Achintya Bheda Abheda
Achintya Bheda Abheda
Shastras and Sutras
Other Indian philosophies
Shuddadvaita (Sanskrit: śuddhādvaita "pure non-dualism") is the
"purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by
CE), the founding philosopher and guru of the Vallabhā sampradāya
("tradition of Vallabha") or Puśtimārg ("The path of grace"), a
Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna.
Vallabhacharya's pure form (nondualist) philosophy is different from
Shrinathji temple at Nathdwara, and compositions of eight
poets (aṣṭachap), including Sur, are central to the worship by the
followers of the sect.
2 Central Topics
3.1 Initiating mantra
4.1 Everything is Krishna's Leela
4.2 Path to bliss in the Kali Yuga
5 Shuddhadwait Martand
8 External links
Though the tradition originated near
Vrindavana in the current Indian
state of Uttar Pradesh, in modern times followers of Shuddadvaita are
concentrated in the states of
Rajasthan and Gujarat.
In the ancient Vedic tradition of knowledge and comprehension of
reality, the central theme would be experiencing the Supreme Entity or
Vedas primarily contain references to the adwait nature of
Brahm. However, depending on how a scholar perceives those verses,
s/he might see duality— dwait aspect as well. This ambiguity has led
to several philosophical traditions in the Indian history, such as:
Advaita vāda of Adi Shankaracharya
Vishistadvaita vāda of Ramanujacharya
Dvaita vāda or Bhedavāda of Madhvacharya
Dvaitadvaita vāda of Nimbarkacharya
Shuddhadvaita vāda of
Vishnu swami popularized by Vallabhacharya
Achintya Bhedābheda vāda of
Main article: Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya was a devotional philosopher, who founded the Pushti
sect in India. He won the title of acharya by traveling and debating
advaita scholars from a young age.
Vallabhacharya is said to have identified an image of
Krishna at the
Govardhan hill at Braj. This image, now called
Shrinathji and located at Nathdwara, Rajasthan, is central to the
Vallabha tradition, one night in 1494, Vallabhacharya
received the Brahmasambandha mantra (the mantra that binds one with
Brahman, or Krishna) from
Krishna himself (hence the name,
mukhāvatāra) at Gokula. The eight-syllable mantra, śri
kṛṣṇaḥ śaraṇaṃ mama (Lord
Krishna is my refuge), is
passed onto new initiates in Vallabh sampradaya, and the divine name
is said to rid the recipient of all impurities of the soul (doṣas)
Part of a series on
Brahma (Dvaita, Acintyabhedabheda)
The school of in-essence monism or purified non-dualism of Vallabha
sees equality in "essence" of the individual self with God. There is
no real difference between the two (like the analogy of sparks to
fire). However, unlike Shankara's Advaita,
Vallabha does not deny God
as the whole and the individual as the part. The individual soul is
not the Supreme (Satcitananda) clouded by the force of avidya, but is
itself Brahman, with one attribute (ananda) rendered imperceptible.
The soul is both a doer and enjoyer. It is atomic in size, but
pervades the whole body through its essence of intelligence (like
sandalwood makes its presence felt through its scent even if
sandalwood can't be seen).
Unlike Advaita, the world of Maya is not regarded as unreal, since
Maya is nothing else than a power of Ishvara. He is not only the
creator of the universe but is the universe itself.
Vallabha cites the
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad account, that
Brahman desired to become many,
and he became the multitude of individual souls and the world.
Brahman is not known, He is known when He manifests Himself
through the world.
Bhakti is the means of salvation, though
Jnana is also useful. Karmas
precede knowledge of the Supreme, and are present even when this
knowledge is gained. The liberated perform all karmas. The highest
goal is not Mukti or liberation, but rather eternal service of Krishna
and participation along with His activities in His Divine abode of
Vallabha distinguishes the transcendent consciousness of
Brahman as Purushottama.
Vallabha lays a great stress on a life of
unqualified love and devotion towards God.
In all the philosophical traditions, it is common practice to describe
how the Supreme Entity Brahm is related to us and our surroundings. In
the system of Suddhadwait Vedant, otherwise known as Brahmvaad, the
One, secondless Ultimate Reality is the only category. Every other
thing has proceeded from it at the time of creation, is non-different
from it during creation and merges into it at the time of dissolution.
The two other well known categories namely the animate souls and the
inanimate objects are respectively its parts and modifications. The
animate souls are its parts because they retain to some extent the
essential qualities thereof namely consciousness and joy. The
inanimate objects are its modification because the above said
qualities are absent therein.
Everything is Krishna's Leela
According to the version of
Vaishnava Theology Vallabhacharya
espoused; the glorious
Krishna in His "Satcitananda" form is the
Absolute, Svayam Bhagavan. He is permanently playing out His sport
(leela) from His seat in the Goloka which is even beyond the divine
Vaikuntha, the abode of
Vishnu and Satya-loka, the abode of
Creator, and Kailas, the abode of Shiva. Creation is His sport.
Path to bliss in the Kali Yuga
Vallabhacharya maintain that if one wants to obtain
moksha and the bliss given by Krishna, the only path to do so is
bhakti. In the Kali Yuga, it is believed that the forms of bhakti
mentioned in the scriptures are nearly impossible to practice, so the
Vallabhacharya recommend pushti bhakti – which is the
end itself and not means to an end, giving moksha, joy and oneness
with Shree Krishna. It illustrates oneness with Shree
Krishna can be
achieved merely by having true belief and love for Shree
recitation of the Brahmasambandha mantra.
It is that bhakti which gives itself up body, heart and soul to the
cause of God. It is considered to be the fullest expression of what is
known as Atma-nivedana (= giving-up of oneself) among the nine forms
of bhakti (Navadha Bhakti). It is the bhakti of the devotee who
worships God not for any reward or presents but for His own sake. Such
a devotee goes to Goloka after leaving this body and lives in eternal
bliss enjoying the sports of the Lord. The classical example of this
complete self-effacement is that of the cow-herdesses towards Krishna.
They spoke no word except prayer and they moved no step except towards
Krishna. Their supreme-most meditation was on the lotus-feet of
Krishna.Thus it is by God's grace alone that one can obtain release
from bondage and attain Krishna's heaven, Goloka.
In V.S. 1602, his son Vitthalnath, also known as Gusainji, established
the eight-fold system of singing the name and glory of Shrinathji
(Kirtana) and entrusted this responsibility to eight poet-disciples of
Vallabhacharya and his own, called the ashta-chhaap after the eight
divine services to
Shrinathji from morning until going to sleep.
Foremost among them was Sur, the blind poet of Agra.
These are Surdas,
Krishna Das, Paramanand Das, Kumbhan Das, Chaturbhuj
Das, Nand Das, Chhitswami, and Govind Das. The first four poets and
singers were Vallabhacharya's disciples, while the other three were
Shuddhadwait is defined more thoroughly in verse 27-28 from
समास: कर्मधारय: I
अद्वैतं शुद्धयो: प्राहुः
षष्ठी तत्पुरुषमं बुधा: II
शुद्धमित्युच्यते बुधै: I
कार्यकरणरूपमं हि शुद्धं
ब्रह्म न मायिकम़् II 
"It is Karmdharay samaas : Shuddham ch tat adwaitam (The Pure and
its non-dualism). Or, it is the Shashti Tatpurush samaas Shuddhyoh
adwaitam (The Non-dual is pure). In this system, the combination of
Maya with Brahm is done away with; therefore the cause of this world
is not Brahm covered by Maya. But the pure Brahm and only pure Brahm
is the effect and cause of this world."
Shuddhadvaita philosophy has also been explained by various
scholars of the sect, such as Devarshi Ramanath Shastri, who has
enunciated the tenets of this philosophy in his books ‘Shuddhadvait
Siddhantasaar’ (Hindi and Gujarati) and
^ Martin, Nancy M., "North Indian Hindi devotional literature" in
Flood 2003, pp. 182–198
^ a b Beck 1993, pp. 194–195
^ a b Colas, Gerard, "History of Vaiṣṇava traditions" in Flood
2003, pp. 229–270
^ PhD thesis,"The system of Shuddhadwait Vedant of Vallabhacharya" by
^ Shuddhadwait Martand, verse 27-28
^ Anubhashya on Brahmsutras, 2005, Introduction pp. iv
^ Shuddhadvait Darshan (vol.2), Pub. Mota Mandir, Bhoiwada, Mumbai,
^ Shuddhadvait Darshan (in 3 Vols.)(New Edition), Pub. Vidya Vibhag,
Beck, Guy L. (1993). Sonic theology:
Hinduism and sacred sound.
Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina Press.
Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003), Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell
Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21535-2 CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
Pustimarg Sahitya by Mota Mandir Mumbai
Sampradayas of Vaishnavism
Kumara-sampradaya of Nimbarka
Brahma Sampradaya of Madhvacharya
Sri Sampradaya of Ramanuja
Rudra sampradaya of Vishnuswami