Shlomo Ganzfried (or Salomo ben Joseph Ganzfried; 1804 in
30 July 1886 in Ungvar) was an Orthodox rabbi and posek best known as
author of the work of
Halakha (Jewish law), the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
(Hebrew: קיצור שולחן ערוך, "The Abbreviated Shulchan
Aruch"), by which title he is also known.
2.1 Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
2.2 Other works
3 See also
6 External links
Ganzfried was born in 1804 in Ungvar, in the
Ung County of the Kingdom
of Hungary (present-day Ukraine). His father Joseph died when he was
eight. Ganzfried was considered to be a child prodigy and Ungvar's
chief rabbi and Rosh yeshiva,
Rabbi Zvi Hirsh Heller assumed legal
guardianship; Heller was known as "Hershele the Sharp-witted" for his
piercing insights into the Talmud. Heller later moved to the city of
Bonyhád, and Ganzfried, then fifteen, followed him. He remained in
Heller's yeshiva for almost a decade until his ordination and
marriage. After his marriage he worked briefly as a wine merchant.
In 1830, he abandoned commerce and accepted the position of
Brezovica (Brezevitz). In 1849, he returned to
Ungvar as a dayan, a
judge in the religious court. At that time Ungvar's spiritual head,
Rabbi Meir Ash, was active in the Orthodox camp, in opposition to the
Neologs. Through serving with Ash, Ganzfried realised that in order to
remain committed to Orthodoxy, "the average Jew required an
underpinning of a knowledge of practical halakha (Jewish law)". It was
to this end that Ganzfried composed the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch. This
work became very popular, and was frequently reprinted in Hebrew and
in Yiddish. This work often records more stringent positions.
Rabbi Ganzfried remained in the office of Dayan until his death on
July 30, 1886.
Heshy Fried, a noted Jewish blogger and satirist, is the great-great
Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, first published in 1864, is a summary of
Shulchan Aruch of
Joseph Karo with reference to later
commentaries, per the title page of the first edition, "written for
God-fearing Jews who are not in a position to study and comprehend the
Shulchan Aruch and its commentaries, and... composed
in a Hebrew that can be easily understood." The Kitzur states what is
permitted and what is forbidden without ambiguity. Ganzfried was a
Hungarian Jew and the emphasis is on the customs of Jews of Hungary at
that time. This work was explicitly written as a popular text and as
such is not at the level of detail of the
Shulchan Aruch itself, while
generally following its structure.
Rabbi Ganzfried expressed his
intentions in his introduction:
[This book] includes from the four sections of the Shulchan Aruch,
those necessary and essential laws for all people in Yisrael in order
to know them and are written in a simple language and a correct order.
It is a good compilation and effective, B’ezrat Hashem, for
businessmen that do not have the time to delve into the Shulchan Aruch
and its commentaries. They shall find in [this work] that which they
require with ease and also [be able to] educate the youth and plant in
their hearts the commandments of Hashem in their youth and [so that]
also in their later life they will not leave them…
To counsel a ruling, Ganzfried based his decisions on three Ashkenazi
Rabbi Yaakov Lorberbaum;
Shneur Zalman of Liadi,
Shulchan Aruch HaRav; and
Rabbi Abraham Danzig, author of
Chayei Adam and Chochmat Adam. In cases of disagreement he adopted the
majority view. (Karo had used a similar method in composing his
Shulchan Aruch (1563) where his references were to
Rabbi Isaac Alfasi,
Rabbi Asher ben Jehiel.)
The Kitzur became immensely popular after its publication due to its
simplicity, and is still popular within Orthodox Judaism, as a
framework for study. Many other works – Ben Ish Hai,
Chayei Adam and
others – are also concise, and suitable for laypersons or summaries
Shulchan Aruch but did not reach the level of the Kitzur's
popularity. "The Kitzur" is not a basis for making Halakhic decisions;
rather, Rabbis will use the
Shulchan Aruch (including the various
commentaries), or later works such as Kaf HaChaim or the Mishnah
Berurah. Because of this popularity it is often printed with
cross-references to other works of halakha, especially the Shulchan
Aruch HaRav or the Mishnah Berurah; one popular edition also contains
notes by former Chief
Mordechai Eliyahu entitled Darkhe Halakhah
cross-referring to leading
Sephardi authorities. Many editions include
as an appendix the laws pertaining to the
Land of Israel
Land of Israel by the Chazon
Rabbi Avraham Yeshaya Karelitz). A recent commentary is Shearim
Metzuyanim be-Halakhah, by
Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Braun, which examines
contemporary problems in the light of the work. Ganzfried
himself,[attribution needed] however, stated that there should be no
commentaries on his work, since its point, as indicated by its title,
was that it should remain short – and that such commentaries should
be appended to the
Shulchan Aruch itself, rather than to the Kitzur.
Mishnah Berurah has mostly supplanted works like the
Chayei Adam and the
Aruch HaShulchan as the primary authority on
Jewish daily living among
Shulchan Aruch Yomi ("Daily Kitzur Shulchan Aruch") is a
daily learning program, where the work is completed each year. The
schedule does not follow the contents in order, rather it is arranged
such that one reviews the laws of the
Jewish holidays in the weeks
before each. A person can start learning at any time of the year and
complete it over the course of the year. The program is increasingly
popular as it requires only 5 – 10 minutes per day. There are,
correspondingly, numerous online resources; see below.
Shulchan Aruch has been translated into English several
times. Hyman E. Goldin's translation was published in 1961 with an
attempt to eliminate errors and improve upon previous translations,
making it "more comprehensible to scholar and layperson alike." It
is thought[by whom?] that Goldin's English title "Code of Jewish Law"
has added to the popularity of his work, although it is misleading.
The 1980s and 90s saw the publication of two modernized translations,
which included cross references similar to those in contemporary
Hebrew editions as above: in 1987 Metsudah Publications released a
Rabbi Avrohom Davis, and in 1991 Moznaim Publishing
released a translation by
Rabbi Eliyahu Touger. The recent (2011)
translation by Artscroll, under the general editorship of Rabbi
Eliyahu Klugman, includes comparisons with the
Mishnah Berurah and the
Igrot Moshe of Moshe Feinstein. Various other translations are
available online; see External links below.
Code of Jewish Law. Hebrew Publishing Co. (Transl. Hyman Goldin),
1927. ISBN 0-88482-779-8
Kitzur Shulchan Aruch. Compact Set. Metsudah Publications, 2006.
Kitzur Schulchan Oruch. Moznaim Publishing Corp, 1991.
The Kleinman Edition Kitzur Shulchan Aruch. Vol. 1. Artscroll, 2008.
It has been translated also into Spanish in two volumes by Rabbi
Nosson Grunblatt and published by Kehot Lubavitch Sudamericana, Buenos
Kesset HaSofer (קסת הסופר), a halachic primer for scribes
published in 1835. Ganzfried composed this while he was still engaged
in business. (Above it states that he left commerce and became a Rabbi
in 1830. One of these statements is wrong.)
Pnei Shlomo (פני שלמה), an elucidation of portions of the
Torat Zevach (תורת זבח), a halakhic handbook for practitioners
of shechita, ritual slaughter.
Sefer Apiryon (ספר אפריון), a commentary on the Bible.
Lechem V'simlah (לחם ושמלה) on the laws of Niddah
Ohalei Sheim (אהלי שם) on the official spellings of Hebrew
names, as pertaining to gittin.
Sheim Yosef (שם יוסף) on various sugyos in Shas.
Sefer Galuy A letter written at the time of the Congress of 1869
Chayei Adam and
Chochmat Adam by Avraham Danzig (Poland, 1748–1820),
Ben Ish Chai
Ben Ish Chai by Yosef Chaim (Baghdad, 1832–1909), a
with a similar purpose.
"Kitzur Shulchan Aruch", a similar
Sephardi work by
Shulchan Aruch Mekor Hayyim", a similar
Sephardi work by Rabbi
Hayim David HaLevi.
The volumes entitled "Kitzur Shulchan Aruch" from Yalkut Yosef, a
Shulchan Aruch Sefardi by
Rabbi Reuven Amar.
Das Vadin [clarification needed]
Other study cycles
Shnayim mikra ve-echad targum (
Weekly Torah portion
Weekly Torah portion with Rashi) -
weekly or daily study (1 year cycle)
Daf Yomi (entire Talmud) - daily study (approx 7-year cycle); Amud
Yomi (approx 14-year cycle)
Mishneh Torah - daily study (1 or 3-year cycle)
Mishnah Berurah Yomit - daily study (1 or 3-year cycle)
Halacha Yomit (Shulchan Aruch) - daily study (4 year cycle)
Tanya - daily study (1 year cycle)
^ as quoted by mishnahyomit.com Archived July 14, 2011, at the Wayback
^ It is thought that the title added to this book's
immediate and continuing popularity.
^ Goldin, Hyman E. Kitzur
Shulchan Aruch – Code of Jewish Law,
Forward to the New Edition. (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company,
^ Metsudah Kitzur
Shulchan Aruch (3 Volumes). ISBN 1-931681-99-6
^ Kitzur Schulchan Oruch - Code of Jewish Law (2 Volumes).
^ The Kleinman Edition Kitzur
Shulchan Aruch (5 Volumes).
Rabbi Ganzfried's two million Kitzurs, Jack E. Friedman
Ganzfried, Solomon, jewishencyclopedia.com
What is the Kitzur Shulkhan Arukh?, faqs.org
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Shlomo Ganzfried
Works by or about
Shlomo Ganzfried at Internet Archive
Shlomo Ganzfried at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Online full-text versions
www.Kitzur.net, The full text of the Kitzur, which follows the
international Kitzur Yomi (daily) schedule; fully searchable; viewable
with or without nekudot (punctuation symbols); daily halachos
available by email
Free Android Kitzur App, available with or without vowels
Kitzur Chrome Extension for the kitzur daily laws.
Translated to English:
By Yona Newman: ["Ch 1–97". Archived from the original on
2016-11-03. Retrieved 2017-02-03. ] / ["Ch 98–221". Archived
from the original on 2016-11-03. Retrieved 2017-02-03. ].
Complete linear translation with Hebrew and English and many notes and
references. (Has opportunity to become more correct.)
At torah.org: Chapters grouped by theme. Less than 50% complete.
Works related to Kitzur Shulchan Arukh (a beginning project, less
than 10% complete) at Wikisource
Shulchan Aruch Yomi
www.kitzur.net - daily halachos sent to your email
Kitzur365.org Daily Calendar: Kitzur365 Calendar, close to a thousand
of free resources and daily halachos sent to your email
Links on shemayisrael.co.il
ISNI: 0000 0001 1798 258X
BNF: cb12506192h (da