The Info List - Sinai Peninsula

--- Advertisement ---

The Sinai Peninsula
or simply Sinai (/ˈsaɪnaɪ/;[1][2] Arabic: سِينَاء‎ Sīnāʼ ; Egyptian Arabic: سينا‎ Sīna, IPA: [ˈsiːnæ]; Classical Syriac: ܣܝܢܝ‎, Hebrew: סִינַי‬ Sinai) is a peninsula in Egypt, the only part of the country located in Asia. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the south, and is a land bridge between Asia
and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate
South Sinai Governorate
and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez
Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate
Suez Governorate
on the southern end of the Suez
Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Port Said Governorate in the north. The Sinai Peninsula
has been a part of Egypt
from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt
(c. 3100 BC). This comes in stark contrast to the region north of it, the Levant
(present-day territories of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel
and Palestine), which, due largely to its strategic geopolitical location and cultural convergences, has historically been the centre of conflict between Egypt
and various states of Mesopotamia
and Asia
Minor. In periods of foreign occupation, the Sinai was, like the rest of Egypt, also occupied and controlled by foreign empires, in more recent history the Ottoman Empire (1517–1867) and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1882–1956). Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(known in Egypt
as the Tripartite Aggression due to the simultaneous coordinated attack by the UK, France and Israel) of 1956, and during the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of 1967. On 6 October 1973, Egypt
launched the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
to retake the peninsula, which was the site of fierce fighting between Egyptian and Israeli forces. By 1982, as a result of the Israel– Egypt
Peace Treaty of 1979, Israel
had withdrawn from all of the Sinai Peninsula except the contentious territory of Taba, which was returned after a ruling by a commission of arbitration in 1989. Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, and biblical history. Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
is one of the most religiously significant places in the Abrahamic faiths.


1 Name 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History

3.1 Ancient Egypt 3.2 Assyrian Period 3.3 Achaemenid Persian Period 3.4 Hellenistic Period 3.5 Roman and Byzantine Periods 3.6 Early Muslim
Period 3.7 Ayyubid Period 3.8 Mamluk and Ottoman Periods 3.9 British control 3.10 Wars with Israel
(1948, 56, 67, 67–70, 73) 3.11 1979 Peace Treaty with Israel
and aftermath 3.12 Early 21st Century security issues

4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links


Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
(Gabal Musa)

The name Sinai may have been derived from the ancient moon-god Sin[3] or from the Hebrew word Seneh (Hebrew: סֶ֫נֶּה‎ Senneh)[4] The peninsula acquired the name due to the assumption that a mountain near Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
is the Biblical Mount Sinai. However this assumption is contested.[5] In addition to its formal name, Egyptians also refer to it as Arḍ ul-Fairūz (أرض الفيروز "the land of turquoise"). The ancient Egyptians called it Ta Mefkat, or "land of turquoise".[6] Geography[edit]

Image from Gemini 11
Gemini 11
spacecraft, featuring part of Egypt
and the Sinai Peninsula
in the foreground and the Levant
in the background

Sinai is triangular in shape, with northern shore lying on the southern Mediterranean Sea, and southwest and southeast shores on Gulf of Suez
and Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
of the Red Sea. It is linked to the African continent by the Isthmus of Suez, 125 kilometres (78 mi) wide strip of land, containing the Suez
Canal. The eastern isthmus, linking it to the Asian mainland, is around 200 kilometres (120 mi) wide. The peninsula's eastern shore separates the Arabian plate
Arabian plate
from the African plate.[7] The southernmost tip is the Ras Muhammad National Park. Most of the Sinai Peninsula
is divided among the two governorates of Egypt: South Sinai (Ganub Sina) and North Sinai (Shamal Sina).[8] Together, they comprise around 60,000 square kilometres (23,000 sq mi) and have a population (January 2013) of 597,000. Three more governates span the Suez
Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez
(el-Sewais) is on the southern end of the Suez
Canal, Ismailia
(el-Isma'ileyyah) in the centre, and Port Said
Port Said
in the north. The largest city of Sinai is Arish, capital of the North Sinai, with around 160,000 residents. Other larger settlements include Sharm el-Sheikh and El-Tor, on the southern coast. Inland Sinai is arid, mountainous and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being Saint Catherine and Nekhel.[8] Climate[edit] Sinai is one of the coldest provinces in Egypt
because of its high altitudes and mountainous topographies. Winter temperatures in some of Sinai's cities and towns reach −16 °C (3 °F).[citation needed] History[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Sinai Peninsula
in hieroglyphs

Biau Bj3w[9] " Mining

Ancient Egypt[edit] Sinai was called Mafkat or "country of turquoise" by the ancient Egyptians [10][11] From the time of the First Dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, now called by their Egyptian Arabic names Wadi
Magharah and Serabit El Khadim. The mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit the deposits have been unprofitable. These may be the first historically attested mines.[citation needed] Assyrian Period[edit] Achaemenid Persian Period[edit] At the end of the time of Darius I, the Great (521–486 BCE) Sinai was part of the Persian province of Abar-Nahra, which means "beyond the river [Euphrates].[12] Cambyses
successfully managed the crossing of the hostile Sinai Desert, traditionally Egypt's first and strongest line of defence, and brought the Egyptians under Psamtik III, son and successor of Ahmose, to battle at Pelusium. The Egyptians lost and retired to Memphis; the city fell to the Persian control and the Pharaoh
was carried off in captivity to Susa
in mainland Persia. Hellenistic Period[edit] Roman and Byzantine Periods[edit]

St. Catherine's Monastery
is the oldest working Christian
monastery in the world and the most popular tourist attraction on the peninsula.

After the death of the last Nabatean king, Rabbel II Soter, in 106,[13] the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
faced practically no resistance and conquered the kingdom on 22 March 106. With this conquest, the Roman Empire went on to control all shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The Sinai Peninsula
became part of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea.[14] Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery
on the foot of Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
was constructed by order of the Emperor Justinian
between 527 and 565. Most of the Sinai Peninsula
became part of the province of Palaestina Salutaris
Palaestina Salutaris
in the 6th century. Early Muslim
Period[edit] Ayyubid Period[edit] During the Crusades it was under control of Fatimid Caliphate. Later, Saladin
abolished the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
in Egypt
and took this region under his control too. It was the military route from Cairo
to Damascus during the Crusades.And in order to secure this route he built a citadel on the island of Pharaoh
in Taba known by his name"Saladin's citadel"[citation needed] Mamluk and Ottoman Periods[edit] The peninsula was governed as part of Egypt
under the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt
from 1260 until 1517, when the Ottoman Sultan, Selim the Grim, defeated the Egyptians at the Battles of Marj Dabiq and al-Raydaniyya, and incorporated Egypt
into the Ottoman Empire. From then until 1906, Sinai was administered by the Ottoman provincial government of the Pashalik
of Egypt, even following the establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty's rule over the rest of Egypt
in 1805.

The wilderness of Sinai, 1862

British control[edit] In 1906, the Ottoman Porte
Ottoman Porte
formally transferred administration of Sinai to the Egyptian government, which essentially meant that it fell under the control of the United Kingdom, who had occupied and largely controlled Egypt
since 1882. The border imposed by the British runs in an almost straight line from Rafah
on the Mediterranean shore to Taba on the Gulf of Aqaba. This line has served as the eastern border of Egypt
ever since. Wars with Israel
(1948, 56, 67, 67–70, 73)[edit]

Canadian and Panamanian UNEF UN peacekeepers
UN peacekeepers
in Sinai, 1974

At the beginning of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Egyptian forces entered the former British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine
from Sinai to support Palestinian and other Arab
forces against the newly declared State of Israel. For a period during the war, Israeli forces entered the north-eastern corner of Sinai.[15] With the exception of Palestine's Gaza Strip, which came under the administration of the All-Palestine Government,[16] the western frontier of the former Mandate of Palestine became the Egyptian–Israeli frontier under the 1949 Armistice Agreement. In 1958, the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
came under direct Egyptian military
Egyptian military
administration, though it was governed separately from Sinai, and was never annexed by Egypt. The Egyptian government maintained that Egyptian administration would be terminated upon the end of the conflict with Israel. In 1956, Egypt
nationalised the Suez
Canal,[17] a waterway marking the boundary between Egyptian territory in Africa
and the Sinai Peninsula. Thereafter, Israeli ships were prohibited from using the Canal,[18] owing to the state of war between the two states. Egypt
also prohibited ships from using Egyptian territorial waters on the eastern side of the peninsula to travel to and from Israel, effectively imposing a blockade on the Israeli port of Eilat. Subsequently, in what is known in Egypt
as the Tripartite Aggression, Israeli forces, aided by Britain, and France (which sought to reverse the nationalisation and regain control over the Suez
Canal), invaded Sinai and occupied much of the peninsula within a few days. Several months later Israel
withdrew its forces from Sinai, following strong pressure from the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union. Thereafter, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was stationed in Sinai to prevent any further conflict in the Sinai. In 1967, Egypt
reinforced its military presence in Sinai and on 16 May ordered the UNEF out of Sinai with immediate effect.[19] Secretary-General U Thant
U Thant
eventually complied and ordered the withdrawal without Security Council authorisation. In the course of the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
that broke out shortly thereafter, Israel
captured the entire Sinai Peninsula, and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
from Egypt, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan
(which it had ruled since 1949), and the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
from Syria. The Suez
Canal, the east bank of which was now occupied by Israel, was closed. Israel
commenced efforts at large scale Israeli settlement in the peninsula. Following the Israeli conquest of Sinai, Egypt
launched the War of Attrition (1967–70) aimed at forcing Israel
to withdraw from Egyptian territory. The war saw protracted conflict in the Suez
Canal Zone, ranging from limited to large scale combat. Israeli shelling of the cities of Port Said, Ismailia, and Suez
on the west bank of the canal, led to high civilian casualties (including the virtual destruction of Suez), and contributed to the flight of 700,000[20] Egyptian internal refugees. Ultimately, the war concluded in 1970 with no change in the front line.[21] On 6 October 1973, Egypt
commenced Operation Badr to retake the Sinai, while Syria
launched a simultaneous operation to retake the Golan Heights,[citation needed] thereby beginning the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
(known in Egypt
as the October War). Egyptian engineering forces built pontoon bridges to cross the Suez
Canal, and stormed the Bar-Lev Line, Israel's defensive line along the canal. Though the Egyptians maintained control of most of the east bank of the Canal, in the later stages of the war, the Israeli military
Israeli military
crossed the southern section of Canal, cutting off the Egyptian 3rd Army, and occupied a section of the west bank. The war ended following a mutually agreed-upon ceasefire. After the war, as part of the subsequent Sinai Disengagement Agreements, Israel
withdrew from the Canal, with Egypt agreeing to permit passage of Israeli ships. The canal was reopened in 1975, with President Sadat leading the first convoy through the canal aboard an Egyptian destroyer. 1979 Peace Treaty with Israel
and aftermath[edit]

Egypt- Israel
border. Looking north from the Eilat

In 1979, Egypt
and Israel
signed a peace treaty in which Israel
agreed to withdraw from the entirety of Sinai. Israel
subsequently withdrew in several stages, ending in 1982. The Israeli pull-out involved dismantling almost all Israeli settlements, including the settlement of Yamit
in north-eastern Sinai. The exception was the coastal city of Sharm el-Sheikh, which the Israelis had founded as Ofira
during the period of their occupation. The Treaty allows monitoring of Sinai by the Multinational Force and Observers, and limits the number of Egyptian military
Egyptian military
forces in the peninsula. Early 21st Century security issues[edit] Since the early 2000s, Sinai has been the site of several terror attacks against tourists, the majority of whom are Egyptian. Investigations have shown that these were mainly motivated by a resentment of the poverty faced by many Bedouin in the area. Attacking the tourist industry was viewed as a method of damaging the industry so that the government would pay more attention to their situation.[22] (See 2004 Sinai bombings, 2005 Sharm El Sheikh bombings and 2006 Dahab
bombings). Since the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, unrest has become more prevalent in the area including the 2012 Egyptian-Israeli border attack in which 16 Egyptian soldiers were killed by militants. (See Sinai insurgency). Also on the rise are kidnappings of refugees. According to Meron Estifanos, Eritrean refugees are often kidnapped by Bedouin in the northern Sinai, tortured, raped, and only released after receiving a large ransom.[23][24] Under President el-Sisi, Egypt
has implemented a rigorous policy of controlling the border to the Gaza Strip, including the dismantling of tunnels between Gaza and Sinai.[25] Demographics[edit]

Two young Bedouins
making bread in the desert

The two governorates of North and South Sinai have a total population of 597,000 (January 2013). This figure rises to 1,400,000 by including Western Sinai, the parts of the Port Said, Ismailia
and Suez Governorates lying east of the Suez
Canal. Port Said
Port Said
alone has a population of roughly 500,000 people (January 2013). Portions of the populations of Ismailia
and Suez
live in west Sinai, while the rest live on the western side of the Suez
Canal. Population of Sinai has largely consisted of desert-dwelling Bedouins with their colourful traditional costumes and significant culture.[26] Large numbers of Egyptians from the Nile
Valley and Delta moved to the area to work in tourism, but development adversely affected the native Bedouin population.[citation needed] In order to help alleviate their problems, various NGOs began to operate in the region, including the Makhad Trust, a UK charity that assists the Bedouin in developing a sustainable income while protecting Sinai's natural environment, heritage and culture.[citation needed] Economy[edit]

in Southern Sinai is a popular beach and diving resort

See also: Tourism in Egypt Since the Israeli–Egyptian peace treaty, Sinai's scenic spots (including coral reefs offshore) and religious structures have become important to the tourism industry. The most popular tourist destination in Sinai are Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
(Jabal Musa) and St Catherine's Monastery, which is considered to be the oldest working Christian monastery in the world, and the beach resorts of Sharm el-Sheikh, Dahab, Nuweiba
and Taba. Most tourists arrive at Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport, through Eilat, Israel
and the Taba Border Crossing, by road from Cairo
or by ferry from Aqaba
in Jordan.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Isthmus of Suez Operation Eagle Multinational Force and Observers Negev Bedouin

Natural places

Desert of Paran Mitla Pass

Manmade structures

Biblical Mount Sinai Nawamis


Sinai leopard


^ "Definition of Sinai". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-05-03.  ^ "Define Sinayi". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-05-03.  ^ "Sinai Peninsula
(peninsula, Egypt) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ "Sinai, Mount". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ See Biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
for a fuller discussion. ^ "Étude de la turquoise : de ses traitements et imitations" Archived 15 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., thesis by Claire Salanne, Université de Nantes, 2009. ^ Homberg, Catherine and Martina Bachmann, Evolution of the Levant Margin and Western Arabia Platform Since the Mesozoic, The Geological Society of London, 2010, p 65 ISBN 978-1862393066 ^ a b Ned Greenwood (1 January 2010). The Sinai: A Physical Geography. University of Texas Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-292-77909-9.  ^ a b The translation "mining country" is not certain, see also Rainer Hannig: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch : (2800 - 950 v. Chr.). p. 1135. ^ http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=print_topic;f=8;t=008397 ^ Joseph
Davidovits and Ralph Davidovits (2007). "Why Djoser's blue Egyptian faience tiles are not blue? Manufacturing Djoser's faience tiles at temperatures as low as 250 °C?". In Jean Claude Goyon, Christine Cardin. Proceedings of the ninth International Congress of Egyptologists (PDF). 1. Louvain/Paris/Dudley. p. 375.  ^ Iranchamber ^ Schürer, Emil; Millar, Fergus; Vermes, Geza (26 March 2015). The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus
Christ:. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 583. ISBN 978-0-567-50161-5.  ^ Taylor, Jane: Petra And the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. I. B. Tauris 2001, ISBN 1860645089, p. 73-74 (online copy, p. 73, at Google Books) ^ Rogan, Eugene L. and Avi Shlaim, eds. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p. 99, 2007 ^ Shlaim, Avi (2001). Israel
and the Arab
Coalition. In Eugene Rogan and Avi Shlaim
Avi Shlaim
(eds.). The War for Palestine (pp. 97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79476-3 ^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/egypt-nationalizes-the-suez-canal ^ "1956: Egypt
Seizes Suez
Canal". BBC. 26 July 1956.  ^ Samir A. Mutawi (18 July 2002). Jordan
in the 1967 War. Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-521-52858-0. Although Eshkol denounced the Egyptians, his response to this development was a model of moderation. His speech on 21 May demanded that Nasser withdraw his forces from Sinai but made no mention of the removal of UNEF from the Straits nor of what Israel
would do if they were closed to Israeli shipping. The next day Nasser announced to an astonished world that henceforth the Straits were, indeed, closed to all Israeli ships  ^ Spencer, Tucker. Encyclopedia or the Arab-Israeli Conflict. p. 175.  ^ "War of Attrition".  ^ Serene Assir (23 July 2005). "Shock in Sharm". Al-Ahram Weekly. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ Meron Stefanos on the torture houses in north Sinai ^ Sound of Torture documentary ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/04/egypt-sinai-gaza-tunnels-sanctions-sisi-terrorist.html# ^ Leonard, William R. and Michael H. Crawford, The Human Biology of Pastoral Populations, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 67 ISBN 978-0521780162

Further reading[edit]

Gardner, Ann. "At Home in South Sinai". Nomadic Peoples 2000. Vol. 4, Iss. 2; pp. 48–67. Detailed account of Bedouin women H. J. L. Beadnell (May 1926). "Central Sinai". Geographical Journal. 67 (5): 385–398. doi:10.2307/1782203. JSTOR 1782203.  C. W. Wilson (1873). "Recent Surveys in Sinai and Palestine". Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 43: 206–240. doi:10.2307/1798627. JSTOR 1798627.  Jacobs, Jessica (2006). "Tourist Places and Negotiating Modernity: European Women and Romance Tourism in the Sinai". In Minca, Claudio; Oakes, Tim. Travels in Paradox: Remapping Tourism. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2876-5. Retrieved 7 January 2010.  Teague, Matthew; Moyer, Matt (March 2009). "The Sinai's Separate Peace". National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. 215 (3): 99–121. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved 7 January 2010.  Jarvis, C.S.,Yesterday and To-day in Sinai (Edinburgh/London: W. Blackwood & Sons, 1931). New terrorist challenges in the Sinai peninsula, prominent jihadists organisations, Strategic Impact (52), issue: 3 / 2014, pp. 39-47

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sinai Peninsula.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sinai Peninsula.

Guide to Sinai, covering background information on history, flora, fauna, desert, Bedouin, safaris and geology of Sinai Sinai Local Magazine The Complete Guide To: The Sinai, The Independent, 15 March 2008. Sinai in ancient Egypt Broadcasting videos from Sinai Images of the Sinai Desert IRIN humanitarian news: EU grant to tackle rural poverty in South Sinai Sinai trekking and safari: route maps and photo archive

v t e

Geography of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor (Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab
Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and other territories

British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Macau

v t e

People and things in the Quran



Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr



The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah


Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')


‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)




Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)



Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)


Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)


People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier


Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad



Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi



Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
and Lot



Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)


(Hell) Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:


Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor




Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
River Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)



Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm


Al-Injîl (The Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)


Mā’ ( Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)


Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār


Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 162783451 GND: 4104369-8 NDL: 00628596

Coordinates: 29°30′N 33°50′E / 29.500°N 33.833°E / 29