Shun dynasty (simplified Chinese: 顺朝; traditional Chinese:
順朝; pinyin: Shùn cháo), or Great Shun (simplified Chinese:
大顺; traditional Chinese: 大順; pinyin: Dà shùn), was a
short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to
Qing rule in Chinese history. The dynasty was founded in
Xi'an on 8
February 1644, the first day of the lunar year, by Li Zicheng, the
leader of a large peasant rebellion.
Li, however, only went by the title of King (王), not Emperor
(皇帝). The capture of
Beijing by the Shun forces in April 1644
marked the end of the Ming dynasty, but
Li Zicheng failed to solidify
his mandate; in late May 1644, he was defeated at the Battle of
Shanhai Pass by the joint forces of Ming general
Wu Sangui and Manchu
prince Dorgon. When he fled back to
Beijing in early June, Li finally
proclaimed himself Emperor of
China and left the capital in a hurry.
Shun dynasty ended with Li's death in 1645.
After the Shun was created,
Li Zicheng ordered the soldiers to kill
the Ming remnants still existing in Beijing. This resulted in strong
rebellions from the forces of the Southern Ming. In addition with the
Shun ministers constantly fighting for power, the dynasty effectively
lasted less than a year.
Generals and Ministers
Niu Jinxing (牛金星), Chancellor
Gu Jun'en (顧君恩), staff
Li Yan (李岩), staff
Song Xiance (宋獻策), staff
Liu Zongmin (劉宗敏), general
Hao Yaoqi (郝搖旗), general
Li Guo (李過), general
Gao Jie (高傑), general
Lady Gao (Gao Guiying) (高氏), Li Zicheng's wife and general
Wakeman Frederic (1981). "The Shun Interregnum of 1644", in Jonathan
Spence, et al. eds. From Ming to Ch’ing: Conquest, Region, and
Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China. Yale University Press.
Dynasties in Chinese history