi Hindus
Sindhi Hindus
in Pakistan, with 100,000–150,000 living there.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-historic period 1.2 Historical period

2 Ethnicity/religion

2.1 Sindhi Muslims 2.2 Sindhi Hindus 2.3 Emigration

3 Culture

3.1 Sindhi names

4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links

History[edit] Pre-historic period[edit]

Vintage group photo of Indian Sindhi people

The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh
Sindh
were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation around 3300 BC. Moen-jo-Daro
Moen-jo-Daro
was one of the largest settlements of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation. The Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
went into decline around the year 1700 BC for reasons that are not entirely known, though its downfall was probably precipitated by an earthquake or natural event that dried up the Ghaggar River. The Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
are believed to have founded the Vedic civilisation
Vedic civilisation
that existed between the Sarasvati River and Ganges
Ganges
river around 1500 BC. This civilisation helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia. Historical period[edit] For several centuries in the first millennium B.C. and in the first five centuries of the first millennium A.D., western portions of Sindh, the regions on the western flank of the Indus
Indus
river, were intermittently under Persian, Greek, and Kushan rule,[citation needed] first during the Achaemenid dynasty (500–300 BC) during which it made up part of the easternmost satrapies, then, by Alexander the Great, followed by the Indo-Greeks, and still later under the Indo-Sassanids, as well as Kushans, before the Islamic invasions between the 7th–10th century AD. Alexander the Great marched through Punjab and Sindh, down the Indus
Indus
river, after his conquest of the Persian Empire. Sindh
Sindh
was one of the earliest regions to be influenced by Islam
Islam
after 632 AD. Before this period, it was heavily Hindu, and Buddhist. After 632 AD, it was part of the Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. Islam.[8] Habbari, Soomra, Samma, Arghun dynasties ruled Sindh. Ethnicity/religion[edit]

Part of a series on

Sindhis

Etymology History Language Culture Cuisine Diaspora Sindhology Tribes Media

Kingdoms

Indus
Indus
Valley civilization Sindhu Rai Soomra Samma Kalhora Talpur

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Main article: Demographics of Sindh

"The Priest King Wearing Sindhi Ajruk", c. 2500 BC, in the National Museum of Pakistan.

The region received its name, Sindh, from the River Sindhu (Indus). The people living in the region are referred to as Sindhi. The terms Hindi and Hindu are derived from the word Sindh
Sindh
and Sindhu, as the ancient Persians pronounced "s" as "h" (e.g., sarasvati as harahvati). In the same way, Persians called the people of this region as Hindhi people, their language as Hindhi language and the region as Hindh, the name which is used for this region since ancient times, and later for the whole northern part of the Indian sub-continent today. India
India
is also known as Hindustan. The Ror dynasty was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh
Sindh
and northwest India
India
from 450 BC – 489 AD.[9] The two main and highest ranked tribes of Sindh
Sindh
are the Soomro — descendants of the Soomro Dynasty, who ruled Sindh
Sindh
during 970–1351 A.D. — and the Samma — descendants of the Samma Dynasty, who ruled Sindh
Sindh
during 1351–1521 A.D. These tribes belong to the same blood line. Among other Sindhi Rajputs are the Bhachos, Bhuttos, BhattisBhanbhro Mahendros, Buriros, Lakha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahars, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathores, Dakhan, Langah, etc. The Sindhi-Sipahi of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and the Sandhai Muslims of Gujarat
Gujarat
are communities of Sindhi Rajputs settled in India. Closely related to the Sindhi Rajputs are the Jats of Sindh, who are found mainly in the Indus
Indus
delta region. However, tribes are of little importance in Sindh as compared to in Punjab and Balochistan. Identity in Sindh
Sindh
is mostly based on a common ethnicity.[10] Sindhi Muslims[edit]

Abida Parveen
Abida Parveen
is a Pakistani singer of Sindhi descent and one of the foremost exponents of Sufi
Sufi
music.

With Sindh’s stable prosperity and its strategic geographical position, it was subject to successive conquests by foreign empires. In 712 A.D., Sindh
Sindh
was incorporated into the Caliphate, the Islamic Empire, and became the ‘Arabian gateway’ into India
India
(later to become known as Bab-ul-Islam, the gate of Islam). Muslim
Muslim
Sindhis
Sindhis
tend to follow the Sunni
Sunni
Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh with a substantial minority being Shia
Shia
Ithna 'ashariyah. Sufism
Sufism
has left a deep impact on Sindhi Muslims and this is visible through the numerous Sufi
Sufi
shrines which dot the landscape of Sindh.

Grand mausoleum of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
built by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro on 1762.

Interior of the Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta, built during the rule of the Mughal Empire.

Sindhi Hindus[edit] Read also Sindhis
Sindhis
in India Sindh
Sindh
is home to some Hindus. The ratio of Hindus
Hindus
was higher before the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947. Many Hindus
Hindus
are migrating to India
India
and other parts of the world; they are regarded as a minority in decline.[11]

“ Before 1947 however, other than a few Gujarati speaking Parsees (Zorastrians) living in Karachi, virtually all the inhabitants were Sindhis, whether Muslim
Muslim
or Hindu at the time of Pakistan's independence, 75% of the population were Muslims and almost all the remaining 25% were Hindus.[12] ”

Hindus
Hindus
in Sindh
Sindh
were concentrated in the cities before the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, during which many migrated to India according to Ahmad Hassan Dani. Hindus
Hindus
were also spread over Sindh province. Thari (a dialect of Sindhi) is spoken in Sindh
Sindh
in Pakistan and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
in India.

“ The Cities and towns of Sindh
Sindh
were dominated by the Hindus. In 1941, for example, Hindus
Hindus
were 64% of the total urban population.[13] ”

Sindhi Hindus
Sindhi Hindus
believe in tenets of Sikhism
Sikhism
but are predominantly Sahajdhari. As a result, this group can be regarded as concurrently following Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sikhism.[citation needed] Emigration[edit] Main article: Sindhi diaspora The Sindhi diaspora emigrated from India
India
and Sindh
Sindh
is significant. Emigration from the Sindh
Sindh
began before and after the 19th century, with many Sindhis
Sindhis
settling in Europe, United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
with a large Sindhi population Middle Eastern states such as the United Arab Emirates and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A wave of emigration began in 1947 to India
India
after the partition. Culture[edit] Main articles: Sindhi poetry, Sindhi music, Sindhi literature, and Sindhi cuisine Sindhi names[edit] Main article: Sindhi names Muslim
Muslim
Sindhi tend to have traditional Muslim
Muslim
first names, sometimes with localized variations. Sindhi have castes according to their professions and ancestral locations. Sindhi Hindus
Sindhi Hindus
tend to have surnames that end in '-ani' (a variant of 'anshi', derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word 'ansha', which means 'descended from'). The first part of a Sindhi Hindu surname is usually derived from the name or location of an ancestor. In northern Sindh, surnames ending in 'ja' (meaning 'of') are also common. A person's surname would consist of the name of his or her native village, followed by 'ja'.

Ajrak

Sindhi Chabba

Cheti Chand

Sindhi Mojari

See also[edit]

Sindhudesh Sindhi nationalism Sindhis
Sindhis
in India Sindhi diaspora List of Sindhi people Ror Dynasty Ulhasnagar Sindhi names Sindhi Pathan Sindhi Baloch Sindhi bhagat Sindhi Memon Sindhi Rajput Sammat Sandhai Muslims Sindhi language
Sindhi language
media in Pakistan Sindhi-language media List of Sindhi-language newspapers Sindhi language Sindhi Language Authority Sindhi Adabi Board Sindhi Adabi Sangat Sindhi literature Sindhi folk tales Sindhi folklore Sindhi music List of Sindhi singers Sindhi music
Sindhi music
videos Sindhi poetry Tomb paintings of Sindh List of Sindhi festivals Sindhi culture Sindhi biryani Sindhi Camp Sindhi cap Sindhi Cultural Day Sindhi cinema Sindhi colony Sindhi cuisine Sindhi High School, Hebbal Roman Sindhi

References[edit]

^ PeopleGroups.org. "PeopleGroups.org - Sindhi".  ^ Calculation based on the percentage of Sindhis
Sindhis
and the 2017 estimate of the total population of Pakistan
Pakistan
in the CIA World Factbook. ^ Ethnologue report for India
India
Archived 18 January 2010 at WebCite ^ a b c d e f g h i PeopleGroups.org. "PeopleGroups.org".  ^ Kesavapany, K.; Mani, A.; Ramasamy, P. (1 January 2008). "Rising India
India
and Indian Communities in East Asia". Institute of Southeast Asian Studies – via Google Books.  ^ Ansari, Sarah FD. Sufi
Sufi
saints and state power: the pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. No. 50. Cambridge University Press, 1992. ^ a b " Pakistan
Pakistan
Census Data" (PDF).  ^ Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May 2006 [1] ^ Kessler, P L. "Kingdoms of South Asia
South Asia
- Kingdoms of the Indus
Indus
/ Sindh". www.historyfiles.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-02-15.  ^ The People and the land of Sindh
Sindh
Archived 14 February 2011 at WebCite ^ "Partition and the 'other' Sindhi".  ^ The foreign policy of Pakistan: ethnic impacts on diplomacy, 1971–1994, by Mehtab Ali Shah, published in 1997 by I B Tauris and Co Ltd, London PAGE 46 ^ Proceedings of the First Congress of Pakistan
Pakistan
History & Culture held at the University of Islamabad, April 1973, Volume 1, University of Islamabad Press, 1975

Sources[edit]

Bherumal Mahirchand Advani, "Amilan-jo-Ahwal" - published in Sindhi, 1919 Amilan-jo-Ahwal (1919) - translated into English in 2016 ("A History of the Amils") at sindhis

External links[edit]

Virtual Home of Global Sindhi Community Everything about Sindhis

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sindhi people.

SabSindhi-All About Sindhis, Music, Books, Magazines, People, Dictionary, Calendar, Keyboard Sindhi Sangat: promoting & preserving the Sindhi heritage, culture and language. Sindhi Jagat: All India
India
Sindhi Consolidating Centre. Sindhi Surnames Origin – Trace your roots www.thesindhi.com www.worldsindhicongress.org Sindhi Association of North America Sindhi Association of Europe

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Ethnic groups in Pakistan

Balti Baloch Brahui Burusho Hazaras Hindkowans Kalash Kashmiris Kho Muhajirs Pashtuns Punjabis Shina Siddi Sindhis Wakhis

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Province of Sindh
Sindh
topics

History

Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization (Mohenjo-daro) Sindhu Kingdom Ror dynasty Rai dynasty Brahman dynasty Muslim
Muslim
caliphate Soomra dynasty Samma dynasty Kalhora dynasty Talpur British period Cultural heritage sites

Government and politics

Provincial Assembly Chief Minister Governor Sindh
Sindh
Archives Commissioners of Sind Bhutto family Sindh
Sindh
Police Sindh
Sindh
High Court Sindh
Sindh
Information Department Sindh
Sindh
Coastal Development Authority Economy

Culture

Ajrak Sindhi cap Sindhi Cultural Day Sindhis
Sindhis
(List) Sindhi music Sindhi cuisine Sindhi diaspora Sindhi language Sindhi literature Sindhi poetry
Sindhi poetry
(Sindhi poets) Sindhi folklore Sindhi folk tales Sindhi nationalism Sindhi Adabi Board Sindhi cinema List of Sindhi-language films Sindhi media Sindhi tribes Sindhology List of Sindhi festivals Cheti Chand Sindhi bhagat Sassui Punnhun

Geography

List of cities Districts List of talukas Climate (Karachi Hyderabad Nawabshah) Fauna Historical places Indus
Indus
River Makran

Education

Education in Karachi Institute of Sindhology Sindh
Sindh
Madressatul Islam
Islam
University Sindh
Sindh
Museum University of Sindh

Sports

Sindh
Sindh
cricket team Malakhra

Sindhi Media

Sindhi-language media

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Sindhi nationalism

Historical States of Sindh

Sindhu Kingdom Sind Province (1936–55) Sind Division

Historic figures

Raja Dhach Rai Diwa Rai Sahiras (Shri Harsha) Rai Sahasi (Sinhasena) Rai Sahiras II Rai Sahasi II Chach of Arror Chandar Agham Lohana Raja Dahir Jam Unar Jam Tamachi Jam Raidhan Jam Sanjar Sultans of Sindh Jam Nizamuddin II Jam Feroz Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro Noor Mohammad Kalhoro Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro Gernal Hosh Mohammad Sheedi Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Molana Ubaidullah Sindhi Abdullah Shah Ghazi Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur Dodo Bin Khafef Soomro III Dollah Darya Khan Shah_Inayat_Shaheed Makhdoom Bilawal Mir Nasir Khan Talpur Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur

Modern figures

G. M. Syed Shafi Muhammad Burfat Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Ayaz Latif Palijo Baba-e- Sindh
Sindh
Comrade Hyder Bux Jatoi Bashir Qureshi Qadir Magsi Rasul Bux Palejo Abdul Wahid Aresar Muzafar Bhutto Sajjad shar Mumtaz Bhutto Safdar Sarki Zarina Baloch Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo Benazir Bhutto Asif Ali Zardari Zulfiqar Shah

Culture

Ajrak Sindhi cap Sindh
Sindh
Culture Day Sindhi tribes Malakhra Sassui Punhun Sindhudesh

Poets

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai Sachal Sarmast Tajal Bewas Shaikh Ayaz Sami

Contemporary controversies

Sindhudesh Kalabagh Dam Human rights abuses in Sindh

Battles and conflicts

Debal Battle of Fatehpur (1519) Battle of Dubbo Battle of Hyderabad Battle of Miani Battle of Halani Battle of Kachhi

Political parties

Jeay Sindh
Sindh
Muttahida Mahaz Jeay Sindh
Sindh
Qaumi Mahaz Sindh
Sindh
Taraqi Pasand Party Awami Tehreek Sindh
Sindh
National Front Sindh
Sindh
United Party Sindh
Sindh
Hari Committee

Militant Organizations

Sindhudesh
Sindhudesh
Liberation Army

Non profit organizations

World Sindhi Congress Worl

.