A typical role for signals is in signal processing. A common example is signal transmission between different locations. The embodiment of a signal in electrical form is made by a transducer that converts the signal from its original form to a waveform expressed as a current (*I*) or a voltage (*V*), or an electromagnetic waveform, for example, an optical signal or radio transmission. Once expressed as an electronic signal, the signal is available for further processing by electrical devices such as electronic amplifiers and electronic filters, and can be transmitted to a remote location by electronic transmitters and received using electronic receivers.

In Electrical engineering programs, a class and field of study known as "signals and systems" (S and S) is often seen as the "cut class" for EE careers, and is dreaded by some students as such. Depending on the school, undergraduate EE students generally take the class as juniors or seniors, normally depending on the number and level of previous linear algebra and differential equation classes they have taken.^{[19]}

The field studies input and output signals, and the mathematical representations between them known as systems, in four domains: Time, Frequency, *s* and *z*. Since signals and systems are both studied in these four domains, there are 8 major divisions of study. As an example, when working with continuous time signals (*t*), one might transform from the time domain to a frequency or *s* domain; or from discrete time (*n*) to frequency or *z* domains. Systems also can be transformed between these domains like signals, with continuous to *s* and discrete to *z*.

Although S and S falls under and includes all the topics covered in this article, a

A typical role for signals is in signal processing. A common example is signal transmission between different locations. The embodiment of a signal in electrical form is made by a transducer that converts the signal from its original form to a waveform expressed as a current (*I*) or a voltage (*V*), or an electromagnetic waveform, for example, an optical signal or radio transmission. Once expressed as an electronic signal, the signal is available for further processing by electrical devices such as electronic amplifiers and electronic filters, and can be transmitted to a remote location by electronic transmitters and received using electronic receivers.

In Electrical engineering programs, a class and field of study known as "signals and systems" (S and S) is often seen as the "cut class" for EE careers, and is dreaded by some students as such. Depending on the school, undergraduate EE students generally take the class as juniors or seniors, normally depending on the number and level of previous linear algebra and differential equation classes they have taken.^{[19]}

The field studies input and output signals, and the mathematical representations between them known as systems, in four domains: Time, Frequency, *s* and *z*. Since signals and systems are both studied in these four domains, there are

In Electrical engineering programs, a class and field of study known as "signals and systems" (S and S) is often seen as the "cut class" for EE careers, and is dreaded by some students as such. Depending on the school, undergraduate EE students generally take the class as juniors or seniors, normally depending on the number and level of previous linear algebra and differential equation classes they have taken.^{[19]}

The field studies input and output signals, and the mathematical representations between them known as systems, in four domains: Time, Frequency, *s* and *z*. Since signals and systems are both studied in these four domains, there are 8 major divisions of study. As an example, when working with continuous time signal

The field studies input and output signals, and the mathematical representations between them known as systems, in four domains: Time, Frequency, *s* and *z*. Since signals and systems are both studied in these four domains, there are 8 major divisions of study. As an example, when working with continuous time signals (*t*), one might transform from the time domain to a frequency or *s* domain; or from discrete time (*n*) to frequency or *z* domains. Systems also can be transformed between these domains like signals, with continuous to *s* and discrete to *z*.

Although S and S falls under and includes all the topics covered in this article, as well as Analog signal processing and Digital signal processing, it actually is a subset of the field of Mathematical modeling. The field goes back to RF over a century ago, when it was all analog, and generally continuous. Today, software has taken the place of much of the analog circuitry design and analysis, and even continuous signals are now generally processed digitally. Ironically, digital signals also are processed continuously in a sense, with the software doing calculations between discrete signal "rests" to prepare for the next input/transform/output event.

In past EE curricula S and S, as it is often called, involved circuit analysis and design via mathematical modeling and some numerical methods, and was updated several decades ago with Dynamical systems tools including differential equations, and recently, Lagrangians. The difficulty of the field at that time included the fact that not only mathematical modeling, circuits, signals and complex systems were being modeled, but physics as well, and a deep knowledge of electrical (and now electronic) topics also was involved and required.

Today, the field has become even more daunting and complex with the addition of circuit, systems and signal analysis and design languages and software, from MATLAB and Simulink to NumPy, VHDL, PSpice, Verilog and even Assembly language. Students are expected to understand the tools as well as the mathematics, physics, circuit analysis, and transformations between the 8 domains.

Because mechanical engineering topics like friction, dampening etc. have very close analogies in signal science (inductance, resistance, voltage, etc.), many of the tools originally used in ME transformations (Laplace and Fourier transforms, Lagrangians, sampling theory, probability, difference equations, etc.) have now been applied to signals, circuits, systems and their components, analysis and design in EE. Dynamical systems that involve noise, filtering and other random or chaotic attractors and repellors have now placed stochastic sciences and statistics between the more deterministic discrete and continuous functions in the field. (Deterministic as used here means signals that are completely determined as functions of time).

EE taxonomists are still not decided where S&S falls within the whole field of signal processing vs. circuit analysis and mathematical modeling, but the common link of the topics that are covered in the course of study has brightened boundaries with dozens of books, journals, etc. called Signals and Systems, and used as text and test prep for the EE, as well as, recently, computer engineering exams.^{[20]}