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Shkodër
Shkodër
or Shkodra (Albanian pronunciation: [ˈʃkɔdəɾ]), historically known as Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania. It is the capital of the surrounding county of Shkodër, one of 12 constituent counties of the republic. The city is one of the most ancient cities in the Balkans
Balkans
and the fourth most populous city in the country and exerts strong influences in culture, religion, arts and entertainment of northern Albania. Geographically, the city of Shkodër
Shkodër
sprawls across the Mbishkodra plain between the freshwater marshlands of Lake Shkodër
Lake Shkodër
and the foothills of the Albanian Alps.[1] Like most of the Dinaric Alps, the mountains are dominated by limestone and dolomite rocks. The lake, named after the city of Shkodër, is the largest lake in Southern Europe
Europe
close to the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea. The city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west. The region that today corresponds to the city territory was founded in the 4th century BC by the ancient Illyrian tribes of the Ardiaei and Labeates.[2] It is evidenced by the artefacts and inscriptions that were discovered in the Rozafa Castle. During that time the city was known under the name Scodra. The city has historically developed on a 130 metres (430 ft) hill, strategically located in the outflow of Lake Shkodër
Lake Shkodër
into the Buna. The Romans annexed the city after the third Illyrian War in 168 BC, when Gentius
Gentius
were defeated by the Roman force of Anicius Gallus.[2][3] In the 3rd century AD, Shkodër
Shkodër
became the capital of Praevalitana
Praevalitana
due to the administrative reform of Roman Diocletian. With the spread of Christianity in the 4th century, the Archdiocese of Scodra was founded and was assumed in 535 by Byzantine Justinian I. During many different epochs it has retained its status as a major city in the wider region, due to its strategic position close to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and the Italian port cities, but also with land-routes to other important cities and towns in neighbouring regions.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History

3.1 Early History 3.2 Ottoman Period 3.3 Modern

4 Demographics 5 Politics 6 Economy

6.1 Infrastructure

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Sights

8 Notable people 9 International relations 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Sources 13 References

Etymology[edit] The etymology of the term Shkodër
Shkodër
is a subject which attracts debate. The name was first attested in antiquity in the Latin form Scodra, the Ancient Greek Σκόδρα and the Ancient Greek genitive Σκοδρινῶν (of the Skodrians), which was discovered on coins from the 2nd century BC.[4][5][6] Although the ultimate origin of the term is uncertain.[7] The further development of the name has been a subject of discussion among linguists over the linguistic provenance of the Albanian people and the Albanian language. While Eqrem Çabej and Shaban Demiraj treat the development from Skodra to modern Shkodra as evidence of regular development within the Albanian language, Matzinger argues that it fails to display certain known phonological changes that would have to have happened if the name had been continually in use in proto-Albanian since pre-Roman times.[8][9][7] In modern times, the term was adapted to Italian as Scutari; in this form it was also in wide use in English until the 20th century.[10][citation needed] In Serbo-Croatian, Shkodër
Shkodër
is known as Skadar (Скадар), and in Turkish as İşkodra. Geography[edit] See also: Lake
Lake
Shkodër

Shkodër
Shkodër
as seen from the Rozafa Castle
Rozafa Castle
and overlooking the Albanian Alps in the background.

Shkodër
Shkodër
is the largest city in northern Albania, lying near latitude 42° 4' N, and longitude 19 ° 31' E. Geologically, Shkodër
Shkodër
extends strategically on the Mbishkodra Plain
Plain
between the marshlands of Lake Shkodër
Shkodër
and the foothills of the Albanian Alps, the southernmost continuation of the Dinaric Alps. The northeast is dominated by Mount Maranaj standing at 1,576 metres (5,171 ft) above the Adriatic. Hydrologically, the city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west. Rising From Lake Shkodër, Buna flows into the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, forming the border with Montenegro. The river joins the Drin for approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) southwest of the city. In the east, Shkodër
Shkodër
is bordered by Kir, which originates from the north flowing also into the Drin, that surrounds Shkodër
Shkodër
in the south. The location of Shkodër
Shkodër
has been of great strategic importance in its history. It has often helped the city to its wealth in its history or made it the subject of conflicts between foreign powers. Lake Shkodër
Lake Shkodër
lies in the west of the city and forms the frontier of Albania
Albania
and Montenegro. The lake became the symbol of the stable and consistent economic and social divide of the city. Although, the lake is the largest lake in Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and an important habitat for various animal and plant species. Further, the Albanian section has been designated as a Nature Reserve. In 1996, it also has been recognised as a wetland of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention.[11] River Buna connects the lake with the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, while the Drin provides a link with Lake Ohrid
Lake Ohrid
in the southeast of Albania.[12] It is a cryptodepression, filled by the river Morača
Morača
and drained into the Adriatic
Adriatic
by the 41 km (25 mi) long Buna. Climate[edit] According to the Köppen climate classification, Shkodër
Shkodër
experiences mediterranean climate, that is almost wet enough in July to be a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences.[13] The average yearly temperature varies from 14.5 °C (58.1 °F) to 16.8 °C (62.2 °F). Although, mean monthly temperature ranges between 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) to 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) in January and 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) to 32.4 °C (90.3 °F) in August. The average yearly precipitation is about 1,700 millimetres (66.9 in), which makes the area one of the wettest in Europe.

Climate data for Shkodra (1981-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 9.8 (49.6) 11.0 (51.8) 14.8 (58.6) 18.5 (65.3) 24.2 (75.6) 28.1 (82.6) 32.1 (89.8) 32.4 (90.3) 27.5 (81.5) 21.7 (71.1) 14.9 (58.8) 10.5 (50.9) 20.5 (68.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.6 (42.1) 6.6 (43.9) 10.1 (50.2) 13.8 (56.8) 18.7 (65.7) 22.3 (72.1) 25.4 (77.7) 25.8 (78.4) 21.5 (70.7) 16.5 (61.7) 10.6 (51.1) 7.0 (44.6) 15.3 (59.5)

Average low °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 2.1 (35.8) 5.2 (41.4) 9.0 (48.2) 13.2 (55.8) 16.5 (61.7) 18.7 (65.7) 19.3 (66.7) 15.5 (59.9) 11.2 (52.2) 6.4 (43.5) 3.4 (38.1) 10.1 (50.2)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 161.8 (6.37) 159.0 (6.26) 142.1 (5.594) 147.6 (5.811) 86.4 (3.402) 50.6 (1.992) 34.1 (1.343) 58.2 (2.291) 190.9 (7.516) 206.6 (8.134) 229.8 (9.047) 211.1 (8.311) 1,678.2 (66.071)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9 9 9 9 7 5 2 4 6 9 11 12 92

Source: meteo-climat-bzh[14]

History[edit] Early History[edit]

In the 4th century BC, Scodra was the capital of the Illyrian tribe
Illyrian tribe
of the Ardiaeis.

The earliest signs of human activity in the lands of Shkodër
Shkodër
can be traced back to the Bronze Age.[15] The favorable conditions on the fertile plain, around the lake, have brought people here from early antiquity. Artefacts and inscriptions, discovered in the Rozafa Castle, are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans in the city. Although, it was known under the name Scodra and was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe
Illyrian tribe
of the Ardiaei, which ruled over a large territory between modern Albania
Albania
up to Croatia.[16][17][18] Queen Teuta, King Agron, and King Gentius, were among the most famous personalities of the Labeates. The city was first mentioned during the antiquity as the site of the Illyrian Labeates
Labeates
in which he minted coins and that of Queen Teuta.[19] In 168 BC, the city was captured by the Romans and became an important trade and military route. The Romans colonized[20] the town. Scodra remained in the province of Illyricum, and later Dalmatia. By it 395 AD, it was part of the Diocese of Dacia, within Praevalitana. The dawn of the Middle Ages saw waves of Slavs
Slavs
arriving. De Administrando Imperio describes how Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Heraclius
Heraclius
gave the Serbs
Serbs
a territory in this region during the first half of the 7th century. The southernmost, maritime polity of the Serbian Principality at Duklja, included the Shkodër
Shkodër
region. After the death of Prince Caslav, the state disintegrated with Duklja
Duklja
retaining most of it.[21] Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria
Samuel of Bulgaria
had by 997 conquered all of Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia and most of Albania.[21] In the early 11th century, Jovan Vladimir ruled Duklja
Duklja
amidst the war between Basil II
Basil II
and Samuel. Vladimir allegedly retreated into Koplik
Koplik
when Samuel invaded Duklja and was subsequently forced to accept Bulgarian vassalage. Vladimir was later slain by the Bulgarians. Shingjon (feast of Jovan Vladimir) has since been celebrated by Albanian Orthodox Christians.[22]

Relief commemorating the Siege of Shkodër
Shkodër
from the 15th century in Venice.

In the 1030s, Stefan Vojislav
Stefan Vojislav
from Travunia
Travunia
expelled the last strategos and successfully defeated the Byzantines by 1042. Stefan Vojislav set up Shkodër
Shkodër
as his capital.[23] Constantine Bodin accepted the crusaders of the Crusade of 1101
Crusade of 1101
in Shkodër. After the dynastic struggles in the 12th century, Shkodër
Shkodër
became part of the Nemanjić Zeta province. In 1214 the city became part of the Despotate of Epirus under Michael I Komnenos Doukas.[24] In 1330, Stephen Decanski appointed his son Stephen Dusan as the governor of Zeta and its seat Shkodër.[25] In the same year Dusan and his father entered the conflict which resulted with campaign of Decanski who destroyed Dusans court on Drin River near Shkodër
Shkodër
in January 1331. In April 1331, they made a truce,[26] but in August 1331 Dušan went from Shkodër
Shkodër
to Nerodimlje and overthrew his father.[27] In the 14th century, Shkodër
Shkodër
was taken by the Balsic family, who surrendered the city to the Republic of Venice
Venice
in 1396, in order to form a protection zone from the Ottoman Empire. During the Venetian rule the city adopted the Statutes of Scutari, a civic law written in Venetian. Venetians built the St. Stephen's Church (later converted into the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Mosque
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Mosque
by the Turks) and the Rozafa Castle. In 1478-79 Mehmed the conqueror laid siege on Shkodër. In 1479 the city fell to the Ottomans and the defenders of the citadel emigrated to Venice, while many Albanians
Albanians
from the region retreated into the mountains. The city then became a seat of a newly established Ottoman sanjak, the Sanjak of Scutari. Ottoman Period[edit] Main articles: Venetian Albania, Sanjak of Scutari, Pashalik of Scutari, and Scutari Vilayet

The Mes Bridge
Mes Bridge
was built in 1770 and is one of the longest Ottoman bridges in the region.

With two sieges, Shkodër
Shkodër
became secure as an Ottoman territory. It became the centre of the sanjak and by 1485 there were 27 Muslim and 70 Christian
Christian
hearths, although by the end of the next century there were more than 200 Muslim ones compared to the 27 Christian
Christian
ones, respectively.[28] Military manoeuvres in 1478 by the Ottomans meant that the city was again entirely surrounded by Ottoman forces. Mehmed the Conqueror personally laid the siege. About ten heavy cannons were cast on site. Balls as heavy as 380 kg (838 lb) were fired on the citadel (such balls are still on display on the castle museum). Nevertheless, the city resisted. Mehmed left the field and had his commanders continue the siege. By the winter the Ottomans had captured one after the other all adjacent castles: Lezhë, Drisht, and Žabljak Crnojevića. This, together with famine and constant bombardment lowered the morale of defenders. On the other hand, the Ottomans were already frustrated by the stubborn resistance. The castle is situated on a naturally protected hill and every attempted assault resulted in considerable casualties for the attackers. A truce became an option for both parties. On January 25 an agreement between the Venetians and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
ended the siege, permitting the citizens to leave unharmed, and the Ottomans to take over the deserted city. After Ottoman domination was secure, much of the population fled. Around the 17th century, the city began to prosper as the center of the Sanjak of Scutari (sanjak was an Ottoman administrative unit smaller than a vilayet). It became the economic center of northern Albania, its craftsmen producing fabric, silk, arms, and silver artifacts. Construction included two-story stone houses, the bazaar, and the Central or Middle Bridge (Ura e Mesit) over the Kir river, built during the second half of the 18th century, over 100 metres (330 feet) long, with 13 arcs of stone, the largest one being 22 metres (72 feet) wide and 12 metres (39 feet) tall.

The construction of the Cathedral of Shkodër
Shkodër
in 1867.

Shkodër
Shkodër
was a major city under Ottoman rule in Southeast Europe. It retained its importance up until the end of the empire's rule in the Balkans
Balkans
in the early 20th century. This is due to its geo-strategic position that connects it directly with the Adriatic
Adriatic
and with the Italian ports, but also with land-routes to the other important Ottoman centre, namely Prizren. The city was an important meeting place of diverse cultures from other parts of the Empire, as well as influences coming westwards, by Italian merchants. It was a centre of Islam
Islam
in the region, producing many ulema, poets and administrators, particularly from the Bushati
Bushati
family. In the 18th century Shkodër
Shkodër
became the center of the (pashaluk) of Shkodër, under the rule of the Bushati
Bushati
family, which ruled from 1757 to 1831. Shkodër's importance as a trade center in the second half of the 19th century was owed to the fact that it was the center of the vilayet of Shkodër, and an important trading center for the entire Balkan peninsula. It had over 3,500 shops, and clothing, leather, tobacco, and gunpowder were some of the major products of Shkodër. A special administration was established to handle trade, a trade court, and a directorate of postage services with other countries. Other countries had opened consulates in Shkodër
Shkodër
ever since 1718. Obot
Obot
and Ulcinj
Ulcinj
served as ports for Shkodër, and later on Shëngjin
Shëngjin
(San Giovanni di Medua). The Jesuit
Jesuit
seminary and the Franciscan
Franciscan
committee were opened in the 19th century. Before 1867 Shkodër
Shkodër
(İşkodra) was a sanjak of Rumelia Eyalet
Rumelia Eyalet
in Ottoman Empire. In 1867, Shkodër
Shkodër
sanjak merged with Skopje
Skopje
(Üsküp) sanjak and became Shkodër
Shkodër
vilayet. Shkodër vilayet
Shkodër vilayet
was split into Shkodër, Prizren
Prizren
and Dibra sanjaks. In 1877, Prizren
Prizren
passed to Kosovo vilayet and Debar
Debar
passed to Monastir vilayet, while Durrës
Durrës
township became a sanjak. In 1878 Bar and Podgorica
Podgorica
townships belonged to Montenegro. In 1900, Shkodër vilayet
Shkodër vilayet
was split into Shkodër
Shkodër
and Durrës
Durrës
sanjaks. Modern[edit] Main article: Siege of Scutari (1912–1913)

Shkodër
Shkodër
during the First Balkan War.

Shkodër
Shkodër
played an important role during the League of Prizren, the Albanian liberation movement. The people of Shkodër
Shkodër
participated in battles to protect Albanian land. The branch of the League of Prizren for Shkodër, which had its own armed unit, fought for the protection of Plav, Gusinje, Hoti, and Gruda, and the war for the protection of Ulcinj. The Bushati
Bushati
Library, built during the 1840s, served as a center for the League of Prizren's branch for Shkodër. Many books were collected in libraries of Catholic missionaries working in Shkodër. Literary, cultural, and sports associations were formed, such as Bashkimi ("The Union") and Agimi ("The Dawn"). The first Albanian newspapers and publications printed in Albania
Albania
came out of the printing press of Shkodër. The Marubi family of photographers began working in Shkodër, which left behind over 150,000 negatives from the period of the Albanian liberation movement, the rise of the Albanian flag in Vlorë, and life in Albanian towns during the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. During the Balkan Wars, Shkodër
Shkodër
went from one occupation to another, when the Ottomans were defeated by the Kingdom of Montenegro. The Ottoman forces led by Hasan Riza Pasha
Hasan Riza Pasha
and Esad Pasha had resisted for seven months the surrounding of the town by Montenegrin forces and their Serbian allies. Esad (Hasan had previously been mysteriously killed by Esad Pasha Toptani
Esad Pasha Toptani
in an ambush inside the town) finally surrendered to Montenegro
Montenegro
in April 1913, after Montenegro
Montenegro
suffered a high death toll with more than 10,000 casualties. Miss Edith Durham also notes the cruelties suffered at the hand of Montenegrins in the wake of October 1913: "Thousands of refugees arriving from Djakovo and neighbourhood. Victims of Montenegro. My position was indescribably painful, for I had no funds left, and women came to me crying: 'If you will not feed my child, throw it in the river. I cannot see it starve.'"[29] Montenegro
Montenegro
was compelled to leave the city to the new country of Albania
Albania
in May 1913, in accordance with the London Conference of Ambassadors. During World War I, Montenegrin forces again occupied Shkodër
Shkodër
on June 27, 1915. In January 1916, Shkodër
Shkodër
was taken over by Austria-Hungary and was the center of the zone of their occupation. When the war ended on 11 November 1918, French forces occupied Shkodër
Shkodër
as well as other regions with sizable Albanian populations. After World War I, the international military administration of Albania
Albania
was temporarily located in Shkodër, and in March 1920, Shkodër
Shkodër
was put under the administration of the national government of Tirana. In the second half of 1920, Shkodër
Shkodër
resisted another threat, the military intervention of the forces of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Shkodër
Shkodër
was the center of democratic movements of the years 1921–1924. The democratic opposition won the majority of votes for the Constitutional Assembly, and on May 31, 1924, the democratic forces took over the town and from Shkodër
Shkodër
headed to Tirana. From 1924 to 1939, Shkodër
Shkodër
had a slow industrial development, small factories that produced food, textile, and cement were opened. From 43 of such in 1924, the number rose to 70 in 1938. In 1924, Shkodër
Shkodër
had 20,000 inhabitants, the number grew to 29,000 in 1938. Shkodër
Shkodër
was the seat of a Catholic archbishopric and had a number of religious schools. The first laic school was opened here in 1913, and the State Gymnasium was opened in 1922. It was the center of many cultural associations. In sports Shkodër
Shkodër
was the first city in Albania
Albania
to constitute a sports association, the "Vllaznia" (brotherhood). Vllaznia Shkodër
Vllaznia Shkodër
is the oldest sport club in Albania. During the early 1990s, Shkodër
Shkodër
was once again a major center, this time of the democratic movement that finally brought to an end the communist regime established by Enver Hoxha. In the later 2000s (decade), the city experiences a rebirth as main streets are being paved, buildings painted and streets renamed. In December 2010, Shkodër
Shkodër
and the surrounding region was hit by probably the worst flooding in the last 100 years.[30] In 2011, a new swing bridge over the Buna River was constructed, thus replacing the old bridge nearby.

Demographics[edit]

The catholic St. Stephen's Cathedral. (left) The Ebu Beker Mosque
Ebu Beker Mosque
is the main Mosque in the city. (right)

Shkodër
Shkodër
is the 4th most populous city in Albania
Albania
and the largest city in the Shkodër
Shkodër
County. According to the Albanian national Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), the city of Shkodër
Shkodër
include 77,075 people as of the 2011 Census.[31] About 197,357 (91.65%) of the population are Albanians, 694 (0.32%) Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, 282 (0.13%) Montenegrins and 13,665 (6.35%) did not declare their ethnicity.[32] The city of Shkodër
Shkodër
was one of the most important centers for Islamic scholars and cultural and literary activity in Albania. Here stands the site of the only institution in Albania
Albania
which provides high-level education in Arabic, Turkish and Islamic Studies.[33] Shkodër
Shkodër
is the center of Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
in Albania. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church is represented in Shkodër
Shkodër
by the episcopal seat of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Shkodër-Pult
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Shkodër-Pult
(Scutari-Pulati) in Shkodër
Shkodër
Cathedral, with the current seat of the prelacy. According to Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), Catholics make up about 47% of the population followed by Muslims (including the Bektashi
Bektashi
minority) with 45%. About 1.5% of the population identify as non-Catholic Christians, 0.14% are Atheists and 0.31% identify themselves as believers without denomination.[34] Politics[edit] The present municipality, which now extends from the Albanian Alps
Albanian Alps
to the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Ana e Malit, Bërdicë, Dajç, Guri i Zi, Postribë, Pult, Rrethinat, Shalë, Shkodër, Shosh and Velipojë, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city Shkodër.[35] The total population is 135,612 (2011 census), in a total area of 872.71 km2.[36] The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 77,075.[37] Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Albania The main activities of the processing industry in Shkodra were the processing of tobacco and manufacture of cigarettes, production of preserved foods, sugar - based foods, soft and alcoholic drinks, and pasta, bread, rice and vegetable oil. The main activities of the textile industry were focused on garments and silk products. The city also had a wood-processing and paper-production plant. The most important mechanical engineering industries concerned wire manufacturing, elevator manufacturing, bus assembly and the Drini Plant.[38] According to the World Bank, Shkodër
Shkodër
has had significant steps of improving the economy in recent years. In 2016, Shkodër
Shkodër
ranked 8[39] among 22 cities in Southeastern Europe
Europe
before the capital Tirana, Belgrade, Serbia
Serbia
and Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Infrastructure[edit] See also: Transport in Albania As the largest city in northern Albania, the city is the main road connection between the Albanian capital, Tirana
Tirana
and Montenegrin capital Podgorica. The SH1 leads to the Albanian - Montenegrin border at Han i Hotit
Han i Hotit
border crossing. From Tirana
Tirana
at the Kamza Bypass northward, it passes through Fushë-Kruja, Milot, Lezha, Shkodra, and Koplik. The road segment between Hani i Hotit at the Montenegrin border and Shkodra was completed in 2013 as a single carriageway standard. Shkodër
Shkodër
Bypass started after the 2010 Albania
Albania
floods. It was planned to incorporate a defensive dam against Shkodër
Shkodër
Lake
Lake
but works were abandoned a few years later. The road continues as a single carriageway down to Milot and contains some uncontrolled and dangerous entry and exit points. The SH5 starts from Shkodër
Shkodër
to Morinë. Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Albania Shkodër
Shkodër
is an important educational and industrial center. The city produces various mechanical and electrical components, along with textile and food products. Luigj Gurakuqi University of Shkodër
Luigj Gurakuqi University of Shkodër
is one of the more prestigious learning centers of Albania. The public library of the city contains more than 250,000 books. Other cultural institutions include the Cultural Center, the Marubi Photo Archives, the Artists and Writers Association, the Migjeni Theatre
Migjeni Theatre
(named after Millosh Gjergj Nikolla), the Gallery of Arts and the Museum of History. Historic cultural architecture includes the Castle of Shkodër, the Turkish Bath, and the Lead Mosque. The Castle of Shkodër
Shkodër
became famous during the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
when it was protected by the Turkish general Hasan Riza Pasha
Hasan Riza Pasha
and Esad Pasha. Many festivals take place on an annual basis such as Carnival, Children Festival, Lake
Lake
Day and Shkodra Jazz Fest. Music[edit] City tunes differ from the rural music of the land, but both enjoy popularity in Shkodra. Northern music is a refined combination of romantic and sophisticated undertones with oriental-sounding scales and a constant interplay of major and minor. It bears a significant affinity with the sevdalinke of Bosnia, but differs from them in their extreme forms while maintaining a typically Albanian quality through the exceptional fluidity of rhythm and tempo. Early descriptions of such music groups, which date from the end of the 19th century, suggest use of the violin, clarinet, saze, defi, and sometimes Indian-style harmonium and percussion (provided by rattling a stick between two bottles). Today, the accordion and guitar have replaced the more exotic instruments. Among the most important players are Bik Ndoja, Luçije Miloti, Xhevdet Hafizi and Bujar Qamili. Sights[edit] Further information: Category:Tourist attractions in Shkodër
Shkodër
and Category:Buildings and structures in Shkodër The city and the surrounding area are blessed with a large variety of natural and cultural elements. The most attractive quarters of the city are commonly thought to be Pjaca, identifiable as the main city centre between statues of Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
and Luigj Gurakuqi, and Gjuhadol, the neighborhood around one of the most scenic streets connecting the Cathedral on the east side of town with the middle of the city. The most recognizable memorial is the legendary Castle of Rozafa known also as Rozafati. Lake
Lake
of Shkodër
Shkodër
is the largest lake in South Europe. It is a major summer attraction for tourists and inhabitants. Another interesting historical site is the ruins of Shurdhah (Sarda), a medieval town situated only 15 kilometres (9 miles) from Shkodër. To go out there you must take a motor-boat from the dam of Vau i Dejës
Vau i Dejës
out to the island where Shurdhah is located (about 10 miles, or 16 km). Shurdhah was built atop a hill on the island, roughly 5 ha in area, surrounded by the waters of the Drini river (which has been rerouted now to form an artificial lake). At one time it was the summer retreat of the famous Dukagjini Family. About 5 km (3 mi) east of Shkodër
Shkodër
lies the medieval citadel of Drisht. Many visitors feel that Shkodër
Shkodër
is the soul of Albania. The very characteristic appearance of the city is formed by the juxtaposition of ancient houses and narrow streets joined with stone walls and modern buildings. After World War II, some of Shkodër
Shkodër
was rebuilt with wider streets to accommodate automotive traffic, and new residential buildings are being constructed all the time. Monuments include, the Rozafa Castle, the Mes Bridge, the Lead Mosque, the Ebu Beker Mosque, the Shkodër
Shkodër
Cathedral, the Shkodër
Shkodër
Orthodox Cathedral, the Kratul and the Shirgj Church.

Notable people[edit] Main page: Category:People from Shkodër Below are some of the most notable personalities born or long time residents in Shkodër:

Queen Teuta, reign 231-227 BC King Gentius, reign 181-168 BC Arilena Ara, singer Marin Barleti, 15th century Albanian historian and priest Marin Beçikemi, 15th century Albanian philosopher, orator, and professor Bushati
Bushati
family, prominent Ottoman Albanian family Zef Coba, composer Cafo Beg Ulqini, Albanian Nationalist Elhaida Dani, The Voice of Italy
The Voice of Italy
winner and Albanian Eurovision representative Simon Gjoni, composer Karl Gurakuqi, linguist and folklorist. Luigj Gurakuqi, one of the leaders of the Albanian national movement Elis Guri, former world champion Greco-Roman wrestler Anton Harapi, Albanian franciscan friar Kolë Idromeno, Albanian painter and photographer Prenkë Jakova, author of the first Albanian opera. Zef Jubani, folklorist and activist of the Albanian National Awakening

Irhan Jubica, writer and publisher Branko Kadija, communist, People's Hero of Albania Hamza bey Kazazi, fighter Palokë Kurti, footballer, athlete, sports organizer, and sports journalist Tinka Kurti, famous Albanian actress Vojo Kushi, Albanian World War II
World War II
hero and People's Hero of Albania Jordan Misja, communist, People's Hero of Albania Henrik Lacaj, translator and scholar Angela Martini, model and former Miss Universe Albania Ndre Mjeda, Albanian Catholic romantic poet Hilë Mosi, Albanian politician and poet Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani, Albanian Islamic scholar Ndoc Nikaj, Catholic priest, historian and writer Millosh Gjergj Nikolla, poet (pen name Migjeni) Bernardin Palaj, was a Franciscan
Franciscan
cleric, folklorist and poet. Zef Pllumi, writer, istorian, priest Erkand Qerimaj, world champion of weightlifting

Gjergj Radovani, Bishop of Shkodër
Shkodër
and later Archbishop of Bar Perlat Rexhepi, communist, People's Hero of Albania Vioresin Sinani, Albanian footballer Filip Shiroka, Albanian renaissance poet Mehmet Shpendi, guerrilla fighter Hodo Sokoli, leader of the League of Prizren Ramadan Sokoli, prominent ethnomusicologist Ibrahim Tukiqi, Albanian singer Pashko Vasa, writer, poet and publicist of the Albanian National Awakening Lazër Vladanji, Archbishop of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Bar in the 18th century Gjergj Vladanji, Bishop of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Diocese of Sapë in the 18th century Çesk Zadeja, composer

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Albania Shkodër
Shkodër
is twinned with:

Skopje
Skopje
(Macedonia)

Prizren
Prizren
(Kosovo[a])

Ulcinj
Ulcinj
(Montenegro)

Cetinje
Cetinje
(Montenegro)

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shkodër.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Shkodra.

Shkodër
Shkodër
County List of ancient cities in Illyria History of Albania Culture of Albania Albanian Alps

Notes[edit]

^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

Sources[edit]

Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.  Koti, Isidor (2006). "Celebration of Saint John Vladimir in Elbasan". Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16.  Wilkes, John J. (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-19807-5. 

References[edit]

^ University of Tirana. "HAPËSIRA PERIURBANE E SHKODRËS: PËRDORIMI I TERRITORIT DHE VEÇORITË E ZHVILLIMIT SOCIAL-EKONOMIK" (PDF). doktoratura.unitir.edu.al (in Albanian). p. 34.  ^ a b University of Shkodra. "THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM, A CASE OF SHKODRA, ALBANIA" (PDF). dukagjinicollege.eu. p. 1.  ^ Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31Bc, from the Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series) by John Drogo Montagu, ISBN 1-85367-389-7, 2000, page 47 ^ Krahe, Hans (1925). Die alten balkanillyrischen geographischen Namen auf Grund von Autoren und Inschriften. Heidelberg. p. 36.  ^ e.g. Ptolemy, Geographia II.16.; Polybius, Histories, XXVII.8. ^ Wilkes, John (1992). The Illyrians. pp. 177–179. ISBN 0-631-19807-5.  ^ a b Matzinger, Joachim (2009). "Die Albaner als Nachkommen der Illyrer aus der Sicht der historischen Sprachwissenschaft". In Schmitt, Oliver Jens; Frantz, Eva Anne. Albanische Geschichte: Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung. Munich: Oldenbourg. pp. 22–24.  ^ Cabej, Eqrem (1974). "Die Frage nach dem Entstehungsgebiet der albanischen Sprache". Zeitschrift für Balkanologie. 1012: 7–32. ; cited after Matzinger 2009. ^ Demiraj, Shaban (1999). Prejardhja e shqiptarëve nën dritën e dëshmive të gjuhës shqipe. Tirana. pp. 143–144. ; cited after Matzinger 2009. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition (1911), "Scutari" article. ^ Ramsar (August 4, 2010). "The list of wetlands of international importance" (PDF) (in English and Spanish). Ramsar. p. 5. Retrieved 14 August 2010.  ^ Pešić V. & Glöer P. (2013). "A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake". ZooKeys
ZooKeys
281: 69-90. doi:10.3897/zookeys.281.4409 ^ "BASHKIA E SHKODRËS" (PDF). flag-al.org (in Albanian). p. 28.  ^ "moyennes 1981/2010".  ^ "Historia dhe të dhëna gjeografike" (in Albanian).  ^ Polybius ^ Titus Livius ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 2002 page 680 ^ The Illyrians
Illyrians
by John Wilkes,ISBN 0-631-19807-5, 1992, page 172, "... Gentius
Gentius
among the Labeates
Labeates
around Scodra/" ^ The Illyrians
Illyrians
by John Wilkes, page 213,"The list of Roman settlements includes some of the... Scodra..." ^ a b Fine 1991, p. 193 ^ Koti 2006, para. 1, 2 ^ Fine 1991, p. 206 ^ Fine, John V. A.; Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 104. ISBN 0472082604.  ^ Miladin Stevanović; Vuk Branković (srpski velmoža.) (2004). Vuk Branković. Knjiga-komerc. p. 38. Retrieved 20 April 2013. После битке код Велбужда млади краљ Душан, чији је углед знатно порастао, добио је од оца на управљање Зету са седиштем у Скадру.  ^ Jović, Momir (1994). Srbija i Rimokatolička crkva u srednjem veku. Bagdala. p. 102. Retrieved 21 December 2013. Краљ је у јануару 1331. г. разорио Душанов двор на реци Дримац, код Скадра. Половином априла долази до примирја  ^ Nikolić, Dejan (1996). Svi vladari Srbije. Narodna biblioteka "Resavska škola". p. 102. Retrieved 21 December 2013. Стефан Душан је августа 1331. крен- уо са својом војском из Скадра и дошао до Стефановог дворца у Неродимљу, где је изненадио оца. Краљ Стефан је једва успео да побегне из свог дворца у град Петрич у коме га је Душанова војска опколила  ^ Clayer, Nathalie. " Is̲h̲ḳodra." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online, 2012. Reference. 2 January 2012 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/ishkodra-SIM_8713> ^ Twenty Years of Balkan Tangle: M.Edith Durham ^ "Nato joins Albania
Albania
rescue effort after Balkan floods". BBC News. 6 December 2010.  ^ "2011 Albanian national census Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-21.  ^ Template:2011 Albanian national census. ^ Norris, H. T (1993). Islam
Islam
in the Balkans: Religion and Society Between Europe
Europe
and the Arab World. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. p. 76. ISBN 0 87249 977 4. Retrieved 2016-05-12.  ^ "Population and Housing Census Shkoder 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.  ^ Law nr. 115/2014[permanent dead link] ^ Interactive map administrative territorial reform ^ 2011 census results Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLED/Resources/339650-1122490529659/Shkodra.pdf ^ http://www.doingbusiness.org/Rankings/south-east-europe

Topics related to Shkodër

v t e

Shkodër

Landmarks

Ebu Beker Mosque Franciscan
Franciscan
Church of Shkodër Shkodër
Shkodër
Cathedral Shkodër
Shkodër
Orthodox Cathedral Fatih Sultan Mehmet Mosque Isa Boletini Monument Loro Boriçi Stadium Migjeni Theatre Rozafa Castle Mes Bridge Lead Mosque Historical Museum of Shkodër Clock Tower of Shkodër Lake
Lake
Skadar Roza Suma building Gjon Marka Gjoni Kulla Parrucë Mosque Pjaca Road Molo Promenade

Education

Luigj Gurakuqi
Luigj Gurakuqi
University Shkodër
Shkodër
Jesuit
Jesuit
College Luigj Gurakuqi
Luigj Gurakuqi
University Library Jordan Misja High School 28 Nëntori High School

Media

Vllaznimi Sportiv

v t e

Municipalities of Albania

Municipalities in Albania
Albania
are administrative divisions made up of local administrative units and their inclusive villages.

(61)

Belsh Berat Bulqizë Cërrik Delvinë Devoll Dibër Divjakë Dropull Durrës Elbasan Fier Finiq Fushë-Arrëz Gjirokastër Gramsh Has Himarë Kamëz Kavajë Këlcyrë Klos Kolonjë Konispol Korçë Krujë Kuçovë Kukës Kurbin Lezhë Libohovë Librazhd Lushnjë Malësi e Madhe Maliq Mallakastër Mat Memaliaj Mirditë Patos Peqin Përmet Pogradec Poliçan Prrenjas Pukë Pustec Roskovec Rrogozhinë Sarandë Selenicë Shijak Shkodër Skrapar Tepelenë Tiranë Tropojë Ura Vajgurore Vau i Dejës Vlorë Vorë

v t e

Administrative Divisions of Shkodër
Shkodër
County

County Seat: Shkodër

Municipality of Fushë-Arrëz

Blerim Fierzë Fushë-Arrëz Iballë Qafë-Mali

Municipality of Malësi e Madhe

Gruemirë Kastrat Kelmend Koplik Qendër Shkrel

Municipality of Pukë

Gjegjan Pukë Qelëz Qerret Rrapë

Municipality of Shkodër

Ana e Malit Bërdicë Dajç Guri i Zi Postribë Pult Rrethinat Shalë Shkodër Shosh Velipojë

Municipality of Vau i Dejës

Bushat Hajmel Shllak Temal Vau i Dejës Vig-Mnelë

v t e

Subdivisions of Shkodër
Shkodër
Municipality

Municipal Seat: Shkodër

Administrative Unit of Ana e Malit

Bobot Dramosh Muriqan Oblikë Oblikë
Oblikë
e Sipërme Obot Shtuf Vallas Velinaj Vidhgar

Administrative Unit of Bërdicë

Beltojë Bërdicë
Bërdicë
e Madhe Bërdicë
Bërdicë
e Mesme Bërdicë
Bërdicë
e Sipërme Mali Hebaj Trush

Administrative Unit of Dajç

Belaj Dajç Darragjat Mali i Gjymtit Mushan Pentar Rrushkull Samrisht i Ri Samrisht i Sipërm Shirq Sukë Dajç

Administrative Unit of Guri i Zi

Gajtan Ganjollë Guri i Zi Juban Kuç Mazrek Rragam Rrencë Sheldi Shpor Vukatanë

Administrative Unit of Postribë

Boks Domen Dragoç Drisht Kullaj Mes Myselim Prekal Shakotë Ura e Shtrenjtë Vilëz

Administrative Unit of Pult

Bruçaj Gjuraj Kir Mgull Plan Pog Xhan

Administrative Unit of Rrethinat

Bardhaj Bleran Dobraç Golem Grudë e Re Guci e Re Hot i Ri Shtoj i Ri Shtoj i Vjetër Zues

Administrative Unit of Shalë

Abat Breg-Lumi Gimaj Lekaj Lotaj Ndërhysaj Nënmavriq Nicaj-Shale Pecaj Theth Vuksanaj

Administrative Unit of Shkodër

Shkodër

Administrative Unit of Shosh

Brashtë Ndrejaj Nikaj-Shosh Palaj Pepsumaj

Administrative Unit of Velipojë

Baks i Ri Baks-Rrjoll Ças Gomsiqe Luarzë Mali Kolaj Pulaj Reç i Ri Velipojë

v t e

Illyrian-related topics

Culture

Daunian pottery Desilo
Desilo
pottery- Desilo
Desilo
shipyard Messapian pottery Peucetii pottery Devollite pottery Gradistë belt-plate Trebeništa masks Vače situla Vače belt-plate Soleto Map Monte Saraceno woman Illyrian religion Illyrian clothing Illyrian coinage Illyrian fibulae Spectacle brooch Daunian stele

Warfare

Desilo
Desilo
shipyard Illyrian Wars Alexander's Balkan campaign War of the Batons Sica Sibyna Illyrian type helmet Enchele kingdom

Language

Illyrian languages Messapian language

Cities & settlements

Daorson Desilo Byllis Shkodër Rhizon Damastion Delminium Ugento Dimale Albanopolis Oria Zadar Salvia, Liburnia Chinna, Dalmatia Meteon Bassania Epicaria

.