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Sikhism
Sikhism
(/ˈsiːkɪzəm/; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi[3] Sikkhī, pronounced [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a religion that originated in the Punjab region
Punjab region
of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
about the end of the 15th century.[4][5] It is one of the youngest of the major world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.[6][7][8] In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs
Sikhs
worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh
Sikh
homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab.[9][10] Sikhism
Sikhism
is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru
Guru
Nanak, the first Guru
Guru
(1469 – 1539),[11] and the nine Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh, named the Sikh
Sikh
scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.[12][13][14] Sikhism
Sikhism
rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.[15][16] The Sikh
Sikh
scripture opens with Ik Onkar
Ik Onkar
(ੴ), its Mul Mantar
Mul Mantar
and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God).[17][18] Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life.[19] Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
taught that living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, and that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, and carries out that Will".[20] Guru
Guru
Hargobind, the sixth Sikh
Sikh
Guru, established the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms to be mutually coexistent.[21] Sikhism
Sikhism
evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
(14. April 1563 – 25 May 1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
(12. April 1621 – 19. December 1675 ), after they refused to convert to Islam, were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers.[22][23] The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa, as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion,[22][24] with qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier.[25][26]

Contents

1 Sikh
Sikh
terminology 2 Philosophy and teachings

2.1 Concept of God 2.2 Worldly illusion 2.3 Timeless truth 2.4 Liberation 2.5 Power and devotion ( Shakti
Shakti
and Bhakti) 2.6 Singing and music 2.7 Remembrance of the divine name 2.8 Service and action 2.9 Justice and equality 2.10 Ten gurus and authority

3 Scripture

3.1 Adi Granth 3.2 Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib

3.2.1 Compilation 3.2.2 Language and script 3.2.3 Teachings 3.2.4 As Guru 3.2.5 Relation to Hinduism
Hinduism
and Islam

3.3 Dasam Granth 3.4 Janamsakhis

4 Observances

4.1 Sikh
Sikh
festivals/events 4.2 Ceremonies and customs 4.3 Baptism and the Khalsa

5 History

5.1 Historical influences 5.2 Growth of Sikhism 5.3 Political advancement

5.3.1 Sikh
Sikh
confederacy and the rise of the Khalsa 5.3.2 Singh
Singh
Sabha movement 5.3.3 Partition 5.3.4 Khalistan

6 Sikh
Sikh
people

6.1 Sikh
Sikh
sects 6.2 Sikh
Sikh
castes 6.3 Sikh
Sikh
diaspora

7 Prohibitions in Sikhism 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Sikh
Sikh
terminology[edit] The majority of Sikh
Sikh
scriptures were originally written in Gurmukhī alphabet, a script standardised by Guru Angad
Guru Angad
out of Laṇḍā scripts used in North India.[27][28] Adherents of Sikhism
Sikhism
are known as Sikhs, which means students or disciples of the Guru. The anglicised word 'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana (to learn), and Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning".[29][30] Philosophy and teachings[edit] Main article: Sikh
Sikh
philosophy

Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
was the founder of the religion of Sikhism.

Sikh
Sikh
defined (SGPC):

Any human being who faithfully believes in i. One Immortal Being, ii. Ten Gurus, from Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Sahib to Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
Sahib, iii. The Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, iv. The utterances and teachings of the ten Gurus and v. the baptism bequeathed by the tenth Guru, and who does not owe allegiance to any other religion, is a Sikh.[31]

The basis of Sikhism
Sikhism
lies in the teachings of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
and his successors. Many sources call Sikhism
Sikhism
a monotheistic religion,[32][33] while others call it a monistic and panentheistic religion.[4][34][35] According to Eleanor Nesbitt, English renderings of Sikhism
Sikhism
as a monotheistic religion "tend misleadingly to reinforce a Semitic understanding of monotheism, rather than Guru
Guru
Nanak's mystical awareness of the one that is expressed through the many. However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on 'one'".[36] In Sikhism, the concept of "God" is Waheguru considered Nirankar (shapeless), akal (timeless), and Alakh Niranjan (invisible). The Sikh scripture begins with Ik Onkar
Ik Onkar
(ੴ), which refers to the "formless one",[18][37] and understood in the Sikh
Sikh
tradition as monotheistic unity of God.[38] Sikhism
Sikhism
is classified as an Indian religion
Indian religion
along with Buddhism, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism, given its geographical origin and its sharing some concepts with them.[39][40]

The Harimandir Sahib, known popularly as the Golden Temple, is a sacred shrine for Sikhs.

Sikh philosophy
Sikh philosophy
does not approve dichotomy in spiritual development and moral truthful conduct (sach achar). Its founder Guru
Guru
Nanak summarized this perspective with "Truth is the highest virtue, but higher still is truthful living".[41] Concept of God[edit] Main article: Ik Onkar God
God
in Sikhism
Sikhism
is known as Ik Onkar, the One Supreme Reality or the all-pervading spirit (which is taken to mean God).[42] This spirit has no gender in Sikhism, though translations may present it as masculine. It is also Akaal Purkh (beyond time and space) and Nirankar (without form). In addition, Nanak wrote that there are many worlds on which it has created life.[43] The traditional Mul Mantar
Mul Mantar
goes until Nanak Hosi Bhi Sach. The opening line of the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
and each subsequent raga, mentions Ik Oankar (translated by Pashaura Singh):

ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥ Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat(i)-nām(u) karatā purakh(u) nirabha'u niravair(u) akāl(a) mūrat(i) ajūnī saibhan gur(a) prasād(i). "There is one supreme being, the eternal reality, the creator, without fear and devoid of enmity, immortal, never incarnated, self-existent, known by grace through the true Guru."[17]

Worldly illusion[edit] Māyā—defined as a temporary illusion or "unreality"—is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of God
God
and salvation: where worldly attractions which give only illusory temporary satisfaction and pain which distract the process of the devotion of God. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference to the unreality of the world, but of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, anger, greed, attachment, and lust—known as the Five Thieves—are believed to be particularly distracting and hurtful. Sikhs
Sikhs
believe the world is currently in a state of Kali Yuga
Kali Yuga
(Age of Darkness) because the world is led astray by the love of and attachment to Maya.[44] The fate of people vulnerable to the Five Thieves ('Pānj Chor'), is separation from God, and the situation may be remedied only after intensive and relentless devotion.[45] Timeless truth[edit]

An Akali-Nihung Sikh
Sikh
Warrior at Harmandir Sahib, also called the Golden Temple

According to Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
the supreme purpose of human life is to reconnect with Akal (The Timeless One), however, egotism is the biggest barrier in doing this. Using the Guru's teaching remembrance of nām (the divine Word or the Name of the Lord)[46][47] leads to the end of egotism. Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
designated the word 'guru' (meaning teacher)[48] to mean the voice of "the spirit": the source of knowledge and the guide to salvation.[49] As Ik Onkar
Ik Onkar
is universally immanent, guru is indistinguishable from "Akal" and are one and the same.[50] One connects with guru only with accumulation of selfless search of truth.[51] Ultimately the seeker realises that it is the consciousness within the body which is seeker/follower of the Word that is the true guru. The human body is just a means to achieve the reunion with Truth.[50] Once truth starts to shine in a person's heart, the essence of current and past holy books of all religions is understood by the person.[52] Liberation[edit] Guru
Guru
Nanak's teachings are founded not on a final destination of heaven or hell but on a spiritual union with the Akal which results in salvation or Jivanmukti
Jivanmukti
(liberation whilst alive). [53] [54] Guru Gobind Singh
Gobind Singh
makes it clear that human birth is obtained with great fortune, therefore one needs to be able to make the most of this life.[55] The idea of mukti (liberation) is encountered in virtually all religions, including Moksha, Nirvana, Salvation. While Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
and the Sikh
Sikh
Gurus accepted the prevalent regional terminology from previous generations, they gave them newer meanings in their writings. In particular, rather than considering the "annihilation of human existence" as the key to mukti, it is the "spiritual quality of one's life" that is deemed to be the central principle. The body is not regarded to be an obstacle between the soul and the Supreme Soul, rather "the body is the fort limitless wherein resides He, the Cherisher Himself" (GG, 514). "Within the body resides the Ineffable One; the manmukh (the self-willed) fool does not know this and roams abroad in search of Him" (GG, 754). Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
further rejects mukti in the classical sense of a post-death state, replacing it with "constant love of the Divine as the ideal state of being" (GG, 534). [56] Further, compared to the Vedantic way, where the prime cause of separation of the human soul from its Supreme source is regarded to be avidya (ignorance), and Buddhism, where nirvana implies freedom from suffering for the craving soul, the Sikh
Sikh
Gurus regard haumai (ego) as the reason behind all ignorance, suffering, craving and bondage. Hence, in Sikhism, liberation is sought "not from life or body, but from the shackles of ego". Guru
Guru
Nanak's definition of jivan-mukta thus is: "He alone is liberated while still living Who is cleansed of the ego inside (GG, 1010)." The jivan-mukta, or Gurmukh ("one whose face is turned towards God") in Sikhism, while being in spiritual harmony within, lives a common householder's life. "He surrenders himself completely to the Will of God; joy and sorrow are the same to him; he experiences bliss always and viyog (separation) never" (GG, 275) [56] The concepts of reincarnation and karma also find mentions in the Guru Granth Sahib. [55][57] [58] However, it is not necessarily believed that reincarnation is of a metaphysical soul or a transmigration from one body to another as in the classical sense of the Bhagvad Gita. The concept of death and birth is also questioned by asking who actually has died when it is the primal energy or reality that has merely changed its manifestation, and the body returned to from what it sprang forth. [55] Further, in Sikhism
Sikhism
both karma and liberation "is modified by the concept of God's grace" (nadar, mehar, kirpa, karam etc.).[54] Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
states "The body takes birth because of karma, but salvation is attained through grace".[59]. Additionally the Karma doctrine here doesn’t imply a better next life or future life but implies effects on the same life. The idea of a hereafter has also been questioned in the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
while references are also made to a hereafter at places not necessarily establishing an otherworldly, or soteriological and eschatological claim. [55] To get closer to God: Sikhs
Sikhs
avoid the evils of Maya, keep the everlasting truth in mind, practice Shabad Kirtan, meditate on Naam, and serve humanity. Sikhs
Sikhs
believe that being in the company of the Satsang or Sadh Sangat is one of the key ways to achieve liberation.[60] Power and devotion ( Shakti
Shakti
and Bhakti)[edit] Sikhism
Sikhism
was influenced by Bhakti
Bhakti
movement,[61][62][63] but it was not simply an extension of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement.[64] Sikhism, for instance, disagreed with some views of Bhakti
Bhakti
saints Kabir
Kabir
and Ravidas.[64][65] Guru
Guru
Nanak, the first Sikh
Sikh
Guru
Guru
and the founder of Sikhism, was a Bhakti
Bhakti
saint.[66] He taught, states Jon Mayled, that the most important form of worship is Bhakti.[67] Guru
Guru
Arjan, in his Sukhmani Sahib, recommended the true religion is one of loving devotion to God.[68][69] The Sikh
Sikh
scripture Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
includes suggestions on how a Sikh
Sikh
should perform constant Bhakti.[67][70][71] Some scholars call Sikhism
Sikhism
a Bhakti
Bhakti
sect of Indian traditions,[72][73] adding that it emphasises "nirguni Bhakti", that is loving devotion to a divine without qualities or physical form.[73][74][75] However, Sikhism
Sikhism
also accepts the concept of saguni, that is a divine with qualities and form.[76] While Western scholarship generally places Sikhism
Sikhism
as arising primarily within a Hindu
Hindu
Bhakti
Bhakti
movement milieu while recognizing some Sufi Islamic influences,[77][78] Indian Sikh scholars disagree and state that Sikhism
Sikhism
transcended the environment it emerged from.[64] Some Sikh
Sikh
sects outside the Punjab-region of India, such as those found in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Bihar, practice Aarti
Aarti
with lamps during bhakti in a Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwara.[79][80] But, most Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwaras forbid the ceremonial use of lamps (aarti) during their bhakti practices.[81] While emphasizing Bhakti, the Sikh
Sikh
Gurus also taught that the spiritual life and secular householder life are intertwined.[82] In Sikh
Sikh
worldview, the everyday world is part of the Infinite Reality, increased spiritual awareness leads to increased and vibrant participation in the everyday world.[83] Guru
Guru
Nanak, states Sonali Marwaha, described living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" as being higher than the metaphysical truth.[84] The 6th Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Guru
Guru
Hargobind, after Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
martyrdom and faced with oppression by the Islamic Mughal Empire, affirmed the philosophy that the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms are mutually coexistent.[85][86] According to the 9th Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur, the ideal Sikh
Sikh
should have both Shakti
Shakti
(power that resides in the temporal), and Bhakti
Bhakti
(spiritual meditative qualities). This was developed into the concept of the Saint Soldier by the 10th Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Gobind Singh.[86] The concept of man as elaborated by Guru
Guru
Nanak, states Arvind-pal Singh
Singh
Mandair, refines and negates the "monotheistic concept of self/God", and "monotheism becomes almost redundant in the movement and crossings of love".[87] The goal of man, taught the Sikh
Sikh
Gurus, is to end all dualities of "self and other, I and not-I", attain the "attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment, in the course of daily life".[87] Singing and music[edit] Sikhs
Sikhs
refer to the hymns of the Gurus as Gurbani
Gurbani
(The Guru's word). Shabad Kirtan
Kirtan
is the singing of Gurbani. The entire verses of Guru Granth Sahib are written in a form of poetry and rhyme to be recited in thirty one Ragas of the Classical Indian Music as specified. However, the exponents of these are rarely to be found amongst the Sikhs
Sikhs
who are conversant with all the Ragas in the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib. Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
started the Shabad Kirtan
Kirtan
tradition and taught that listening to kirtan is a powerful way to achieve tranquility while meditating; Singing of the glories of the Supreme Timeless One (God) with devotion is the most effective way to come in communion with the Supreme Timeless One.[88] The three morning prayers for Sikhs
Sikhs
consist of Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib
Jaap Sahib
and Tav-Prasad Savaiye.[89] Baptised Sikhs – Amritdharis, rise early and meditate and then recite all the Five Banis of Nitnem
Nitnem
before breakfast. Remembrance of the divine name[edit] A key practice by Sikhs
Sikhs
is remembrance[47] of the Divine Name (Naam – the Name of the Lord).[46] This contemplation is done through Nām Japna (repetition of the divine name) or Naam Simran (remembrance of the divine Name through recitation).[47][90] The verbal repetition of the name of God
God
or a sacred syllable has been an ancient established practice in religious traditions in India, however, Sikhism
Sikhism
developed Naam-simran as an important Bhakti
Bhakti
practice.[91][92][93] Guru
Guru
Nanak's ideal is the total exposure of one's being to the divine Name and a total conforming to Dharma
Dharma
or the "Divine Order". Nanak described the result of the disciplined application of nām simraṇ as a "growing towards and into God" through a gradual process of five stages. The last of these is sach khaṇḍ (The Realm of Truth)—the final union of the spirit with God.[49] Service and action[edit] The Sikh
Sikh
Gurus taught that by constantly remembering the divine name (nam simaran) and through selfless service, or sēvā, the devotee overcomes egoism (Haumai). This, it states, is the primary root of five evil impulses and the cycle of rebirth.[94][95] Service in Sikhism
Sikhism
takes three forms: "Tan" – physical service; "Man" – mental service (such as studying to help others); and "Dhan" – material service.[96] Sikhism
Sikhism
stresses kirat karō: that is "honest work". Sikh
Sikh
teachings also stress the concept of sharing, or vaṇḍ chakkō, giving to the needy for the benefit of the community.[97] Justice and equality[edit] Sikhism
Sikhism
regards "Justice"[98] and "Restorative Justice" and "divine justice"[98] as trumping any subjective codes of moral order.[25][26]. Sikhs
Sikhs
believe that the world is subject to God's hukam ("command", or, "all-embracing principle, the sum total of all divinely inspired laws; and a revelation of the nature of God" [98]), that encompasses both the Divine Will and the Divine Law. God
God
is nirbhau (without fear, sovereign) and nirvair (without rancour & enmity, compassionate), kirpa nidhan ("treasure of grace"), and not a jabbar (tyrant, oppressor) or gahhar (wrathful, avenger). God
God
dispenses impartial divine justice, with mehar (mercy) and nadar (grace). Guru
Guru
Ram Das, fourth Guru, says: "Why should we be afraid, with the True One being the judge. True is the True One's justice" (GG, 84). [99] [100]. In Sikh
Sikh
theology, the notion of karma ("actions"), central to other eastern traditions, is radically changed, and is no longer considered inexorable. Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
states that "karma is subject to the higher principle of divine order (hukam)". God's hukam replaces the law of Karma, and it is believed that God
God
can "wash away millions of sins in a moment". [98] The word in Sikhism
Sikhism
to depict justice is "Niau"[98]. The word "dharam" (righteousness, or, duty)[98] is also used to convey justice "in the sense of the moral order".[98][101] "An attack on dharam is an attack on justice, on righteousness, and on the moral order generally".[102] According to the Tenth Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
"when all efforts to restore peace prove useless and no words avail, lawful is the flash of steel, it is right to draw the sword".[103] Sikhism
Sikhism
does not differentiate religious obligations by gender. God
God
in Sikhism
Sikhism
has no gender, and the Sikh
Sikh
scripture does not discriminate against the woman, nor bar her from any roles.[104]. Women in Sikhism have led battles and issued hukamnamas. [105] [104][106] Ten gurus and authority[edit] Main article: Sikh
Sikh
gurus

A rare Tanjore-style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh
Sikh
Gurus with Bhai Bala
Bhai Bala
and Bhai Mardana.

The term guru comes from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
gurū, meaning teacher, guide, or mentor. The traditions and philosophy of Sikhism
Sikhism
were established by ten gurus from 1469 to 1708.[107][108] Each guru added to and reinforced the message taught by the previous, resulting in the creation of the Sikh
Sikh
religion. Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
was the first guru and appointed a disciple as successor. Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
was the final guru in human form. Before his death, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
decreed in 1708, that the Gurū Granth Sāhib
Gurū Granth Sāhib
would be the final and perpetual guru of the Sikhs.[14] Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
stated that his Guru
Guru
is God
God
who is the same from the beginning of time to the end of time.[109] Nanak claimed to be God's mouthpiece, God's slave and servant and even God's dog, but maintained that he was only a guide and teacher, was neither a reincarnation of God
God
nor in any way related to God.[110][111] Nanak stated that the human Guru
Guru
is mortal and not divine, who is to be respected and loved but not worshipped.[110] When Guru, or Satguru (The true guru) is used in Gurbani
Gurbani
it is often referring to the internal soul rather than a living Guru.[112] Guru Angad
Guru Angad
succeeded Guru
Guru
Nanak. Later, an important phase in the development of Sikhism
Sikhism
came with the third successor, Guru
Guru
Amar Das. Guru
Guru
Nanak's teachings emphasised the pursuit of salvation; Guru
Guru
Amar Das began building a cohesive community of followers with initiatives such as sanctioning distinctive ceremonies for birth, marriage, and death. Amar Das also established the manji (comparable to a diocese) system of clerical supervision.[49] Guru
Guru
Amar Das's successor and son-in-law Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
founded the city of Amritsar, which is home of the Harimandir Sahib
Harimandir Sahib
and regarded widely as the holiest city for all Sikhs. Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
was arrested by Mughal authorities who were suspicious and hostile to the religious order he was developing.[113] His persecution and death inspired his successors to promote a military and political organization of Sikh
Sikh
communities to defend themselves against the attacks of Mughal forces.

The interior of the Akal Takht

The Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
established a mechanism which allowed the Sikh
Sikh
religion to react as a community to changing circumstances. The sixth guru, Guru
Guru
Hargobind, was responsible for the creation of the concept of Akal Takht
Akal Takht
(throne of the timeless one), which serves as the supreme decision-making centre of Sikhism
Sikhism
and sits opposite the Harmandir Sahib. The Sarbat Ḵẖālsā (a representative portion of the Khalsa Panth) historically gathers at the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
on special festivals such as Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
or Hola Mohalla
Hola Mohalla
and when there is a need to discuss matters that affect the entire Sikh
Sikh
nation. A gurmatā (literally, guru's intention) is an order passed by the Sarbat Ḵẖālsā in the presence of the Gurū Granth Sāhib. A gurmatā may only be passed on a subject that affects the fundamental principles of Sikh
Sikh
religion; it is binding upon all Sikhs.[114] The term hukamnāmā (literally, edict or royal order) is often used interchangeably with the term gurmatā. However, a hukamnāmā formally refers to a hymn from the Gurū Granth Sāhib which is a given order to Sikhs.

Chronology of the ten Sikh
Sikh
Gurus

Approximate Life Spans and Guruship Spans of the 10 Sikh
Sikh
gurus

The word Guru
Guru
in Sikhism
Sikhism
also refers to Akal Purkh (God), and God
God
and Guru
Guru
are often synonymous in Gurbani
Gurbani
( Sikh
Sikh
writings).[107][115] Sikhism
Sikhism
does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood, states Singha, but "it has a pivotal concept of Guru; He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet; He is an illumined soul."[116] Scripture[edit] There is one primary scripture for the Sikhs: the Gurū Granth Sāhib. It is sometimes synonymously referred to as the Ādi Granth.[117] Chronologically, however, the Ādi Granth
Ādi Granth
– literally, The First Volume, refers to the version of the scripture created by Guru
Guru
Arjan in 1604.[118] The Gurū Granth Sāhib
Gurū Granth Sāhib
is the final expanded version of the scripture compiled by Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh.[117][119] While the Guru Granth Sahib is an unquestioned scripture in Sikhism, another important religious text, the Dasam Granth, does not enjoy universal consensus, and is considered a secondary scripture by many Sikhs.[117] Adi Granth[edit] Main article: Ādi Granth The Ādi Granth
Ādi Granth
was compiled primarily by Bhai Gurdas
Bhai Gurdas
under the supervision of Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
between the years 1603 and 1604.[120] It is written in the Gurmukhī script, which is a descendant of the Laṇḍā
Laṇḍā
script used in the Punjab at that time.[121] The Gurmukhī script was standardised by Guru
Guru
Angad, the second guru of the Sikhs, for use in the Sikh
Sikh
scriptures and is thought to have been influenced by the Śāradā and Devanāgarī
Devanāgarī
scripts. An authoritative scripture was created to protect the integrity of hymns and teachings of the Sikh
Sikh
gurus, and thirteen Hindu
Hindu
and two Muslim
Muslim
bhagats of the Bhakti movement sant tradition in medieval India.[122] The thirteen Hindu bhagats whose teachings were entered into the text included Ramananda, Namdev, Pipa, Ravidas, Beni, Bhikhan, Dhanna, Jaidev, Parmanand, Sadhana, Sain, Sur, Trilochan, while the two Muslim
Muslim
bhagats were Kabir and Sufi saint Farid.[123][124][125] Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib[edit]

Gurū Granth Sāhib
Gurū Granth Sāhib
– the primary scripture of Sikhism

Main article: Gurū Granth Sāhib The Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
is the holy scripture of the Sikhs, and regarded as the living Guru. Compilation[edit] The Guru
Guru
Granth started as a volume of Guru
Guru
Nanak's poetic compositions. Prior to his death, he passed on his volume to Guru Angad ( Guru
Guru
1539-1551). The final version of the Gurū Granth Sāhib was compiled by Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
in 1678. It consists of the original Ādi Granth
Ādi Granth
with the addition of Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur's hymns. The predominant bulk of Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
is compositions by seven Sikh Gurus – Guru
Guru
Nanak, Guru
Guru
Angad, Guru
Guru
Amar Das, Guru
Guru
Ram Das, Guru Arjan, Guru
Guru
Teg Bahadur and Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh. It also contains the traditions and teachings of thirteen Hindu
Hindu
Bhakti
Bhakti
movement sants (saints) such as Ramananda, Namdev
Namdev
among others, and two Muslim
Muslim
saints namely Kabir
Kabir
and the Sufi Sheikh Farid.[123][49][126] The text comprises 6,000 śabads (line compositions),[117] which are poetically rendered and set to rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music.[127] The bulk of the scripture is classified into thirty one rāgas, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author. The hymns in the scripture are arranged primarily by the rāgas in which they are read.[117] Language and script[edit] The main language used in the scripture is known as Sant Bhāṣā, a language related to both Punjabi and Hindi and used extensively across medieval northern India by proponents of popular devotional religion (bhakti).[128] The text is printed in Gurumukhi script, believed to have been developed by Guru
Guru
Angad,[117] but it shares the Indo-European roots found in numerous regional languages of India.[129] Teachings[edit]

A group of Sikh
Sikh
musicians at the Golden Temple
Golden Temple
complex

The vision in the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, states Torkel Brekke, is a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind.[130] The Granth begins with the Mūl Mantra, an iconic verse created by Nanak:

Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ ISO 15919
ISO 15919
transliteration: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi. Simplified transliteration: Ik ōaṅgkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād. Translation: One God
God
Exists, Truth by Name, Creative Power, Without Fear, Without Enmity, Timeless Form, Unborn, Self-Existent, By the Guru's Grace.[131]

As Guru[edit] The Tenth Guru, Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh, named the Sikh
Sikh
scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the literal embodiment of the eternal, impersonal Guru, where the scripture's word serves as the spiritual guide for Sikhs.[12][13][14][132]

Punjabi: ਸੱਬ ਸਿੱਖਣ ਕੋ ਹੁਕਮ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਨਯੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ । Transliteration: Sabb sikkhaṇ kō hukam hai gurū mānyō granth. English: All Sikhs
Sikhs
are commanded to take the Granth as Guru.

The Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
is installed in Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwara
Gurdwara
(temple); many Sikhs
Sikhs
bow or prostrate before it on entering the temple, and just like Rama
Rama
or Krishna symbols are cared for in some large Hindu
Hindu
temples, the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
is installed every morning and put to bed at night in many Gurdwaras.[133] The Granth is revered as eternal gurbānī and the spiritual authority.[134] Myrvold notes that copies of the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
are not regarded as material objects, but as living subjects which are alive.[135] Sikhs are well aware that the book itself "cannot come alive in a human sense," they treat it as a person, for which funerary services are performed when the copy is old and damaged:

[T]he fire sacrifice defines the moment when the eternal "spirit" of the Guru
Guru
separates from the scriptural body and the Guru's temporal manifestation ceases to live.[135]

In India the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
is even officially recognised by the Supreme Court of India as a judicial person which can receive donations and own land.[135] Yet, some Sikhs
Sikhs
also warn that, without true comprehension of the text, veneration for the text can lead to bibliolatry, with the concrete form of the teachings becoming the object of worship instead of the teachings themselves.[135] Relation to Hinduism
Hinduism
and Islam[edit] The Sikh
Sikh
scriptures use Hindu
Hindu
terminology extensively, with references to the Vedas, and the names of gods and goddesses in Hindu
Hindu
bhakti movement traditions, such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, Parvati, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Rama, Krishna.[130][136][self-published source][137] It also refers to the spiritual concepts in Hinduism
Hinduism
(Ishvara, Bhagavan, Brahman) and the concept of God
God
in Islam
Islam
(Allah) to assert that these are just "alternate names for the Almighty One".[138] While the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
acknowledges and respects the God
God
in the Vedas, Puranas
Puranas
and Quran,[139] it does not imply a syncretic bridge between Hinduism
Hinduism
and Islam,[140] but emphasises focusing on Japu (repeating mantra with the name of God), instead of Muslim
Muslim
practices such as circumcision or praying on a carpet, or Hindu
Hindu
rituals such as wearing thread or praying in a river.[141] Dasam Granth[edit]

The Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
is a Sikh
Sikh
scripture which contains texts attributed to Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh. The major narrative in the text is on Chaubis Avtar (24 Avatars
Avatars
of Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu), Rudra, Brahma, the Hindu warrior goddess Chandi
Chandi
and a story of Rama
Rama
in Bachittar Natak.[142]

Main article: Dasam Granth The Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
is a scripture of Sikhs
Sikhs
which contains texts attributed to the Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh. The Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
is important to a great number of Sikhs, however it does not have the same authority as the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib. Some compositions of the Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
like Jaap Sahib, (Amrit Savaiye), and Benti Chaupai are part of the daily prayers (Nitnem) for Sikhs.[143] The Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
is largely versions of Hindu
Hindu
mythology from the Puranas, secular stories from a variety of sources called Charitro Pakhyan – tales to protect careless men from perils of lust.[144][145] Five versions of Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
exist, and the authenticity of the Dasam Granth is amongst the most debated topics within Sikhism. The text played a significant role in Sikh
Sikh
history, but in modern times parts of the text have seen antipathy and discussion among Sikhs.[142] Janamsakhis[edit] Main article: Janamsākhīs The Janamsākhīs
Janamsākhīs
(literally birth stories), are writings which profess to be biographies of Nanak. Although not scripture in the strictest sense, they provide a hagiographic look at Nanak's life and the early start of Sikhism. There are several—often contradictory and sometimes unreliable— Janamsākhīs
Janamsākhīs
and they are not held in the same regard as other sources of scriptural knowledge. Observances[edit]

The Darbar Sahib of a Gurdwara

Observant Sikhs
Sikhs
adhere to long-standing practices and traditions to strengthen and express their faith. The daily recitation from memory of specific passages from the Gurū Granth Sāhib, especially the Japu (or Japjī, literally chant) hymns is recommended immediately after rising and bathing. Family customs include both reading passages from the scripture and attending the gurdwara (also gurduārā, meaning the doorway to God; sometimes transliterated as gurudwara). There are many gurdwaras prominently constructed and maintained across India, as well as in almost every nation where Sikhs
Sikhs
reside. Gurdwaras are open to all, regardless of religion, background, caste, or race. Worship
Worship
in a gurdwara consists chiefly of singing of passages from the scripture. Sikhs
Sikhs
will commonly enter the gurdwara, touch the ground before the holy scripture with their foreheads. The recitation of the eighteenth century ardās is also customary for attending Sikhs. The ardās recalls past sufferings and glories of the community, invoking divine grace for all humanity.[146] The gurdwara is also the location for the historic Sikh
Sikh
practice of "Langar" or the community meal. All gurdwaras are open to anyone of any faith for a free meal, always vegetarian.[147] People eat together, and the kitchen is maintained and serviced by Sikh
Sikh
community volunteers.[148] Sikh
Sikh
festivals/events[edit] Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das
chose three Hindu
Hindu
festivals for celebration by Sikhs: Vaisakhi, Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivaratri
(Maghi) and Diwali, wherein he asked Sikhs to assemble and share the festivities as a community.[149][150] Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
is one of the most important festivals of Sikhs, while other significant festivals commemorate the birth, lives of the Gurus and Sikh
Sikh
martyrs. Historically, these festivals have been based on the Hindu
Hindu
Bikrami calendar.[151] In 2003, the SGPC, the Sikh
Sikh
organisation in charge of upkeep of the historical gurdwaras of Punjab, adopted Nanakshahi
Nanakshahi
calendar.[151] The new calendar is highly controversial among Sikhs
Sikhs
and is not universally accepted. Sikh
Sikh
festivals include the following:

Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
which includes Parades and Nagar Kirtan
Kirtan
occurs on 13 April. Sikhs
Sikhs
celebrate it because on this day which fell on 30 March 1699, the tenth Guru, Gobind Singh, inaugurated the Khalsa, the 11th body of Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
and leader of Sikhs
Sikhs
till eternity.

Nagar Kirtan
Kirtan
involves the processional singing of holy hymns throughout a community. While practiced at any time, it is customary in the month of Visakhi (or Vaisakhi). Traditionally, the procession is led by the saffron-robed Panj Piare
Panj Piare
(the five beloved of the Guru), who are followed by the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, the holy Sikh
Sikh
scripture, which is placed on a float.

Nagar Kirtan
Kirtan
crowd listening to Kirtan
Kirtan
at Yuba City.

Diwali
Diwali
has been another important Sikh
Sikh
festival in its history.[152] In recent years, instead of Diwali, the post-2003 calendar released by SGPC
SGPC
has named it the Bandi Chhor divas.[153] Sikhs
Sikhs
celebrate Guru Hargobind's release from the Gwalior Fort, with several innocent Hindu kings who were also imprisoned by Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
in 1619. This day continues to be commemorated on the same day of Hindu festival of Diwali, with lights, fireworks and festivities. Hola Mohalla
Hola Mohalla
is a tradition started by Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh. It starts the day after Sikhs
Sikhs
celebrate Holi,[154] sometimes referred to as Hola.[155] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
modified Holi
Holi
with a three-day Hola Mohalla extension festival of martial arts. The extension started the day after the Holi
Holi
festival in Anandpur Sahib, where Sikh
Sikh
soldiers would train in mock battles, compete in horsemanship, athletics, archery and military exercises.[156][157] Gurpurbs are celebrations or commemorations based on the lives of the Sikh
Sikh
gurus. They tend to be either birthdays or celebrations of Sikh martyrdom. All ten Gurus have Gurpurbs on the Nanakshahi
Nanakshahi
calendar, but it is Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
and Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
who have a gurpurb that is widely celebrated in Gurdwaras and Sikh
Sikh
homes. The martyrdoms are also known as a shaheedi Gurpurbs, which mark the martyrdom anniversary of Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
and Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur.

Ceremonies and customs[edit]

Sikh
Sikh
wedding

Sikh
Sikh
funeral procession, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh

The Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs
Sikhs
believe that Sikhism
Sikhism
is against the concept of pilgrimage, and has since early 20th century emphasized that the Sikh scripture teaches against any pilgrimage tradition.[158] However, the Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs
Sikhs
have also supported and helped develop major pilgrimage traditions to sacred sites such as Harmandir Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib, Patna Sahib, Hazur Nanded Sahib, Hemkund Sahib and others.[159] Sikh
Sikh
pilgrims and Sikhs
Sikhs
of other sects customarily consider these as holy and a part of their Tirath.[158] The Hola Mohalla around the festival of Holi, for example, is a ceremonial and customary gathering every year in Anandpur Sahib
Anandpur Sahib
attracting over 100,000 Sikhs.[160][161] Major Sikh
Sikh
temples feature a sarovar where some Sikhs
Sikhs
take a customary dip. Some take home the sacred water of the tank particularly for sick friends and relatives,[162][163] believing that the waters of such sacred sites have restorative powers and the ability to purify one's karma.[164][note 1] Upon a child's birth, the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
is opened at a random point and the child is named using the first letter on the top left hand corner of the left page. All boys are given the last name Singh, and all girls are given the last name Kaur (this was once a title which was conferred on an individual upon joining the Khalsa).[166] The Sikh
Sikh
marriage ritual includes the anand kāraj ceremony.[167][168] The marriage ceremony is performed in front of the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib by Khalsa, or havan fire by other Sikh
Sikh
sects such as Namdhari, around which the couple circle several times and lavan are sung.[169][170] The tradition of circling the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
and Anand Karaj
Anand Karaj
among Khalsa
Khalsa
is relatively new and uncommon before mid 19th-century. Its official recognition and adoption came in 1909, during the Singh
Singh
Sabha Movement.[170] Upon death, the body of a Sikh
Sikh
is usually cremated. If this is not possible, any respectful means of disposing the body may be employed. The kīrtan sōhilā and ardās prayers are performed during the funeral ceremony (known as antim sanskār).[171] Baptism and the Khalsa[edit] Khalsa
Khalsa
(meaning "Sovereign") is the collective name given by Guru Gobind Singh
Gobind Singh
to those Sikhs
Sikhs
who have been initiated by taking part in a ceremony called ammrit sañcār (nectar ceremony).[172] During this ceremony, sweetened water is stirred with a double-edged sword while liturgical prayers are sung; it is offered to the initiating Sikh, who ritually drinks it.[172] Many adherents of Sikhism
Sikhism
do not undergo this ceremony, but still adhere to some components of the faith and identify as Sikhs. The initiated Sikh, considered reborn, is referred to as Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikh, while those who do not get baptised are referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs.[172][173] The first time that this ceremony took place was on Vaisakhi, which fell on 30 March 1699 at Anandpur Sahib
Anandpur Sahib
in Punjab.[172] It was on that occasion that Gobind Singh
Gobind Singh
baptised the Pañj Piārē—the five beloved ones, who in turn baptised Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
himself. To males who initiated, the last name Singh, meaning "lion", was given, while the last name Kaur, meaning "princess", was given to baptised Sikh females.[172] Baptised Sikhs
Sikhs
ritually wear five items, called the Five Ks
Five Ks
(in Punjabi known as pañj kakkē or pañj kakār), at all times. The five items are: kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā (small wooden comb), kaṛā (circular steel or iron bracelet), kirpān (sword/dagger), and kacchera (special undergarment).[172] The Five Ks
The Five Ks
have both practical and symbolic purposes.[174] History[edit] Main article: History of Sikhism Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
(1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism, was born in the village of Rāi Bhōi dī Talwandī, now called Nankana Sahib
Nankana Sahib
(in present-day Pakistan).[175] His parents were Khatri
Khatri
Hindus.[176][177] According to the hagiography Puratan Janamsakhi composed more than two centuries after his death and probably based on oral tradition,[178] Nanak as a boy was fascinated by religion and spiritual matters, spending time with wandering ascetics and holy men.[179] His friend was Mardana, a Muslim. Together they would sing devotional songs all night in front of the public, and bathe in the river in the morning. One day, at the usual bath, Nanak went missing and his family feared he had drowned. Three days later he returned home, and declared: "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim" ("nā kōi hindū nā kōi musalmān"). Thereafter, Nanak started preaching his ideas that form the tenets of Sikhism. In 1526, Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
at age 50, started a small commune in Kartarpur and his disciples came to be known as Sikhs.[179] Although the exact account of his itinerary is disputed, hagiographic accounts state he made five major journeys, spanning thousands of miles, the first tour being east towards Bengal
Bengal
and Assam, the second south towards Andhra and Tamil Nadu, the third north to Kashmir, Ladakh, and Mount Sumeru[180] in Tibet, and the fourth to Baghdad.[181] In his last and final tour, he returned to the banks of the Ravi River
Ravi River
to end his days.[182] There are two competing theories on Guru
Guru
Nanak's teachings.[183] One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis,[184] and states that Nanak's teachings and Sikhism
Sikhism
were a revelation from God, and not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism
Hinduism
and Islam
Islam
in the 15th century.[185] The other states, Nanak was a Guru. According to Singha, " Sikhism
Sikhism
does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood. But it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. He is an illumined soul."[116] The hagiographical Janamsakhis
Janamsakhis
were not written by Nanak, but by later followers without regard for historical accuracy, and contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak.[186] The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism
Sikhism
is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, they include all Sikh
Sikh
Gurus, as well as the words of past, present and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation. The Sikh
Sikh
revelations include the words of non-Sikh bhagats, some who lived and died before the birth of Nanak, and whose teachings are part of the Sikh
Sikh
scriptures.[187] The Adi Granth
Adi Granth
and successive Sikh
Sikh
Gurus repeatedly emphasised, states Mandair, that Sikhism
Sikhism
is "not about hearing voices from God, but it is about changing the nature of the human mind, and anyone can achieve direct experience and spiritual perfection at any time".[183] Scholars state that in its origins, Sikhism
Sikhism
was influenced by the nirguni (formless God) tradition of Bhakti
Bhakti
movement in medieval India.[61] Nanak was raised in a Hindu
Hindu
family and belonged to the Bhakti
Bhakti
Sant tradition.[63] The roots of the Sikh
Sikh
tradition are, states Louis Fenech, perhaps in the Sant-tradition of India whose ideology grew to become the Bhakti
Bhakti
tradition.[62] Furthermore, adds Fenech, "Indic mythology permeates the Sikh
Sikh
sacred canon, the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib and the secondary canon, the Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs
Sikhs
of today and of their past ancestors".[188] Historical influences[edit] The development of Sikhism
Sikhism
was influenced by the Bhakti movement,[61][62][63] however, Sikhism
Sikhism
was not simply an extension of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement.[64][65] Sikhism
Sikhism
developed while the region was being ruled by the Mughal Empire. Two of the Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
Guru
Guru
Arjan and Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur, after they refused to convert to Islam, were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers.[22][189] The Islamic era persecution of Sikhs
Sikhs
triggered the founding of the Khalsa, as an order for freedom of conscience and religion.[22][190][24] A Sikh
Sikh
is expected to embody the qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier.[25][26] Growth of Sikhism[edit]

Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
explaining Sikh
Sikh
teachings to Sadhus

In 1539, Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
chose his disciple Lahiṇā as a successor to the guruship rather than either of his sons. Lahiṇā was named Guru Angad and became the second guru of the Sikhs.[191][192] Nanak conferred his choice at the town of Kartarpur on the banks of the river Ravi. Sri Chand, Guru
Guru
Nanak's son was also a religious man, and continued his own commune of Sikhs. His followers came to be known as the Udasi
Udasi
Sikhs
Sikhs
- the first parallel sect of Sikhism
Sikhism
that formed in Sikh
Sikh
history.[193] The Udasis believe that the Guruship should have gone to Sri Chand, since he was a man of pious habits in addition to being Nanak's son.[193] Guru
Guru
Angad, before joining Guru
Guru
Nanak's commune, worked as a pujari (priest) and religious teacher centered around Hindu
Hindu
goddess Durga.[192][194] On Nanak's advice, Guru Angad
Guru Angad
moved from Kartarpur to Khadur, where his wife Khivi and children were living, until he was able to bridge the divide between his followers and the Udasis. Guru Angad continued the work started by Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
and is widely credited for standardising the Gurmukhī script
Gurmukhī script
as used in the sacred scripture of the Sikhs.[194] Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das
became the third Sikh
Sikh
guru in 1552 at the age of 73. He adhered to the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
for much of his life, before joining the commune of Guru
Guru
Angad.[195][196] Goindval
Goindval
became an important centre for Sikhism
Sikhism
during the guruship of Guru
Guru
Amar Das. He was a reformer, and discouraged veiling of women's faces (a Muslim custom) as well as sati (a Hindu
Hindu
custom).[197][198] He encouraged the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
people to fight in order to protect people and for the sake of justice, stating this is Dharma.[199] Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das
started the tradition of appointing manji (zones of religious administration with an appointed chief called sangatias),[195] introduced the dasvandh ("the tenth" of income) system of revenue collection in the name of Guru
Guru
and as pooled community religious resource,[200] and the famed langar tradition of Sikhism
Sikhism
where anyone, without discrimination of any kind, could get a free meal in a communal seating. The collection of revenue from Sikhs
Sikhs
through regional appointees helped Sikhism grow.[195][201] Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das
named his disciple and son-in-law Jēṭhā as the next Guru, who came to be known as Guru
Guru
Ram Das. The new Guru
Guru
faced hostilities from the sons of Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das
and therefore shifted his official base to lands identified by Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das
as Guru-ka-Chak.[202] He moved his commune of Sikhs
Sikhs
there and the place then was called Ramdaspur, after him. This city grew and later became Amritsar
Amritsar
– the holiest city of Sikhism.[203] Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
expanded the manji organization for clerical appointments in Sikh
Sikh
temples, and for revenue collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh
Sikh
movement.[202] In 1581, Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
— youngest son of Guru
Guru
Ram Das, became the fifth guru of the Sikhs. The choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh
Sikh
Guru
Guru
successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs.[204] The elder son of Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh
Sikh
tradition as vehemently opposing Guru
Guru
Arjan, creating a faction Sikh
Sikh
community which the Sikhs following Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
called as Minas (literally, "scoundrels").[205][206] Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
is remembered in the Sikh
Sikh
for many things. He built the first Harimandir Sahib
Harimandir Sahib
(later to become the Golden Temple). He was a poet and created the first edition of Sikh
Sikh
sacred text known as the Ādi Granth
Ādi Granth
(literally the first book) and included the writings of the first five gurus and other enlightened 13 Hindu
Hindu
and 2 Muslim
Muslim
Sufi saints. In 1606, he was tortured and killed by the Mughal emperor Jahangir,[207] for refusing to convert to Islam.[208][22][209] His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism.[22][210] Political advancement[edit] After the martyrdom of Guru
Guru
Arjan, his son Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
at age eleven became the sixth guru of the Sikhs
Sikhs
and Sikhism
Sikhism
dramatically evolved to become a political movement in addition to being religious.[211] Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
carried two swords, calling one spiritual and the other for temporal purpose (known as mīrī and pīrī in Sikhism).[212][self-published source] According to the Sikh tradition, Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
asked his son Hargobind to start a military tradition to protect the Sikh
Sikh
people and always keep himself surrounded by armed Sikhs. The building of an armed Sikh
Sikh
militia began with Guru
Guru
Hargobind.[211] Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
was soon arrested by the Mughals
Mughals
and kept in jail in Gwalior. It is unclear how many years he served in prison, with different texts stating it to be between 2 and 12 years.[213] He married three women, built a fort to defend Ramdaspur and created a formal court called Akal Takht, now the highest Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikh
Sikh
religious authority.[214] In 1644, Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
named his grandson Har Rai as the guru. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
attempted political means to undermine the Sikh
Sikh
tradition, by dividing and influencing the succession.[215] The Mughal ruler gave land grants to Dhir Mal, a grandson of Guru Hargobind living in Kartarpur, and attempted to encourage Sikhs
Sikhs
to recognise Dhir Mal as the rightful successor to Guru
Guru
Hargobind.[215] Dhir Mal issued statements in favour of the Mughal state, and critical of his grandfather Guru
Guru
Arjan. Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
rejected Dhir Mal, the later refused to give up the original version of the Adi Granth
Adi Granth
he had, and the Sikh
Sikh
community was divided.[215] Guru Har Rai
Guru Har Rai
is famed to have met Dara Shikoh during a time Dara Shikoh and his younger brother Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
were in a bitter succession fight. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
summoned Guru
Guru
Har Rai, who refused to go and sent his elder son Ram Rai instead.[216] The emperor found a verse in the Sikh scripture insulting to Muslims, and Ram Rai agreed it was a mistake then changed it. Ram Rai thus pleased Aurangzeb, but displeased Guru Har Rai who excommunicated his elder son. He nominated his younger son Guru Har Krishan
Guru Har Krishan
to succeed him in 1661. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
responded by granting Ram Rai a jagir (land grant). Ram Rai founded a town there and enjoyed Aurangzeb's patronage, the town came to be known as Dehradun, after Dehra referring to Ram Rai's shrine. Sikhs
Sikhs
who followed Ram Rai came to be known as Ramraiya
Ramraiya
Sikhs.[216][217][218] Guru Har Krishan
Guru Har Krishan
became the eighth Guru
Guru
at the age of five, and died of smallpox before reaching the age of eight. No hymns composed by these three gurus are included in the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib.[219] Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur, the uncle of Guru
Guru
Har Krishan, became Guru
Guru
in 1665. Tegh Bahadur
Tegh Bahadur
resisted the forced conversions of Kashmiri Pandits[220] and non-Muslims[221] to Islam, and was publicly beheaded in 1675 on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in Delhi
Delhi
for refusing to convert to Islam.[222][223] His beheading traumatized the Sikhs. His body was cremated in Delhi, the head was carried secretively by Sikhs and cremated in Anandpur. He was succeeded by his son, Gobind Rai who militarised his followers by creating the Khalsa
Khalsa
in 1699, and baptising the Pañj Piārē.[224] From then on, he was known as Guru Gobind Singh, and Sikh
Sikh
identity was redefined into a political force resisting religious persecution.[225] Sikh
Sikh
confederacy and the rise of the Khalsa[edit] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
inaugurated the Khalsa
Khalsa
(the collective body of all initiated Sikhs) as the Sikh
Sikh
temporal authority in the year 1699. It created a community that combines its spiritual purpose and goals with political and military duties.[226][14][128] Shortly before his death, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
proclaimed the Gurū Granth Sāhib
Gurū Granth Sāhib
(the Sikh
Sikh
Holy Scripture) to be the ultimate spiritual authority for the Sikhs.[227]

Some bodyguard of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Singh
at the Sikh
Sikh
capital, Lahore, Punjab

The Sikh
Sikh
Khalsa's rise to power began in the 17th century during a time of growing militancy against Mughal rule. The creation of a Sikh Empire began when Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
sent a Sikh
Sikh
general, Banda Singh Bahadur, to fight the Mughal rulers of India[228][self-published source] and those who had committed atrocities against Pir Buddhu Shah. Banda Singh
Singh
advanced his army towards the main Muslim
Muslim
Mughal city of Sirhind and, following the instructions of the guru, punished all the culprits. Soon after the invasion of Sirhind, while resting in his chamber after the Rehras
Rehras
prayer Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
was stabbed by a Pathan
Pathan
assassin hired by Mughals. Gobind Singh
Gobind Singh
killed the attacker with his sword. Though a European surgeon stitched the Guru's wound, the wound re-opened as the Guru
Guru
tugged at a hard strong bow after a few days, causing profuse bleeding that led to Gobind Singh's death. After the Guru's death, Baba Banda Singh
Singh
Bahadur became the commander-in-chief of the Khalsa.[229] He organised the civilian rebellion and abolished or halted the Zamindari system in time he was active and gave the farmers proprietorship of their own land.[230] Banda Singh
Singh
was executed by the emperor Farrukh Siyar after refusing the offer of a pardon if he converted to Islam. The confederacy of Sikh
Sikh
warrior bands known as misls emerged, but these fought between themselves. Ranjit Singh
Singh
achieved a series of military victories and created a Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
in 1799. The Sikh
Sikh
empire had its capital in Lahore, spread over almost 200,000 square miles (520,000 square kilometres) comprising what is now northwestern Indian subcontinent. The Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
entered into a treaty with the colonial British powers, with each side recognizing Sutlej River as the line of control and agreeing not to invade the other side.[231] Ranjit Singh's most lasting legacy was the restoration and expansion of the Harmandir Sahib, most revered Gurudwara
Gurudwara
of the Sikhs, with marble and gold, from which the popular name of the "Golden Temple" is derived.[232] After the death of Ranjit Singh
Singh
in 1839, the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
fell into disorder. Ranjit Singh
Singh
had failed to establish a lasting structure for Sikh
Sikh
government or stable succession, and the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
rapidly declined after his death. Factions divided the Sikhs, and led to Anglo Sikh
Sikh
wars. The British easily defeated the confused and demoralised Khalsa
Khalsa
forces, then disbanded them into destitution.[233] The youngest son of Ranjit Singh named Duleep Singh
Singh
ultimately succeeded, but he was arrested and exiled after the defeat of Sikh
Sikh
Khalsa.[234] Singh
Singh
Sabha movement[edit] The last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
Duleep Singh
Singh
converted to Christianity
Christianity
in 1853, a controversial but influential event in Sikh history. Along with his conversion, and after Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
had been dissolved and the region made a part of the colonial British Empire, proselytising activities of Christians, Brahmo Samajis, Arya Samaj, Muslim
Muslim
Anjuman-i-Islamia and Ahmadiyah sought to convert the Sikhs
Sikhs
in northwestern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
into their respective faiths.[235][236] These developments launched the Singh
Singh
Sabha Movement.[235][236] Sikhs
Sikhs
sought to revive Sikhism
Sikhism
in late 19th century. Its first meeting was in the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Amritsar
in 1873, and it was largely launched by the Sanatan Sikhs, Gianis, priests, and granthis.[237] Shortly thereafter, Nihang
Nihang
Sikhs
Sikhs
began influencing the movement, followed by a sustained campaign by Tat Khalsa. The movement became a struggle between Sanatan Sikhs
Sikhs
and Tat Khalsa
Khalsa
in defining and interpreting Sikhism.[238][239][240] Sanatan Sikhs
Sikhs
led by Khem Singh
Singh
Bedi – who claimed to be a direct descendant of Guru
Guru
Nanak, Avtar Singh
Singh
Vahiria and others supported a more inclusive approach which considered Sikhism
Sikhism
as a reformed tradition of Hinduism, while Tat Khalsa
Khalsa
campaigned for an exclusive approach to the Sikh
Sikh
identity, disagreeing with Sanatan Sikhs
Sikhs
and seeking to modernize Sikhism.[240][241][242] The Sikh
Sikh
Sabha movement expanded in north and northwest Indian subcontinent, leading to about a 100 Singh
Singh
Sabhas.[240][238] By the early decades of the 20th century, the influence of Tat Khalsa
Khalsa
increased in interpreting the nature of Sikhism
Sikhism
and their control over the Sikh Gurdwaras.[240][238][241] Tat Khalsa
Khalsa
introduced new practices such as the wedding ceremony in 1909 that centered around the Sikh
Sikh
Scripture replacing the earlier yagna fire,[243][244] after removing the historic idols and the images of Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
from the Golden Temple
Golden Temple
in 1905. They undertook a sustained campaign to redefine how Sikh Gurdwaras looked and ran, as well as reinterpreted the Sikh
Sikh
scriptures to purify the Sikh
Sikh
identity.[245] According to Oberoi, the Singh
Singh
Sabha movement had a lasting impact on Sikhism
Sikhism
by "eradicating all forms of religious diversity within Sikhism" and "establishing uniform norms of religious orthodoxy and orthopraxy".[241][246] Partition[edit] Sikhs
Sikhs
participated and contributed to the decades-long Indian independence movement from the colonial rule in the first half of the 20th century. Ultimately when the British Empire recognized independent India, the land was partitioned into Hindu
Hindu
majority India and Muslim
Muslim
majority Pakistan
Pakistan
(East and West) in 1947. This event, states Banga, was a watershed event in Sikh
Sikh
history.[247][248] The Sikhs
Sikhs
had historically lived in northwestern region of Indian subcontinent on both sides of the partition line ("Radcliffe line"). According to Banga and other scholars, the Sikhs
Sikhs
had strongly opposed the Muslim
Muslim
League demands and saw it as "perpetuation of Muslim domination" and anti- Sikh
Sikh
policies in what just a 100 years before was a part of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire. During the discussions with the colonial authorities, Tara Singh
Singh
emerged as an important leader who campaigned to prevent the partition and for the recognition of Sikhs
Sikhs
as the third community.[247] In 1940, a few Sikhs
Sikhs
such as the victims of Komagata Maru in Canada
Canada
proposed the idea of Khalistan
Khalistan
as a buffer state between Pakistan
Pakistan
and India.[249] These leaders, however, were largely ignored.[247][248] Many other Sikh
Sikh
leaders supported the partition along religious and demographic lines.[250] When partition was announced, the newly created line divided the Sikh population into two halves. The Sikhs
Sikhs
suffered organized violence and riots against them in West Pakistan, and Sikhs
Sikhs
moved en masse to the Indian side leaving behind their property and the sacred places of Sikhism. This reprisals on Sikhs
Sikhs
were not one sided, because as Sikhs entered the Indian side, the Muslims in East Punjab experienced reprisals and they moved to West Pakistan.[247][250] Before the partition, Sikhs
Sikhs
constituted about 15% of the population in West Punjab that became a part of Pakistan, the majority being Muslims (55%). The Sikhs
Sikhs
were the economic elite and wealthiest in West Punjab, with them having the largest representation in West Punjab's aristocracy, nearly 700 Gurdwaras and 400 educational institutions that served the interests of the Sikhs.[249] Prior to the partition, there were a series of disputes between the majority Muslims and minority Sikhs, such as on the matters of jhatka versus halal meat, the disputed ownership of Gurdwara
Gurdwara
Sahidganj in Lahore
Lahore
which Muslims sought as a mosque and Sikhs
Sikhs
as a Gurdwara, and the insistence of the provincial Muslim
Muslim
government in switching from Indian Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script to Arabic-Persian Nastaliq
Nastaliq
script in schools.[247] During and after the Simla Conference in June 1945, headed by Lord Wavell, the Sikh leaders initially expressed their desire to be recognized as the third party, but ultimately relegated their demands and sought a United India where Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims would live together, under a Swiss style constitution. The Muslim
Muslim
League rejected this approach, demanding that entire Punjab should be granted to Pakistan.[251] The Sikh
Sikh
leaders then sought the partition instead, and Congress Working Committee passed a resolution in support of partitioning Punjab and Bengal.[251] Between March and August 1947, a series of riots, arson, plunder of Sikh
Sikh
property, assassination of Sikh
Sikh
leaders, and killings in Jhelum districts, Rawalpindi, Attock and other places made Tara Singh
Singh
call the situation in Punjab as "civil war", while Lord Mountbatten stated "civil war preparations were going on". The riots had triggered the early waves of migration in April, with some 20,000 people leaving northwest Punjab and moving to Patiala.[252][248] In Rawalpindi, 40,000 people became homeless. The Sikh
Sikh
leaders made desperate petitions, but all religious communities were suffering in the political turmoil. Sikhs, states Banga, were "only 4 million out of a total of 28 million in Punjab, and 6 million out of nearly 400 million in India; they did not constitute the majority, not even in a single district".[252][253]

Sikh Light Infantry
Sikh Light Infantry
personnel march past during the Republic day parade in New Delhi, India

When the partition line was formally announced in August 1947, the violence was unprecedented, with Sikhs
Sikhs
being one of the most affected religious community both in terms of deaths, as well as property loss, injury, trauma and disruption.[254][250] Sikhs
Sikhs
and Muslims were both victims and perpetrators of retaliatory violence against each other. Estimates range between 200,000 and 2 million deaths of Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims.[254][250] There were numerous rapes of and mass suicides by Sikh
Sikh
women, they being taken captives, their rescues and above all a mass exodus of Sikhs
Sikhs
from newly created Pakistan
Pakistan
into newly created India. The partition created the "largest foot convoy of refugees recorded in [human] history, stretching over 100 kilometer long", states Banga, with nearly 300,000 people consisting of mostly "distraught, suffering, injured and angry Sikhs". Sikh
Sikh
and Hindu refugees from Pakistan
Pakistan
flooded into India, Muslim
Muslim
refugees from India flooded into Pakistan, each into their new homeland.[254][253] Khalistan[edit] The early 1980s witnessed some Sikh
Sikh
groups seeking an independent nation named Khalistan
Khalistan
carved out from India and Pakistan. The Golden Temple and Akal Takht
Akal Takht
were occupied by various militant groups in early 1980s. These included the Dharam Yudh Morcha
Dharam Yudh Morcha
led by Jarnail Singh
Singh
Bhindranwale, the Babbar Khalsa, the AISSF and the National Council of Khalistan.[255] Between 1982 and 1983, there were Khalistan demand-related terrorist attacks against civilians in parts of India.[256] By late 1983, the Bhindranwale led group had begun to build bunkers and observations posts in and around the Golden Temple, with militants involved in weapons training.[255] In June 1984, the then Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
ordered Indian Army to begin Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star
against the militants.[255] The operation caused severe damage and destroyed Akal Takht. Numerous soldiers, civilians and militants died in the cross fire. Within days of the Operation Bluestar, some 2,000 Sikh
Sikh
soldiers in India mutinied and attempted to reach Amritsar
Amritsar
to liberate the Golden Temple.[255] Within six months, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi's Sikh
Sikh
bodyguards assassinated her. The assassination triggered the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.[256] According to Donald Horowitz, while anti- Sikh
Sikh
riots led to much damage and deaths, many serious provocations by militants also failed to trigger ethnic violence in many cases throughout the 1980s. The Sikhs
Sikhs
and their neighbors, for most part, ignored attempts to provoke riots and communal strife.[256] Sikh
Sikh
people[edit] Main article: Sikh

States/UT with over 1% Sikhs
Sikhs
in India[257]

State/UT % Sikh % Hindu % Muslim % Others

Punjab 57.7% 38.5% 1.9% Rest

Chandigarh 13.1% 80.8% 4.9% Rest

Haryana 4.9% 87.6% 7.0% Rest

Delhi 3.4% 81.7% 12.9% Rest

Uttarakhand 2.3% 83.0% 14.0% Rest

Jammu and Kashmir 1.9% 28.4% 68.3% Rest

Rajasthan 1.3% 88.5% 9.1% Rest

Himachal Pradesh 1.2% 95.2% 2.2% Rest

Estimates state that Sikhism
Sikhism
has some 25 million followers worldwide.[63] According to Pew Research, a religion demographics and research group in Washington DC, "more than nine-in-ten Sikhs
Sikhs
are in India, but there are also sizable Sikh
Sikh
communities in the United Kingdom, the United States
United States
and Canada."[258] Within India, the Sikh population is founded in every state and union territory, but it is predominantly found the northwestern and northern states. Only in the state of Punjab, Sikhs
Sikhs
constitute a majority (58% of the total, per 2011 census).[257] The states and union territories of India where Sikhs
Sikhs
constitute more than 1.5% of its population are Punjab, Chandigarh, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand and Jammu & Kashmir.[257] Sikhism
Sikhism
was founded in northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan. Some of the Gurus were born near Lahore
Lahore
and in other parts of Pakistan. Prior to 1947, in British India, millions of Sikhs
Sikhs
lived in what later became Pakistan. During the partition, Sikhs
Sikhs
and Hindus left the newly created Muslim-majority Pakistan
Pakistan
and moved to Hindu-majority India, while Muslims in the newly created India left and moved to Pakistan.[259][260] According to 2017 news reports, only about 20,000 Sikhs
Sikhs
remain in Pakistan
Pakistan
and their population is dwindling (0.01% of its estimated 200 million population). The Sikhs
Sikhs
in Pakistan, like others in the region, have been "rocked by an Islamist insurgency for more than a decade".[261][262] Sikh
Sikh
sects[edit] Main article: Sects of Sikhism Sikh
Sikh
sects are sub-traditions within Sikhism
Sikhism
that believe in an alternate lineage of Gurus, or have a different interpretation of the Sikh
Sikh
scriptures, or believe in following a living guru, or other concepts that differ from the orthodox Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs.[263][264] The major historic sects of Sikhism, states Harjot Oberoi, have included Udasi, Nirmala, Nanakpanthi, Khalsa, Sahajdhari, Namdhari Kuka, Nirankari and Sarvaria.[265]

Namdhari Sikhs, also called the Kuka Sikhs
Sikhs
are a sect of Sikhism
Sikhism
known for their crisp white dress and horizontal pagari (turban).[266][267] Above: Namdhari singer and musicians.

The early Sikh
Sikh
sects were Udasis and Minas founded by Sri Chand
Sri Chand
– the elder son of Guru
Guru
Nanak, and Prithi Chand – the elder son of Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
respectively, in parallel to the official succession of the Sikh
Sikh
Gurus. Later on Ramraiya
Ramraiya
sect grew in Dehradun
Dehradun
with the patronage of Aurangzeb.[268] Many splintered Sikh
Sikh
communities formed during the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
era. Some of these sects were financially and administratively supported by the Mughal rulers in the hopes of gaining a more favorable and compliant citizenry.[264][268] After the collapse of Mughal Empire, and particularly during the rule of Ranjit Singh, Udasi
Udasi
Sikhs
Sikhs
protected Sikh
Sikh
Shrines, preserved the Sikh
Sikh
scripture and rebuilt those that were desecrated or destroyed during the Muslim- Sikh
Sikh
wars. However, Udasi
Udasi
Sikhs
Sikhs
kepts idols and images inside these Sikh
Sikh
temples.[193][269] In the 19th century, Sanatan Sikhs, Namdharis and Nirankaris sects were formed in Sikhism, seeking to reform and return to what each believed was the pure form of Sikhism.[240][238][270] All these sects differ from Khalsa
Khalsa
orthodox Sikhs
Sikhs
in their beliefs and practices, such as continuing to solemnize their weddings around fire and being strictly vegetarian.[266][267] Many accept the concept of living Gurus such as Guru
Guru
Baba Dyal Singh. The Nirankari sect though unorthodox was influential in shaping the views of Tat Khalsa
Khalsa
and the contemporary era Sikh beliefs
Sikh beliefs
and practices.[271][272] Another significant Sikh
Sikh
sect of the 19th century was the Radhasoami movement in Punjab led by Baba Shiv Dyal.[273] Other contemporary era Sikhs sects include the 3HO
3HO
Sikhism, also referred to as Sikh
Sikh
Dharma Brotherhood formed in 1971, which grew rapidly outside India, particularly in North America and Europe.[273][274][275] The Sikh Dharma
Dharma
movement is now found in many countries.[276] Sikh
Sikh
castes[edit]

Nagar Kirtan
Kirtan
in Bangalore

According to Surinder Jodhka, the state of Punjab with a Sikh
Sikh
majority has the "largest proportion of scheduled caste population in India". The practice of caste system, states Jodhka, is decried by Sikhism, but like Hindus, Christians and Muslims, Sikhs
Sikhs
have practiced a caste system. The system, along with untouchability, has been more common in rural parts of Punjab. The landowning dominant Sikh
Sikh
castes, states Jodhka, "have not shed all their prejudices against the lower castes or dalits; while dalits would be allowed entry into the village gurdwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve langar." The Sikh
Sikh
dalits of Punjab have tried to build their own gurdwara, other local level institutions and sought better material circumstances and dignity. According to Jodhka, due to economic mobility in contemporary Punjab, castes no longer mean an inherited occupation nor are work relations tied to a single location.[277] In 1953, the government of India acceded to the demands of the Sikh
Sikh
leader, Master Tara Singh, to include Sikh
Sikh
dalit castes in the list of scheduled castes.[278] In the Shiromani Gurdwara
Gurdwara
Prabandhak Committee, 20 of the 140 seats are reserved for low-caste Sikhs.[278] Over 60% of Sikhs
Sikhs
belong to the Jat caste, which is an agrarian caste. Despite being very small in numbers, the mercantile Khatri
Khatri
and Arora castes wield considerable influence within the Sikh
Sikh
community. Other common Sikh
Sikh
castes include Sainis, Rajputs, Ramgarhias (artisans), Ahluwalias (formerly brewers), Kambojs (rural caste), Labanas, Kumhars and the two Dalit
Dalit
castes, known in Sikh
Sikh
terminology as the Mazhabis (the Chuhras) and the Ramdasias (the Chamars).[279] Sikh
Sikh
diaspora[edit] Further information: Sikhism
Sikhism
in India, Sikh
Sikh
diaspora, and Sikhism
Sikhism
by country

Sikhs
Sikhs
celebrating Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Sikhism
Sikhism
is the ninth-largest amongst the major world religions, and one of the youngest.[280][281][282] Worldwide, there are 25.8 million Sikhs, which makes up 0.39% of the world's population. Approximately 75% of Sikhs
Sikhs
live in the Punjab, where they constitute about 60% of the state's population. Large communities of Sikhs
Sikhs
live in the neighboring states such as Indian State of Haryana which is home to the second largest Sikh
Sikh
population in India with 1.1 million Sikhs
Sikhs
as per 2001 census, and large communities of Sikhs
Sikhs
can be found across India. However, Sikhs
Sikhs
only comprise about 2% of the Indian population.[283] Sikh
Sikh
migration to Canada
Canada
began in the 19th century and led to the creation of significant Sikh
Sikh
communities, predominantly in South Vancouver, British Columbia, Surrey, British Columbia, and Brampton, Ontario. Today temples, newspapers, radio stations, and markets cater to these large, multi-generational Indo-Canadian groups. Sikh festivals such as Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
and Bandi Chhor are celebrated in those Canadian cities by the largest groups of followers in the world outside the Punjab. Sikhs
Sikhs
also migrated to East Africa, West Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as well as United States
United States
and Australia. These communities developed as Sikhs
Sikhs
migrated out of Punjab to fill in gaps in imperial labour markets.[284] In the early twentieth century a significant community began to take shape on the west coast of the United States. Smaller populations of Sikhs
Sikhs
are found within many countries in Western Europe, Mauritius, Malaysia, Philippines, Fiji, Nepal, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Singapore, the United States, and many other countries. Prohibitions in Sikhism[edit] Further information: Prohibitions in Sikhism
Sikhism
and Diet in Sikhism Some prohibitions include:

Cutting hair: Cutting hair is forbidden in Sikhism
Sikhism
for those who have taken the Amrit initiation ceremony. These Amritdhari or Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs are required to keep unshorn hair. Intoxication: Consumption of alcohol, non-medicinal drugs, tobacco, and other intoxicants is forbidden in Sikhism
Sikhism
according to the "Sikh Rahit Maryada".[285][286] A Khalsa
Khalsa
Amritdhari Sikh
Sikh
who consumes any intoxicant is considered patit lapsed, and may be readmitted into Khalsa
Khalsa
only if re-baptised. In contrast, Nihangs of Sikh
Sikh
tradition who protect Sikh
Sikh
shrines wearing visible and ready weaponry along with their notable blue turbans, practice meditation with the aid of cannabis.[285] Sehajdari Sikhs, in practice however, socially consume some alcohol; the prohibition on smoking is practiced almost universally by all Sikhs
Sikhs
[285]. Priestly class: Sikhism
Sikhism
does not have priests, but does have liturgical service which employs people for a salary to sing hymns (Kirtan), officiate an Ardās
Ardās
Puja or marriage, and perform services at a Gurdwara.[287] Any Sikh
Sikh
can become a Granthi
Granthi
to look after the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, and any Sikh
Sikh
is free to read from the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib.[287] Eating meat : Sikhs
Sikhs
do not eat meat from animals slaughtered by halal method, known as Kutha meat, where the animal is tortured and killed in a slow way.[288] According to Eleanor Nesbitt [289], on the general issue of vegetarianism versus non-vegetarianism, there is no definitive instruction in the Sikh
Sikh
code. In an Adi Granth
Adi Granth
verse, Guru Nanak responds to Hindu
Hindu
Brahmins who teach that it is polluting to eat meat by saying that that as human beings, we are part of the chain of life, and even plants are living organisms. In other verses, Guru Nanak says that "Fools wrangle about eating meat", and calls out the Pandits by saying that "The eating of meat is considered sinful, but gratifying of greed is held good", in essence teaching that quelling the cruelty of the human mind is supreme rather than mere abstaining from eating meat.[290] Amritdhari Sikhs, or those baptised with the Amrit, have typically been vegetarians, abstaining from all meat and eggs.[289][291] Sikhs
Sikhs
who eat meat seek the Jhatka method of producing meat, believing it to cause less suffering to the animal. The uninitiated Sikhs
Sikhs
too are not habitual meat-eaters by choice [289][292][293] Typically meat is not served in community free meals such as langar.[294] Adultery is forbidden.[295][296]

See also[edit]

Book: Sikhism

Sikhism
Sikhism
portal

Nankana Sahib Sikh Panj Pyare Sach Khand Five Virtues Five Thieves Women in the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib Bebe Nanaki Mai Bhago Maharaja Ranjit Singh Hari Singh
Singh
Nalwa Indian religions Interfaith dialog Turban training centre Banjara Sikhs Sects of Sikhism

Notes[edit]

^ The Sikh
Sikh
scripture contains verses which have been literally interpreted as relevant to pilgrimage and taking dips in waters for salvific value; some criticize it (AG 358, 75) others support it (AG 623-624).[162] The various Gurus of Sikhism
Sikhism
have had different approach to pilgrimage.[165]

References[edit]

^ Singh, Khushwant (2006). The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. India: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8.  ^ (in Punjabi) Nabha, Kahan. Sahib Singh
Singh
(1930). Gur Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh (in Punjabi). p. 720. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005. Retrieved 29 May 2006.  ^ Sikhism
Sikhism
(indigenously known as Sikhī) originated from the word Sikh, which comes from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
root śiṣya meaning "disciple", or śikṣa meaning "instruction".[1][2] ^ a b W.Owen Cole; Piara Singh
Singh
Sambhi (1993). Sikhism
Sikhism
and Christianity: A Comparative Study (Themes in Comparative Religion). Wallingford, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117. ISBN 0333541073.  ^ Luis Moreno; César Colino (2010). Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries. McGill Queen University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-7735-9087-8. , Quote: "Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and Sikhism
Sikhism
originated on the Indian subcontinent". ^ Sewa Singh
Singh
Kalsi. Sikhism. Chelsea House, Philadelphia. pp. 41–50.  ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh
Singh
Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 200.  ^ Teece, Geoff (2004). Sikhism: Religion
Religion
in focus. Black Rabbit Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0.  ^ Gurinder Singh
Singh
Mannref. "4". Religions in the Modern World (3rd ed.). pp. 113, 137.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Sikhism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 August 2017.  ^ Singh, Patwant; (2000). The Sikhs. Alfred A Knopf Publishing. Pages 17. ISBN 0-375-40728-6. ^ a b Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014), Historical Dictionary of Sikhism, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1442236004, pages 17, 84-85 ^ a b William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press, ISBN 978-0773538894, pages 241–242 ^ a b c d Mann, Gurinder Singh
Singh
(2001). The Making of Sikh
Sikh
Scripture. United States: Oxford University Press. pp. 21–25, 123–124. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9.  ^ Singh
Singh
Kalsi, Sewa (2008). Sikhism. London: Kuperard. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4. Sikhism
Sikhism
rejects the view that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly regarding Absolute Truth. Sikhism
Sikhism
rejects the practice of converting people to other religious traditions.  ^ Gregory M. Reichberg; Henrik Syse (2014). Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 672–674. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0.  ^ a b Pashaura Singh
Singh
(2003). The Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-19-908773-0.  ^ a b H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism
Sikhism
(over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt. pp. 20–21, 103. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.  ^ Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth; Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh
Singh
(2012). Socially Involved Renunciate, The: Guru
Guru
Nanak's Discourse to the Nath Yogis. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7950-6. , page=106 ^ Marwaha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth: Religion, Self and Emotions : Perspectives of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Contemporary Psychology. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-268-0. , pages 205–6 ^ Marty, Martin E. (1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9. , page 278 ^ a b c d e f Pashaura Singh
Singh
(2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru
Guru
Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pages 29–62 ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. ; Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
in Early Sikh
Sikh
Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. ; Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. ; McLeod, Hew (1999). " Sikhs
Sikhs
and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379.  ^ a b Singh
Singh
Gandhi, Surjit (1 Feb 2008). History of Sikh
Sikh
Gurus Retold: 1606 -1708. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. pp. 676–677. ISBN 8126908572.  ^ a b c Chanchreek, Jain (2007). Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Shree Publishers & Distributors. p. 142. ISBN 9788183291910.  ^ a b c Dugga, Kartar (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 33. ISBN 9788170174103.  ^ Bahri, Hardev. "GURMUKHI". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 9 April 2016.  ^ Christopher Shackle; Arvind Mandair (2013). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh
Sikh
Scriptures. Routledge. pp. xxi–xxiii. ISBN 978-1-136-45101-0.  ^ Arvind-Pal Singh
Singh
Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 3, 12–13. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.  ^ Chahal, Devinder (July–December 2006). "Understanding Sikhism
Sikhism
in the Science Age" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism, The Research Journal (2): 3. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ Rehat Maryada Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rose, Tudor; UNESCO (2015). Agree to Differ. UNESCO Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 9789231000904.  ^ Sikhism
Sikhism
at a glance: Sikhism, BBC ^ Nirbhai Singh
Singh
(1990). Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1–3.  ^ Opinderjit Kaur Takhar (2016). Sikh
Sikh
Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-351-90010-2.  ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.  ^ Pashaura Singh
Singh
(2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
Sikh
Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 227 ^ Doniger, Wendy (1999). Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.  ^ Torkel Brekke (2014). Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse, ed. Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0. ; Quote: "As an Indian religion, Sikhism
Sikhism
affirms transmigration, the continued rebirth after death..." ^ Sikhism, Encylopaedia Britannica; Quote: "Sikhism, Indian religion founded in the Punjab in the late 15th century."; See also Classification of Religions, Encyclopaedia Britannica ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.  ^ Mayled, John (2002). Sikhism. Heinemann. p. 16. ISBN 0-435-33627-4.  ^ Dev, Nanak. Gurū Granth Sāhib. p. 15. Retrieved 15 June 2006. You are the One True Lord and Master of all the other beings, of so many worlds.  ^ Singh, Nirmal (2008). Searches In Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 68. ISBN 9788170103677.  ^ Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.  ^ a b Pruthi, Raj (2004). Sikhism
Sikhism
and Indian Civilization. Discovery Publishing House. p. 204. ISBN 9788171418794.  ^ a b c McLean, George (2008). Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian: 12. 1565182480: Council for Research in Values &. p. 599.  ^ Note: some disagree with this viewpoint, and state that guru in Sikhism
Sikhism
is "not a teacher or a guide", but "God's own manifestation"; see: Bhagat
Bhagat
Singh
Singh
& G.P. Singh, Japji, 2002, Hemkunt Press, page 9; Quote: "(...) In Sikh
Sikh
religion the word 'Guru' does not denote a teacher, or an expert or a guide in human body. When God
God
manifested his attributes in person, that person was called ' Guru
Guru
Nanak'" ^ a b c d Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. pp. 254–256. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.  ^ a b Singh, R.K. Janmeja (Meji) (August 2013). "Gurbani's Guidance and the Sikh's 'Destination'" (PDF). The Sikh
Sikh
Review. 8. 61 (716): 27–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.  ^ Dhillon, Bikram Singh
Singh
(January–June 1999). "Who is a Sikh? Definitions of Sikhism" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism
Sikhism
– The Research Journal. 1 (1): 33–36, 27. Retrieved 29 November 2013.  ^ Dhillon, Sukhraj Singh
Singh
(May 2004). "Universality of the Sikh Philosophy: An Analysis" (PDF). The Sikh
Sikh
Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-04. Retrieved 29 November 2013.  ^ Takhar, Opinderjit (2005). Sikh
Sikh
Identity: An Exploration Of Groups Among Sikhs. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 143. ISBN 9780754652021.  ^ a b Grewal, JS (1998). The Sikhs
Sikhs
of the Punjab. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 25–36. ISBN 0521637643.  ^ a b c d Chahal, Amarjit Singh
Singh
(December 2011). "Concept of Reincarnation
Reincarnation
in Guru
Guru
Nanak's Philosophy" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism – The Research Journal. 13 (1–2): 52–59. Retrieved 29 November 2013.  ^ a b Singh, Wazir (2004). Mann, J. S.; Sodhi, S. S., eds. Concepts in Sikhism. p. 238-240.  ^ Wilkinson, Philip (2008). Religions. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 209, 214–215. ISBN 978-0-7566-3348-6.  ^ House, H. Wayne (April 1991). "Resurrection, Reincarnation, and Humanness" (PDF). Bibliotheca Sacra. 148 (590). Retrieved 29 November 2013.  ^ Singh, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 80. ISBN 9788170103011.  ^ Kapoor, Sukhbir (2005). Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
– An Advance Study Volume-I. Hemkunt Press. p. 188. ISBN 9788170103172.  ^ a b c David Lorenzen (1995), Bhakti
Bhakti
Religion
Religion
in North India: Community Identity and Political Action, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791420256, pages 1–2, Quote: "Historically, Sikh
Sikh
religion derives from this nirguni current of bhakti religion" ^ a b c Louis Fenech (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
Sikh
Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 35, Quote: "Technically this would place the Sikh
Sikh
community's origins at a much further remove than 1469, perhaps to the dawning of the Sant movement, which possesses clear affinities to Guru
Guru
Nanak's thought sometime in the tenth century. The predominant ideology of the Sant parampara in turn corresponds in many respects to the much wider devotional Bhakti
Bhakti
tradition in northern India." ^ a b c d Sikhism, Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(2014), Quote: "In its earliest stage Sikhism
Sikhism
was clearly a movement within the Hindu tradition; Nanak was raised a Hindu
Hindu
and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India," ^ a b c d Sikh
Sikh
Studies, Book
Book
7. New Delhi, India: Hemkunt Press. 2009. p. 8. ISBN 8170102456.  ^ a b Pruthi, R K (2004). Sikhism
Sikhism
and Indian Civilization. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House. pp. 202–203. ISBN 9788171418794.  ^ HL Richard (2007), Religious Movements in Hindu
Hindu
Social Contexts: A Study of Paradigms for Contextual "Church" Development International Journal of Frontier Missiology, Vol. 24, Issue 3, page 144 ^ a b Jon Mayled (2002). Sikhism. Heinemann. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-435-33627-1.  ^ Surinder S. Kohli (1993). The Sikh
Sikh
and Sikhism. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 74–76. ISBN 81-7156-336-8.  ^ Singh, Nirmal (2008). Searches In Sikhism
Sikhism
(First ed.). New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-81-7010-367-7.  ^ Sant Singh
Singh
Khalsa
Khalsa
(Translator) (2006). Sri Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib. srigranth.org. pp. 305–306 (see verses 305–16 to 306–2).  ^ Jagbir Jhutti-Johal (2011). Sikhism
Sikhism
Today. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-4411-8140-4.  ^ W. Owen Cole and Piara Singh
Singh
Sambhi (1997), A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh
Sikh
Religion
Religion
and Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700710485, page 22 ^ a b David Lorenzen (1995), Bhakti
Bhakti
Religion
Religion
in North India: Community Identity and Political Action, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791420256, pages 1–3 ^ Hardip Syan (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
Sikh
Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 178 ^ A Mandair (2011), Time and religion-making in modern Sikhism, in Time, History and the Religious Imaginary in South Asia (Editor: Anne Murphy), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415595971, page 188-190 ^ Mahinder Gulati (2008), Comparative Religious And Philosophies : Anthropomorphism And Divinity, Atlantic, ISBN 978-8126909025, page 305 ^ Constance Elsberg (2003), Graceful Women, University of Tennessee Press, ISBN 978-1-57233-214-0, pages 27–28 ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh
Singh
Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 3, 42–43. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.  ^ Karen Pechilis; Selva J. Raj (2012). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-136-16323-4.  ^ Pashaura Singh; Michael Hawley (2012). Re-imagining South Asian Religions. BRILL Academic. pp. 42–43. ISBN 90-04-24236-8.  ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh
Singh
Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.  ^ Nayar, Kamal Elizabeth & Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh
Singh
(2007). The Socially Involved Renunciate – Guru
Guru
Nanaks Discourse to Nath Yogi's. United States
United States
of America: State University of New York Press. p. 106.  ^ Kaur Singh; Nikky Guninder (30 Jan 2004). Hindu
Hindu
spirituality: Postclassical and modern (Editors: K. R. Sundararajan, Bithika Mukerji). English: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 530. ISBN 8120819373.  ^ Marwha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth, Religion
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Gurus Retold: 1606 -1708. English: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 435, 676–677. ISBN 8126908572.  ^ a b Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh
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Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, pages 155–156 ^ a b J Deol (2000), Sikh
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Amar Das's rapturous hymn Anand (bliss)." ^ Rosemary Skinner Keller; Rosemary Radford Ruether; Marie Cantlon (2006). Encyclopedia of Women and Religion
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Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, pages 9–12 ^ W. Owen Cole; Piara Singh
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Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 36, Quote: "Few Sikhs
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Gurus Retold: 1606 -1708, Atlantic Publishers, ISBN 978-8126908585, pages 689–690 ^ Johar, Surinder (1999). Guru
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Gobind Singh: A Multi-faceted Personality. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 89. ISBN 9788175330931.  ^ Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh
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& Sir Daljit Singh. The Great Humanist Guru Nanak.  ^ [a] Nesbitt, Eleanor (1997). "Splashed with goodness: The many meanings of Amrit for young British Sikhs". Journal of Contemporary Religion. 12 (1): 27. doi:10.1080/13537909708580787.  [b] Nesbitt, Eleanor (2000). Coakley, Sarah, ed. Religion
Religion
and the Body. p. 299. But for many Sikhs
Sikhs
it is as unthinkable as it would be for many Hindus that a holy person as the Guru
Guru
could have eaten flesh. Although Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
is said to have prohibited only halal meat (animals slaughtered in accordance with Muslim requirement), amritdhari (initiated) Sikhs
Sikhs
commonly feel committed to a diet free of eggs, fish, and meat of any kind. Contemporary movements within the panth, no less than earlier ones, are characterised by their ruling on non-vegetarian food.  ^ Siambhi, Piara Singh
Singh
(2004). Mann, J. S.; Sodhi, S. S., eds. Concepts in Sikhism. p. 234. Not many Sikhs
Sikhs
are habitually meat-eaters. Their staple diet mainly consists of cereals, pulses, vegetables and milk products.  ^ Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, pages 1103, 1350, 1374, etc ^ "Sikhism, A Complete Introduction" by Dr. H.S. Singha & Satwant Kaur Hemkunt, Hemkunt Press, New Delhi, 1994, ISBN 81-7010-245-6 ^ Doris R. Jakobsh. Relocating Gender In Sikh
Sikh
History: Transformation, Meaning and Identity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 39–40 ^ Mahajan PT, Pimple P, Palsetia D, Dave N, De Sousa A (January 2013). "Indian religious concepts on sexuality and marriage". Indian J Psychiatry. 55 (Suppl 2): S256–62. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105547. PMC 3705692 . PMID 23858264. 

Further reading[edit]

Duggal, Kartar Singh
Singh
(1988), Philosophy and Faith
Faith
of Sikhism, Himalayan Institute Press, ISBN 978-0-89389-109-1  Kaur, Surjit, Amongst the Sikhs: Reaching for the Stars, New Delhi, Roli Books, 2003 ISBN 81-7436-267-3 Banga, Indu (2017), Knut A Jacobsen; et al., eds., Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-90-04-29745-6 CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Khalsa, Guru
Guru
Fatha Singh, Five Paragons of Peace: Magic and Magnificence in the Guru's Way, Toronto, Monkey Minds Press, 2010, ISBN 0-9682658-2-0, gurufathasingh.com Khalsa, Shanti Kaur, The History of Sikh
Sikh
Dharma
Dharma
of the Western Hemisphere, Sikh
Sikh
Dharma, Espanola, NM, 1995 ISBN 0-9639847-4-8 Singh, Khushwant (2006), The Illustrated History of the Sikhs, Oxford University Press, India, ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8  Singh, Patwant (1999), The Sikhs, Random House, India, ISBN 978-0-385-50206-1  Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur, Sikh
Sikh
Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs, Ashgate Publishing Company, Burlington, VT, 2005 ISBN 0-7546-5202-5 Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh
Singh
(2008), Sikh
Sikh
Twareekh, publisher Sikh University Press & Singh
Singh
Brothers Amritsar, 2008. Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh
Singh
(2012), Sikh
Sikh
History (in 10 volumes), publisher Sikh
Sikh
University Press & Singh
Singh
Brothers Amritsar, 2010–12. Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh
Singh
(1997), The Sikh
Sikh
Reference Book, publisher Sikh
Sikh
University Press & Singh
Singh
Brothers Amritsar, 1997. Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh
Singh
(2005), Dictionary of Sikh
Sikh
Philosophy, publisher Sikh
Sikh
University Press & Singh
Singh
Brothers Amritsar, 2005.

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