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Shura
Shura
(Arabic: شورى‎ shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation". The Quran
Quran
and the Prophet Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision. Shura
Shura
is mentioned as a praiseworthy activity often used in organizing the affairs of a mosque, Islamic organizations, and is a common term involved in naming parliaments.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Shura
Shura
in Islam

1.1 Shura
Shura
in the Qur'an 1.2 Shura
Shura
and the caliphate

2 Shura
Shura
and contemporary Muslim-majority states

2.1 Resemblance between majlis al-shura and a parliament

3 Soviet etymology 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Shura
Shura
in Islam[edit] See also: Islamic democracy Sunni
Sunni
Muslims believe that Islam
Islam
requires all decisions made by and for the Muslim
Muslim
societies to be made by shura of the Muslim
Muslim
community and believe this to be the basis for implementing representative democracy.[1] Traditionally however, the Amir/Sultan/Khalifa would consult with his Wazirs (Advisors) and make a decision, after taking into consideration their opinions. Shia
Shia
Muslims say that Islam
Islam
requires submission to existing rulers if they are correctly appointed, so long as they govern according to Sharia
Sharia
or Islamic law. This is a more traditional approach, characteristic of many centuries of Islamic history (see History of Islam). The difference between the two appears more semantic than actual—the latter accept that the rulers must be accounted in all aspects of ruling, to ensure affairs are managed in the best possible way whether decisions were taken through consultation or not. Shura
Shura
in the Qur'an[edit]

The first mention of the Shura
Shura
in the Qur'an
Qur'an
comes in the 2nd Sura
Sura
of Qur'an
Qur'an
2:233 in the matter of the collective family decision regarding weaning the child from mother's milk. This verse encourages that both parents decide by their mutual consultation about weaning their child. The 42nd Sura
Sura
of Q2ur'an is named as Shura.[2] The 38th verse of that Sura
Sura
suggests that shura is praiseworthy life style of a successful believer. It also suggests that people whose matter is being decided be consulted. The Qur'an
Qur'an
says:

"Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation among themselves; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance" [are praised] [3]

The 159th verse of 3rd Sura
Sura
orders Muhammad to consult with believers. The verse makes a direct reference to those (Muslims) who disobeyed Muhammad, indicating that ordinary, fallible Muslims should be consulted. The Qur'an
Qur'an
says:

Thus it is due to mercy from God that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you; pardon them therefore and ask pardon for them, and take counsel with them in the affair; so when you have decided, then place your trust in God; surely God loves those who trust.[4]

The first verse only deals with family matters. The second proposed a lifestyle of people who will enter heavens and is considered the most comprehensive verse on shura. The third verse advices on how mercy, forgiveness and mutual consultation can win over people. Muhammad made all his decisions in consultation with his followers unless it was a matter in which God has ordained something. It was common among Muhammad's companions to ask him if a certain advice was from God or from him. If it was from Muhammad, they felt free to give their opinion. Some times Muhammad changed his opinion on the advice of his followers like his decision to defend the city of Madinah by going out of the city in Uhad instead of from within the city. Arguments over shura began with the debate over the ruler in the Islamic world. When Muhammad died in 632 CE, a tumultuous meeting at Saqifah
Saqifah
selected Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as his successor. This meeting did not include some of those with a strong interest in the matter—especially Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law; people who wanted Ali to be the caliph (ruler) (later known as Shia
Shia
) still consider Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
an illegitimate leader of the caliphate. In later years, the followers of Ali (Shi'atu Ali) as the ruler of Muslims became one school of thought, while the followers of Abu Bakr became the Sunni
Sunni
school of thought. The Sunni
Sunni
school of thought believe that shura is recommended in the Qur'an
Qur'an
(though some classical jurists maintained it is obligatory), The Qur'an, and by numerous hadith, or oral traditions of the sayings and doings of Muhammad and his companions. They say that most of the first four caliphs, or rulers of Islam, whom they call the Four Rightly-guided Caliphs, were chosen by shura. (See Succession to Muhammad, Umar ibn al-Khattab, The election of Uthman, and Ali Ibn Abi Talib.) The Shi'a school of thought believe that Muhammad had clearly indicated that Ali was his appointed infallible ruler of Muslim
Muslim
nation regardless of shura, a recommendation that was ignored by the first three caliphs. Shi'a do not stress the role of shura in choosing leaders, but believe that the divine vice-regent is chosen by God, or Allah, from the lineage of Muhammad (Ahl al-Bayt). The largest Shi'a sect believes that the current imam is in "occultation", hidden away until the last days, but there are minority Shi'a who follow leaders believed to be infallible imams. Shura
Shura
and the caliphate[edit] During and after Imam Ali's tenure as caliph, the Muslim
Muslim
community fell into civil war. Power was eventually grasped by the Ummayad caliphs and then by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs. There were also rival caliphates in Egypt
Egypt
and Al-Andalus, the latter of which is today known as Spain. Later the rulers of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
inherited the caliphate. The Ottoman Caliphate
Ottoman Caliphate
was officially dissolved by the newly founded Grand National Assembly of Turkey
Turkey
in 1924. Few of the later caliphs had anything but nominal control over the many Islamic states, and none were chosen by shura; all reached power by inheritance. The Muslim
Muslim
clergy counseled submission to rulers but also stressed the duty of the ruler to rule by shura. They based this recommendation on the passages from the Qur'an
Qur'an
mentioned above. The verses indicate that shura is praiseworthy but do not indicate who should be consulted, what they should be consulted about, or whether the ruler or the shura should prevail in the event the two do not agree. Shura
Shura
and contemporary Muslim-majority states[edit]

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In some Muslim
Muslim
nations, shuras play a role in the constitution or governance. Some Muslim
Muslim
nations, such as Turkey, are secular republics, and Morocco
Morocco
is a constitutional monarchy. They could thus be said to be ruled by one version of shura. For instance, the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan
Parliament of Pakistan
is officially called the Majlis-i-Shura, although the Constitution uses various spellings of the term. In Egypt, the Upper House
Upper House
of Parliament
Parliament
is known as the Shura
Shura
Council. The People's Consultative Assembly
People's Consultative Assembly
in Indonesia
Indonesia
is called Majlis Permusyawaratan Rakyat in Indonesian language. The word musyawarat is derived from shura/syawara. In some monarchies and clerical regimes, there is a shura with an advisory or consultative role. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, was given a shura council, the Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia, in 1993; there are now 150 members. All real power is held by the King, who is elected by family members. Oman, also a monarchy has a shura council; all members are elected except the president, who is appointed by the Sultan. The council can only offer advice, which may be refused if vetoed by the Sultan. In Iran, a council called the assembly of experts has the ability to impeach the supreme leader. In addition to that, a general shura wields legislative powers, equivalent to a modern-day Western parliament. Shuras have also been a feature of revolutions in Islamic societies, such as in the Iranian revolution
Iranian revolution
of 1979, where they were formed by workers and held considerable power over parts of the economy for a year before being dismantled. Shuras were similarly a feature of the uprisings in Iraq[5][6] in 1991, where they functioned as a form of participatory democracy. Resemblance between majlis al-shura and a parliament[edit] Many traditional Sunni
Sunni
Islamic lawyers agree that to be in keeping with Islam, a government should have some form of council of consultation or majlis al-shura, although it must recognize that God and not the people are sovereign. Al-Mawardi has written that members of the majlis should satisfy three conditions: they must be just, have enough knowledge to distinguish a good caliph from a bad one, and have sufficient wisdom and judgment to select the best caliph. Al-Mawardi also said that in emergencies when there is no caliphate and no majlis, the people themselves should create a majlis, select a list of candidates for caliph, and then the majlis should select a caliph from the list of candidates.[7] Many contemporary Muslims have compared the concept of Shura
Shura
to the principles of western parliamentary democracy. For example:

What is the shura principle in Islam? ... It is predicated on three basic precepts. First, that all persons in any given society are equal in human and civil rights. Second, that public issues are best decided by majority view. And third, that the three other principles of justice, equality and human dignity, which constitute Islam's moral core, ... are best realized, in personal as well as public life, under shura governance.[8]

Other modern Muslim
Muslim
thinkers distance themselves from democracy. Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, the founder of the modern transnational Islamist party Hizb ut-Tahrir, writes that shura is important and part of "the ruling structure" of the Islamic caliphate, "but not one of its pillars." If the caliph "neglects it," by not paying much or any attention, as happened after the first four caliphs, "he would be negligent, but the ruling system would remain Islamic."

This is because the shura (consultation) in Islam
Islam
is for seeking the opinion and not for ruling. This is contrary to the parliamentary system in democracy.[9]

The democratic parliamentary system being distinct from and inferior to the true Islamic caliphate system according to Taqiuddin an-Nabhani.[10] Under the Hizb ut-Tahrir
Hizb ut-Tahrir
constitution, non-Muslims may not serve a caliph or any other ruling official, nor vote for these officials, but may be part of the majlis and voice "complaints in respect to unjust acts performed by the rulers or the misapplication of Islam
Islam
upon them." Still others, such as the Muslim
Muslim
author Sayyid Qutb, go further, arguing that an Islamic shura should advise the caliph but not elect or supervise him. In a rigorous analysis of the shura chapter of the Qur'an, Qutb noted that Islam
Islam
requires only that the ruler consult with at least some of the ruled (usually the elite), within the general context of God-made laws that the ruler must execute. In 1950 Qutb denounced democracy in favor of dictatorship, saying it was already bankrupt in the West and asking why it should be imported to the Middle East.[11][12] The practice of a consultative, but not bill-passing, caliph-electing or popularly elected shura, was adopted by the self-described strict Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. While the Kandahar
Kandahar
Shura
Shura
of the Taliban
Taliban
debated issues, in the end its spokesman declared, "we abide by the Amir's view even if he alone takes this view." [13] Soviet etymology[edit] In Persian language
Persian language
and Dari in Afghanistan, the term شوروی, shuravi is used for 'Soviet' (the etymology being related to council). In Tajik language
Tajik language
it is written Шӯравӣ. See also[edit]

Islamic democracy

References[edit]

^ Esposito, John L., Oxford Dictionary of Islam, OUP, (2003) ^ Online Qur'an
Qur'an
Project Chapter 42 ^ Online Qur'an
Qur'an
Project 42.39 ^ فبما رحمة من الله لنت لهم و لو کنت فظا غلیظ القلب لانفضوا من حولك فاعف عنهم و استغفر لهم و شاورهم فی الأمر فإذا عزمت فتوکل علی الله إن الله یحب المتوکلین Online Qur'an
Qur'an
Project 3.159 ^ The Kurdish Uprising & Kurdistan's Nationalist Shopfront and its Negotiations with the Baathist/Fascist Regime, BM Blob and BM Combustion, London, July 14, 1991. ^ A Comrade's Testimony: A Journey to Irak, Communism No. 7, International Communist Group, April 1992 ^ Process of Choosing the Leader (Caliph) of the Muslims ^ "The Shura
Shura
principle in Islam" by Sadek Jawad Sulaiman ^ The System of Islam, (Nidham ul Islam) by Taqiuddin an-Nabhani, Al-Khilafa Publications, 1423 AH - 2002 CE, p.61 ^ The System of Islam, by Taqiuddin an-Nabhani, p.39 ^ Qutb, Sayyid, Tafsir Surat al- Shura
Shura
(Beirut, 1973), pp.83-85; Ma'alim fi al-Tariq, p.3 ^ Source: letter in al-Akhbar, August 8, 1952 ^ Interview with Taliban
Taliban
spokesman Mullah Wakil in Arabic magazine Al-Majallah, 23 October 1996

External links[edit]

Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: The Search for Common Ground Ijtihad.org Alhewar.com Shura.org

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Hajji Bektash Wali Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi Ibn Sab’in Ibn Arabi al-Abharī Nasir al-Din Tusi Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

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