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Silistra
Silistra
(Bulgarian: Силистра) is a port city in northeastern Bulgaria. The city lies on the southern bank of the lower Danube river, and is also the part of the Romanian border where it stops following the Danube. Silistra
Silistra
is the administrative center of the Silistra Province
Silistra Province
and one of the important cities of the historical region of Southern Dobrudzha. Silistra
Silistra
is a major cultural, industrial, transportation, and educational center of northeastern Bulgaria. There are many historical landmarks including a richly-decorated Late Roman tomb, remains of the Medieval fortress, an Ottoman fort, and an art gallery.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History 4 Climate 5 Population

5.1 Ethnic, linguistic and religious composition

6 Notable natives 7 Honour 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit]

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The name Silistra
Silistra
is possibly derived from the root of the old Thracian
Thracian
name of the lower part of the Danube
Danube
"Istrum". By another theory, the city's name comes from the Latin
Latin
words "silo" and "stra", meaning "awl" and "strategy". Geography[edit] Silistra
Silistra
is in the northeastern part of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
on the southern bank of the Danube
Danube
River. It is located in the Bulgarian part of Dobrudzha. The municipality of Silistra
Silistra
covers an area of 516 km2[2] and includes the city and 18 villages. The area of the city-proper is 27.159 km2.[3] Silistra
Silistra
is 431 km from Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria; 141 km from Varna; and 119 km from Ruse. History[edit]

Durostorum

The Romans built a fortress in AD 29 on the site of an earlier Thracian
Thracian
settlement and kept its name, Durostorum (or Dorostorum). The earliest saints of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
are Roman soldiers executed at Durostorum during the Diocletian Persecution
Diocletian Persecution
(303–313), including St. Dasius and St. Julius the Veteran. Durostorum became an important military center of the Roman province of Moesia, and grew into a city at the time of Marcus Aurelius. Durostorum became the seat of a Christian bishopric and a center of Christianity in the region. Auxentius was expelled from Durostorum by an edict of Theodosius depriving Arian bishops in 383, and took refuge at Milan where he became embroiled in controversy with St Ambrose[4]. The Roman general Flavius Aëtius
Flavius Aëtius
was born in the town in 396. After the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
split into the Eastern and Western empires, the town (known as Δουρόστολον, Durostolon[citation needed] in Byzantine Greek) became part of the Byzantine Empire. As part of the Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
Durostolon was known as Drastar in Medieval times.

The fort of Silistra

Silistra
Silistra
Historical Museum

Around the end of the 7th century, the town was incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
and the bishop of Drastar (Дръстър in Bulgarian) was proclaimed the first patriarch of Bulgaria. In 895 (during the Bulgarian-Hungarian War of 894-896), the Hungarians, allies of the Byzantines, besieged the Bulgarian army under the personal command of Simeon I the Great in the fortress of the town but were repulsed.[5] The next year the Hungarians were decisively defeated in the battle of Southern Buh. The town was captured by the forces of Sviatoslav I of Kiev
Sviatoslav I of Kiev
in 969, but two years later it was taken by the Byzantines during the Battle of Dorostolon. It was renamed Theodoropolis, after military saint Theodore Stratelates, who is said to have come to the aid of Emperor John I Tzimiskes
John I Tzimiskes
during the battle. In 976, Tsar Samuel restored Bulgarian rule in the region until 1001, when it once again became part of the Byzantine Empire. In 1186, after the Rebellion of Asen and Peter, the town became part of the Second Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
and renamed Drastar. In 1279, under Emperor Ivailo, Drastar was attacked by the Mongols; but after a three-month-long siege the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
managed to break through.[6] The town remained part of the Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
until the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans
Ottoman conquest of the Balkans
around 1400. Throughout the Middle Ages, Drastar (possibly known by the name Silistra
Silistra
too) was among Bulgaria's largest and most important cities. During Ottoman rule, Silistra
Silistra
(Silistre in Ottoman Turkish) was part of Rumelia Province and was the administrative centre of the Silistra district (sanjak). This district was later upgraded to become the Silistra Province
Silistra Province
and stretched over most of the western Black Sea littoral. The town was captured and recaptured by Russian forces numerous times during several Russo-Turkish Wars
Russo-Turkish Wars
and was besieged between 14 April and 23 June 1854 during the Crimean War. Namık Kemal
Namık Kemal
wrote his most famous play, Vatan Yahut Silistre ("Homeland or Silistre"), a drama about the siege of Silistra, in which he expounded on the ideas of patriotism and liberalism. The play was first staged on 1 April 1873 and led to his exile to Famagusta. The Ottoman Silistra Province
Silistra Province
was reduced in size, as the districts of Özi and Hocabey and the region of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
were ceded to the Russian Empire at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. Edirne Province was created from its southern regions in 1830. Finally, Silistra Province
Silistra Province
merged with the provinces of Vidin and Niš
Niš
in 1864 to form Danube
Danube
Province. Silistra
Silistra
was downgraded to a kaza centre in Ruse district in this province in the same year. Between 1819 and 1826, Eliezer Papo — a renowned Jewish scholar — was the rabbi of the community of Silistra, making this town famous among observant Jews. Up to the present, his grave is a focus of pilgrimage, some pilgrims flying from Israel
Israel
and even from Latin
Latin
America to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
for that purpose.[7] In 1878, following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, Silistra
Silistra
was included in Bulgaria. In May 1913, following the Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
and after unsuccessful Bulgarian-Romanian negotiations in London, the two countries accepted the mediation of the Great Powers, who awarded Silistra
Silistra
and the area in a 3 km radius around it to the Kingdom of Romania
Romania
at the Saint Petersburg Conference. The 1913 Treaty of Bucharest ceded Silistra
Silistra
and the whole of Southern Dobruja
Southern Dobruja
to Romania. Silistra
Silistra
was renamed Dârstor by the Romanians. Bulgaria
Bulgaria
regained the town between 1916 and 1918 during World War I
World War I
with the Treaty of Bucharest (1918), in which Romania
Romania
surrendered to the Central Powers
Central Powers
(including Bulgaria). The Treaty of Neuilly
Treaty of Neuilly
(1919) following World War I
World War I
returned it to Romania. Silistra
Silistra
remained a part of Romania
Romania
until the Axis-sponsored Treaty of Craiova in 1940, when the town once again became part of Bulgaria, a transfer confirmed by the Paris Peace Treaties in 1947. Between 1913 and 1938, Silistra
Silistra
was the capital of Durostor County, (except during Bulgarian rule). It became part of Ţinutul Mării
Ţinutul Mării
between 1938-1940 during Romanian rule. Following the establishment of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, Silistra
Silistra
developed as a center of industry and agriculture in the region, comparable to Ruse (because of the strategic position on the Danube) and Dobrich
Dobrich
(due to the abundant fertile lands). This led to a major population increase which continued until 1985. After that, the population slowly started to decrease. Following the collapse of the People's Republic in 1989, many of its inhabitants migrated to other parts of the country or emigrated outside Bulgaria. Wide imageSilistraPanorama1.jpg1000pxA panorama of Silistra
Silistra
and the Danube
Danube
Climate[edit] Silistra
Silistra
has a temperate climate, with cold snowy winters and hot summers.

Climate data for Silistra
Silistra
(2000-2013)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.5 (77.9) 26 (79) 34.8 (94.6) 38.1 (100.6) 39.2 (102.6) 42.4 (108.3) 44.1 (111.4) 42.9 (109.2) 40.2 (104.4) 35.7 (96.3) 30.6 (87.1) 26.9 (80.4) 44.1 (111.4)

Average high °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 10.4 (50.7) 15.7 (60.3) 20.2 (68.4) 25.7 (78.3) 29.2 (84.6) 30.3 (86.5) 29.9 (85.8) 26.2 (79.2) 20.0 (68) 12.3 (54.1) 7.8 (46) 19.48 (67.08)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.7 (38.7) 6.8 (44.2) 10.7 (51.3) 14.4 (57.9) 19.3 (66.7) 24.0 (75.2) 25.2 (77.4) 24.7 (76.5) 22.0 (71.6) 16.2 (61.2) 9.0 (48.2) 5.1 (41.2) 15.09 (59.18)

Average low °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 3.1 (37.6) 5.6 (42.1) 8.6 (47.5) 12.9 (55.2) 18.8 (65.8) 20.0 (68) 19.5 (67.1) 17.8 (64) 12.3 (54.1) 5.6 (42.1) 2.4 (36.3) 10.65 (51.17)

Record low °C (°F) −32.5 (−26.5) −10.4 (13.3) −7.9 (17.8) −1.4 (29.5) 3.8 (38.8) 6.5 (43.7) 10.1 (50.2) 6.8 (44.2) 2.8 (37) −3.2 (26.2) −7.4 (18.7) −10.8 (12.6) −32.5 (−26.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 99.8 (3.929) 79.4 (3.126) 86.8 (3.417) 92.3 (3.634) 59.4 (2.339) 61.1 (2.406) 48.2 (1.898) 52.6 (2.071) 66.1 (2.602) 86.4 (3.402) 82.2 (3.236) 93.3 (3.673) 907.6 (35.732)

Average rainy days 15 11 13 14 9 10 7 8 11 13 13 14 138

Average snowy days 5 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 19

Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.1 138.5 169.6 221.1 264.6 301.8 300.4 264.5 202.8 165.5 111.2 89.6 2,330.7

Source: Stringmeteo.com

Population[edit] In January 2012, Silistra
Silistra
was inhabited by 35 230 people within the city limits, while the Silistra Municipality
Silistra Municipality
along with the legally affiliated adjacent villages had 50 780 inhabitants.[1] The number of the residents of the city (not the municipality) reached its peak in the period 1986-1991, when it exceeded 70,000.[8] The following table presents the change of the population after 1887.

Silistra

Year 1887 1910 1934 1946 1956 1965 1975 1985 1992 2001 2005 2009 2011 2013

Population 11,415 11,046 > 17,415[a] 15,951 20,350 33,041 59,296 70,537 49,304 41,952 39,358 37,837 35,607 ??

Highest number 70,537 in 1985

Sources: National Statistical Institute,[8] „citypopulation.de“,[9] „pop-stat.mashke.org“,[10] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences[11] ^ a. Population in 1930: 17,415[12]

Ethnic, linguistic and religious composition[edit] According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows:[13][14]

Bulgarians: 29,677 (88.3%) Turks: 3,458 (10.3%) Romani: 123 (0.4%) Others: 190 (0.6%) Indefinable: 180 (0.5%)

Undeclared: 1,979 (5.6%)

Total: 35,607 The ethnic composition of Silistra Municipality
Silistra Municipality
is 40707 Bulgarians, 6258 as Turks and 899 Roma among others. Notable natives[edit]

Flavius Aetius
Flavius Aetius
(396-454), a Roman general, defeated Attila the Hun Saint Dimitra of Kiev
Kiev
(b. 1810), a Bulgarian saint Parteniy Pavlovich - cleric, author of the first autobiography in South Slavic literature Yıldız İbrahimova
Yıldız İbrahimova
- jazz singer Veselin Metodiev
Veselin Metodiev
- former minister of culture

Honour[edit] Silistra Knoll
Silistra Knoll
on Livingston Island
Livingston Island
in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
Antarctica
is named after Silistra. "Silistra" is also the name of a fictional planet in Janet Morris' book High Couch of Silistra
High Couch of Silistra
(1977). References[edit]

^ a b (in Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - 2012 Archived 2011-04-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Guide, Silistra
Silistra
Municipality". Retrieved 30 July 2009.  ^ " Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Guide, Silistra". Retrieved 30 July 2009.  ^ Mark O'Sullivan, The Social and Political Influence of Saint Ambrose as Reflected in his Letters, B.Phil thesis, Liverpool University, 1976. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 95, ISBN 954-427-216-X ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 226, ISBN 954-427-216-X ^ Maariv, September 12, 2009, [1] ^ a b (in Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992[permanent dead link] ^ (in English) „WorldCityPopulation“ ^ „pop-stat.mashke.org“ ^ (in Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Durostor County, as per 1930 Romanian census (in Romanian) ^ (in Bulgarian) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute ^ Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (in Bulgarian)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silistra.

Official municipality website (in Bulgarian and English) News from UNESCO nature reserve in Silistra Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2010

v t e

Cities and towns of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2011 census)

1,000,000+

Sofia
Sofia
(capital)

300,000+

Plovdiv Varna

200,000+

Burgas

100,000+

Pleven Ruse Stara Zagora

50,000+

Asenovgrad Blagoevgrad Dobrich Gabrovo Haskovo Pazardzhik Pernik Shumen Sliven Veliko Tarnovo Vratsa Yambol

20,000+

Aytos Botevgrad Dimitrovgrad Dupnitsa Gorna Oryahovitsa Kardzhali Karlovo Kazanlak Kyustendil Lom Lovech Montana Nova Zagora Petrich Razgrad Samokov Sandanski Sevlievo Silistra Smolyan Svishtov Targovishte Troyan Velingrad Vidin

10,000+

Balchik Bankya Berkovitsa Byala Slatina Cherven Bryag Chirpan Elhovo Etropole Gotse Delchev Harmanli Ihtiman Karnobat Kavarna Knezha Kostinbrod Kozloduy Mezdra Nesebar Novi Iskar Novi Pazar Panagyurishte Parvomay Pavlikeni Peshtera Pomorie Popovo Provadia Radnevo Radomir Rakovski Razlog Stamboliyski Svilengrad

5,000+

Aksakovo Bansko Belene Belogradchik Beloslav Bobov Dol Bozhurishte Byala, Ruse Province Chepelare Devin Devnya Dolni Chiflik Dryanovo Dulovo Elena Elin Pelin Galabovo General Toshevo Hisarya Isperih Kostenets Kotel Krichim Krumovgrad Kubrat Kuklen Levski Lukovit Lyaskovets Lyubimets Madan Momchilgrad Omurtag Oryahovo Perushtitsa Pirdop Rakitovo Saedinenie Septemvri Simeonovgrad Simitli Slivnitsa Sopot, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Province Sredets Straldzha Svoge Tervel Teteven Topolovgrad Tryavna Tsarevo Tutrakan Tvarditsa Varshets Veliki Preslav Yakoruda Zlatitsa Zlatograd

2,000+

Aheloy Apriltsi Ardino Batak Batanovtsi Belitsa Belovo Borovo Bratsigovo Bregovo Breznik Byala Chernomorets Dalgopol Debelets Dobrinishte Dolna Banya Dolna Mitropoliya Dolna Oryahovitsa Dolni Dabnik Dospat Dragoman Dunavtsi Dve Mogili Dzhebel Glodzhevo Godech Gulyantsi Gurkovo Hadzhidimovo Ignatievo* Iskar Ivaylovgrad Kableshkovo Kalofer Kameno Kaspichan Kilifarevo Klisura Kocherinovo Koprivshtitsa Kostandovo Koynare Kresna Kran Krivodol Kula Laki Letnitsa Loznitsa Maglizh Malko Tarnovo Marten Мizia Nedelino Nikolaevo Nikopol Obzor Opaka Pavel Banya Polski Trambesh Pordim Pravets Primorsko Rila Roman Rudozem Sadovo Sapareva Banya Sarnitsa Shabla Shivachevo Slavyanovo Slivo Pole Smyadovo Sozopol Strazhitsa Strelcha Sungurlare Suvorovo Sveti Vlas Tran Trastenik Tsar Kaloyan Ugarchin Valchedram Valchi Dol Varbitsa Vetovo Vetren Yablanitsa Zavet Zlataritsa

1,000+

Ahtopol Alfatar Antonovo Balgarovo Boboshevo Bolyarovo Boychinovtsi Brusartsi Byala Cherkva Chiprovtsi Dimovo Glavinitsa Gramada Kaolinovo Kermen Merichleri Momin Prohod Plachkovtsi Senovo Shipka Suhindol Zemen

500+

Kiten Madzharovo Pliska

499-

Melnik

Notes

city status after the census of 01.02.2011: Ignatievo, Kran

v t e

Municipalities of Silistra
Silistra
Province

Alfatar Dulovo Glavinitsa Kaynardzha Silistra Sitovo Tutrakan

v t e

Municipality of Silistra

Capital: Silistra

Villages

Aydemir Babuk Balgarka Bogorovo Bradvari Glavan Kalipetrovo Kazimir Polkovnik Lambrinovo Popkralevo Profesor Ishirkovo Sarpovo Smilets Sratsimir Srebarna Tsenovich Vetren Yordanovo

Landmarks

Srebarna Nature Reserve Silistra
Silistra
History Museum Roman Tomb

Culture

Battle of Silistra Siege of Dorostolon

Notable people

Flavius Aetius Mariya Kocheva Denislav Kalchev Veselin Metodiev Petre Borilă Pavel Tsvetkov

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155929364 GND: 4220588-8 BNF:

.