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Shavuot
Shavuot
( listen (help·info)) (or Shovuos ( listen (help·info)), in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (Hebrew: שבועות‎, lit. "Weeks"), known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek, is a Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
that occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of Sivan
Sivan
(may fall between 14 May–15 June).[1] Shavuot
Shavuot
has a double significance. It marks the all-important wheat harvest in the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
(Exodus 34:22); and it commemorates the anniversary of the day God gave the Torah
Torah
to the entire nation of Israel
Israel
assembled at Mount Sinai, although the association between the giving of the Torah
Torah
(Matan Torah) and Shavuot
Shavuot
is not explicit in the Biblical text. The holiday is one of the Shalosh Regalim, the three Biblical pilgrimage festivals. It marks the conclusion of the Counting of the Omer, and its date is directly linked to that of Passover. The Torah mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah. On Passover, the people of Israel
Israel
were freed from their enslavement to Pharaoh; on Shavuot
Shavuot
they were given the Torah
Torah
and became a nation committed to serving God.[2] The word Shavuot
Shavuot
means weeks, and the festival of Shavuot
Shavuot
marks the completion of the seven-week counting period between Passover
Passover
and Shavuot. The yahrzeit of King David
David
is traditionally observed on Shavuot. Hasidic Jews
Jews
also observe the yahrzeit of the Baal Shem Tov.[3] Shavuot
Shavuot
is one of the less familiar Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
to secular Jews
Jews
in the Jewish diaspora, while those in Israel
Israel
as well as the Orthodox community are more aware of it.[4][5] According to Jewish law, Shavuot is celebrated in Israel
Israel
for one day and in the Diaspora (outside of Israel) for two days. Reform Judaism
Judaism
celebrates only one day, even in the Diaspora.[6]

Contents

1 Significance

1.1 Agricultural (wheat harvest) 1.2 Scriptural

1.2.1 Names in the Torah 1.2.2 In the Talmud

2 Biblical observances

2.1 Ceremony of First Fruits, Bikkurim 2.2 Temple in Jerusalem

3 Modern observances

3.1 Akdamut 3.2 Dairy
Dairy
foods 3.3 Book of Ruth 3.4 Greenery 3.5 All-night Torah
Torah
study

3.5.1 Tikkun Leil Shavuot

4 Confirmation ceremonies 5 Dates in dispute

5.1 Giving of the Torah 5.2 Counting of the Omer 5.3 The Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees
and the Essenes

6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Significance[edit] Agricultural (wheat harvest)[edit] Shavuot
Shavuot
is not explicitly named as the day on which the Torah
Torah
was revealed by God to the Israelite nation at Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
in the Bible, although this is commonly quoted to be its main significance. What is indeed textually connected in the Bible to the Feast of Shavuot, is the season of the grain harvest, specifically of the wheat, in the Land of Israel. In ancient times, the grain harvest lasted seven weeks and was a season of gladness (Jer. 5:24, Deut. 16:9–11, Isa. 9:2). It began with the harvesting of the barley during Passover
Passover
and ended with the harvesting of the wheat at Shavuot. Shavuot
Shavuot
was thus the concluding festival of the grain harvest, just as the eighth day of Sukkot
Sukkot
(Tabernacles) was the concluding festival of the fruit harvest. During the existence of the Temple in Jerusalem, an offering of two loaves of bread from the wheat harvest was made on Shavuot. Scriptural[edit] Names in the Torah[edit] In the Bible, Shavuot
Shavuot
is called the Festival of Weeks (Hebrew: חג השבועות‬, Ḥag ha-Shavuot, Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy 16:10); Festival of Reaping (Hebrew: חג הקציר‬, Ḥag ha-Katsir, Exodus 23:16), and Day
Day
of the First Fruits (Hebrew יום הבכורים‬, Yom ha-Bikkurim, Numbers 28:26). Shavuot, the plural of a word meaning "week" or "seven", alludes to the fact that this festival happens exactly seven weeks (i.e. "a week of weeks") after Passover. In the Talmud[edit] The Talmud
Talmud
refers to Shavuot
Shavuot
as Atzeret[7] (Hebrew: עצרת‎, literally, "refraining" or "holding back"[8]), referring to the prohibition against work on this holiday[8] and to the conclusion of the holiday and season of Passover.[9] Since Shavuot
Shavuot
occurs 50 days after Passover, Hellenistic Jews
Jews
gave it the name "Pentecost" (πεντηκοστή, "fiftieth day").[Note 1] Biblical observances[edit] Ceremony of First Fruits, Bikkurim[edit] Shavuot
Shavuot
was also the first day on which individuals could bring the Bikkurim (first fruits) to the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
( Mishnah
Mishnah
Bikkurim 1:3). The Bikkurim were brought from the Seven Species
Seven Species
for which the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
is praised: wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates (Deut. 8:8). In the largely agrarian society of ancient Israel, Jewish farmers would tie a reed around the first ripening fruits from each of these species in their fields. At the time of harvest, the fruits identified by the reed would be cut and placed in baskets woven of gold and silver. The baskets would then be loaded on oxen whose horns were gilded and laced with garlands of flowers, and who were led in a grand procession to Jerusalem. As the farmer and his entourage passed through cities and towns, they would be accompanied by music and parades.[10] Temple in Jerusalem[edit] At the Temple in Jerusalem, each farmer would present his Bikkurim to a Kohen
Kohen
in a ceremony that followed the text of Deut. 26:1–10. This text begins by stating: "An Aramean tried to destroy my father," referring to Laban's efforts to weaken Jacob
Jacob
and rob him of his progeny ( Rashi
Rashi
on Deut. 26:5)—or by an alternate translation, the text states "My father was a wandering Aramean," referring to the fact that Jacob
Jacob
was a penniless wanderer in the land of Aram for 20 years ( Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra
on Deut. 26:5). The text proceeds to retell the history of the Jewish people as they went into exile in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and were enslaved and oppressed; following which God redeemed them and brought them to the land of Israel. The ceremony of Bikkurim conveys the Jew's gratitude to God both for the first fruits of the field and for His guidance throughout Jewish history (Scherman, p. 1068). Modern observances[edit]

A synagogue sanctuary adorned in greenery in honor of Shavuot

Shavuot
Shavuot
is unlike other Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
in that it has no prescribed mitzvot ( Torah
Torah
commandments) other than traditional festival observances of meals and merriment; and the traditional holiday observances of special prayer services and the required abstention from work. However, it is also characterized by many minhagim (customs).[11] A mnemonic for these customs is the letters of the Hebrew word acharit (אחרית‬, "last"). Since the Torah
Torah
is called reishit (ראשית‬, "first") the customs of Shavuot
Shavuot
highlight the importance of custom for the continuation and preservation of Jewish religious observance. These customs, largely observed in Ashkenazic communities, are:

אקדמות‬ – Akdamut, the reading of a liturgical poem during Shavuot
Shavuot
morning synagogue services חלב‬ – Chalav (milk), the consumption of dairy products like milk and cheese רות‬ – Ruth, the reading of the Book of Ruth
Book of Ruth
at morning services (outside Israel: on the second day) ירק‬ – Yerek, the decoration of homes and synagogues with greenery תורה‬ – Torah, engaging in all-night Torah
Torah
study.

Akdamut[edit] Main article: Akdamut Akdamut (Aramaic: אקדמות) is a liturgical poem extolling the greatness of God, the Torah
Torah
and Israel
Israel
that is read publicly in the synagogue right before the morning reading of the Torah
Torah
on the first day of Shavuot. It was composed by Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir of Worms, whose son was murdered during the Crusade
Crusade
of 1096. Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir was forced to defend the Torah
Torah
and his Jewish faith in a debate with local priests, and successfully conveyed his certainty of God's power, His love for the Jewish people, and the excellence of Torah. Afterwards he wrote Akdamut, a 90-line poem in Aramaic that stresses these themes. The poem is written in a double acrostic pattern according to the order of the Hebrew alphabet. In addition, each line ends with the syllable "ta" (תא‬), the last and first letters of the Hebrew alphabet, alluding to the endlessness of Torah. The traditional melody that accompanies this poem also conveys a sense of grandeur and triumph.[12] Sephardim do not read Akdamut, but before the evening service they sing a poem called Azharot, which sets out the 613 biblical commandments. The positive commandments are recited on the first day and the negative commandments on the second day. The liturgical poem of Yatziv Pitgam (Aramaic: יציב פתגם) is recited by some synagogues in the Diaspora on the second day of Shavuot. The author and his father's name appear in an acrostic at the beginning of the poem's 15 lines.[13] Dairy
Dairy
foods[edit]

Cheese blintzes, typically eaten by Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
on Shavuot.

Dairy
Dairy
foods such as cheesecake, cheese blintzes,[14] and cheese kreplach among Ashkenazi Jews;[15] cheese sambusak,[16] kelsonnes (cheese ravioli),[17] and atayef (a cheese-filled pancake)[18] among Syrian Jews; kahee (a dough that is buttered and sugared) among Iraqi Jews;[18] and a seven-layer cake called siete cielos (seven heavens) among Tunisian and Moroccan Jews[18][19] are traditionally consumed on the Shavuot
Shavuot
holiday. Yemenite Jews
Jews
do not eat dairy foods on Shavuot.[18] In keeping with the observance of other Yom Tovs, there is both a night meal and a day meal on Shavuot. Meat is usually served at night and dairy is served either for the day meal[15] or for a morning kiddush.[20] Among the explanations given in rabbinic literature for the consumption of dairy foods on this holiday are:[21][22]

Before they received the Torah, the Israelites
Israelites
were not obligated to follow its laws, which include shechita (ritual slaughter of animals) and kashrut. Since all their meat pots and dishes now had to be made kosher before use, they opted to eat dairy foods. The Torah
Torah
is compared to milk by King Solomon, who wrote: "Like honey and milk, it lies under your tongue" ( Song of Songs
Song of Songs
4:11). The gematria of the Hebrew word chalav (חלב‬, milk) is 40, corresponding to the 40 days and 40 nights that Moses
Moses
spent on Mount Sinai before bringing down the Torah. According to the Zohar, each day of the year correlates to one of the Torah's 365 negative commandments. Shavuot
Shavuot
corresponds to the commandment "Bring the first fruits of your land to the house of God your Lord; do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" (Exodus 34:26). Since the first day to bring Bikkurim (the first fruits) is Shavuot, the second half of the verse refers to the custom to eat two separate meals – one milk, one meat – on Shavuot. The Psalmist calls Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
Har Gavnunim (הר גבננים‬, mountain of majestic peaks, Psalm 68:16–17/15–16 ), which is etymologically similar to gevinah (גבינה‬, cheese).

Book of Ruth[edit]

Ruth in Boaz's Field by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, oil on canvas, 1828; National Gallery, London

There are five books in Tanakh
Tanakh
that are known as Megillot (Hebrew: מגילות‬, "scrolls") and are publicly read in the synagogues of some Jewish communities on different Jewish holidays.[23] The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות‬, Megillat Ruth) is read on Shavuot
Shavuot
because: (1) King David, Ruth's descendant, was born and died on Shavuot ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
Hagigah 2:3); (2) Shavuot
Shavuot
is harvest time [Exodus 23:16], and the events of Book of Ruth
Book of Ruth
occur at harvest time; (3) The gematria (numerical value) of Ruth is 606, the number of commandments given at Sinai in addition to the 7 Noahide Laws already given, for a total of 613; (4) Because Shavuot
Shavuot
is traditionally cited as the day of the giving of the Torah, the entry of the entire Jewish people into the covenant of the Torah
Torah
is a major theme of the day. Ruth's conversion to Judaism, and consequent entry into that covenant, is described in the book. This theme accordingly resonates with other themes of the day; (5) Another central theme of the book is hesed (loving-kindness), a major theme of the Torah.[24] Greenery[edit] According to the Midrash, Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
suddenly blossomed with flowers in anticipation of the giving of the Torah
Torah
on its summit. Greenery also figures in the story of the baby Moses
Moses
being found among the bulrushes in a watertight cradle (Ex. 2:3) when he was three months old ( Moses
Moses
was born on 7 Adar
Adar
and placed in the Nile
Nile
River on 6 Sivan, the same day he later brought the Jewish nation to Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
to receive the Torah).[21] For these reasons, many Jewish families traditionally decorate their homes and synagogues with plants, flowers and leafy branches in honor of Shavuot.[25]Some synagogues decorate the bimah with a canopy of flowers and plants so that it resembles a chuppah, as Shavuot
Shavuot
is mystically referred to as the day the matchmaker (Moses) brought the bride (the nation of Israel) to the chuppah (Mount Sinai) to marry the bridegroom (God); the ketubah (marriage contract) was the Torah. Some Eastern Sephardi communities actually read out a ketubah between God and Israel
Israel
as part of the service.[26] The Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
cancelled the tradition of decorating with trees because it too closely resembles the Christian decorations for their holidays.[25] All-night Torah
Torah
study[edit] The practice of staying up all Shavuot
Shavuot
night to study Torah
Torah
– known as Tikkun Leil Shavuot
Shavuot
(Hebrew: תקון ליל שבועות‎) – has its source in the Midrash, which relates that the night before the Torah
Torah
was given, the Israelites
Israelites
retired early to be well-rested for the momentous day ahead. They overslept and Moses
Moses
had to wake them up because God was already waiting on the mountaintop.[27] To rectify this perceived flaw in the national character, many religious Jews stay up all night to learn Torah.[28] The custom of all-night Torah
Torah
study goes back to 1533 when Rabbi Joseph Caro, author of the Shulchan Aruch, then living in Ottoman Salonika, invited Rabbi
Rabbi
Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz
Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz
and other Kabbalistic colleagues to hold Shavuot-night study vigils for which they prepared for three days in advance, just as the Israelites
Israelites
had prepared for three days before the giving of the Torah. During one of those study sessions, an angel appeared and taught them Jewish law.[29][30][31] The mass-consumption of coffee in the Ottoman empire
Ottoman empire
is thought to be one factor in the emergence of the practice of all-night Torah
Torah
study on Shavuot.[32][33] Any subject may be studied on Shavuot
Shavuot
night, although Talmud, Mishnah, and Torah
Torah
typically top the list. People may learn alone or with a chavruta (study partner), or attend late-night shiurim (lectures) and study groups.[34] In Jerusalem, tens of thousands of people finish off the nighttime study session by walking to the Western Wall
Western Wall
before dawn and joining the sunrise minyan there.[34][35][36][37] This practice began in 1967. One week before Shavuot
Shavuot
of that year, the Israeli army recaptured the Old City in the Six- Day
Day
War, and on Shavuot
Shavuot
day, the army opened the Western Wall
Western Wall
to visitors. Over 200,000 Jews
Jews
came to see and pray at the site that had been off-limits to them since 1948. The custom of walking to the Western Wall
Western Wall
on Shavuot
Shavuot
has continued every year since.[34][35][36][38] Tikkun Leil Shavuot[edit] In keeping with the custom of engaging in all-night Torah
Torah
study, the Arizal, a leading Kabbalist of the 16th century, arranged a special service for the evening of Shavuot. The Tikkun Leil Shavuot ("Rectification for Shavuot
Shavuot
Night") consists of excerpts from the beginning and end of each of the 24 books of Tanakh
Tanakh
(including the reading in full of several key sections such as the account of the days of creation, The Exodus, the giving of the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
and the Shema) and the 63 books of Mishnah,[39][40] followed by the reading of Sefer Yetzirah, the 613 commandments
613 commandments
as enumerated by Maimonides, and excerpts from the Zohar, with opening and concluding prayers. The whole reading is divided into thirteen parts, after each of which a Kaddish di-Rabbanan is recited when the Tikkun is studied with a minyan. This service is held in most communities, with the notable exception of Spanish and Portuguese Jews. The service is printed in a special book, itself also called Tikkun Leil Shavuot. There exist similar books for the vigils before the seventh day of Pesach
Pesach
and Hosha'ana Rabbah. Confirmation ceremonies[edit] In the 19th century, several Orthodox synagogues in Britain and Australia held confirmation ceremonies for 12-year-old girls on Shavuot, a precursor to the modern Bat Mitzvah.[41] The early Reform movement made Shavuot
Shavuot
into a religious school graduation day.[4] Today, Reform synagogues in North America typically hold confirmation ceremonies on Shavuot
Shavuot
for students aged 16 to 18 who are completing their religious studies. The graduating class stands in front of an open ark, recalling the standing of the Israelites
Israelites
at Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
for the giving of the Torah.[42] Dates in dispute[edit] Since the Torah
Torah
does not specify the actual day on which Shavuot falls, differing interpretations of this date have arisen both in traditional and non-traditional Jewish circles. These discussions center around two ways of looking at Shavuot: the day it actually occurs (i.e., the day the Torah
Torah
was given on Mount Sinai), and the day it occurs in relation to the Counting of the Omer
Counting of the Omer
(being the 50th day from the first day of the Counting).[43] Giving of the Torah[edit] While most of the Talmudic Sages concur that the Torah
Torah
was given on the sixth of Sivan
Sivan
in the Hebrew Calendar; R. Jose holds that it was given on the seventh of that month. According to the classical timeline, the Israelites
Israelites
arrived at the wilderness of Sinai on the new moon (Ex. 19:1) and the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
were given on the following Shabbat
Shabbat
(i.e., Saturday). The question of whether the new moon fell on Sunday or Monday is undecided (Talmud, tractate Shabbat
Shabbat
86b). In practice, Shavuot
Shavuot
is observed on the sixth day of Sivan
Sivan
in Israel[44] and a second day is added in the Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
(in keeping with a separate rabbinical ruling that applies to all biblical holidays, called Yom tov sheni shel galuyot, Second- Day
Day
Yom Tov in the Diaspora).[45] Counting of the Omer[edit] The Torah
Torah
states that the Omer offering (i.e., the first day of counting the Omer) is the first day of the barley harvest (Deut. 16:9). It should begin "on the morrow after the Shabbat", and continue to be counted for seven Sabbaths. (Lev. 23:11). The Talmudic Sages determined that "Shabbat" here means a day of rest and refers to the first day of Passover. Thus, the counting of the Omer begins on the second day of Passover
Passover
and continues for the next 49 days, or seven complete weeks, ending on the day before Shavuot. According to this calculation, Shavuot
Shavuot
will fall on the day of the week after that of the first day of Passover
Passover
(e.g., if Passover
Passover
starts on a Thursday, Shavuot
Shavuot
will begin on a Friday). Karaites differ in their understanding of "morrow after the Sabbath". Karaites interpret the Sabbath to be the first weekly Sabbath that falls during Passover. As a result, the Karaite Shavuot
Shavuot
is always on a Sunday, although the actual Hebrew date varies (which compliments the fact that a specific date is never given for Shavuot
Shavuot
in the Torah, the only holiday for which this is the case).[46] Other non-Rabbinical religious leaders such as Anan ben David
David
(founder of the Ananites); Benjamin al-Nahawandi (founder of the Benjaminites); Ismail al-Ukbari (founder of a 9th-century messianic Jewish movement in Babylon); Musa of Tiflis (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in Babylon); and Malik al Ramli (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in the Land of Israel) additionally recognized that Shavuot
Shavuot
should fall out on a Sunday.[46] Most secular scholarship, as well as Catholics[47] and the historical Sadducees
Sadducees
and Boethusians, dispute the Rabbinic interpretation. They infer the "Shabbat" referenced is the weekly Shabbat. Accordingly, the counting of the Omer always begins on the Sunday of Passover, and continues for 49 days, so that Shavuot
Shavuot
would always fall on a Sunday as well. The Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees
and the Essenes[edit] This literal interpretation of 'Shabbat' as the weekly Shabbat, was shared by the 2nd-century BCE author of the Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees
who was motivated by the priestly sabbatical solar calendar of the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, which was designed to have festivals and Sabbaths fall on the same day of the week every year. On this calendar (best known from the Book of Luminaries in 1 Enoch), Shavuot
Shavuot
fell on the 15th of Sivan, a Sunday. The date was reckoned fifty days from the first Sabbath after Passover
Passover
(i.e. from the 25th of Nisan). Thus, Jub. 1:1 claims that Moses
Moses
ascended Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
to receive the Torah
Torah
"on the sixteenth day of the third month in the first year of the Exodus of the children of Israel
Israel
from Egypt". In Jub. 6:15–22 and 44:1–5, the holiday is traced to the appearance of the first rainbow on the 15th of Sivan, the day on which God made his covenant with Noah. The Qumran
Qumran
community, commonly associated with the Essenes, held in its library several texts mentioning Shavuot, most notably a Hebrew original of the Book of Jubilees, which sought to fix the celebration of this Feast of Weeks on 15 of Sivan, following their interpretation of Exodus 19:1.[48]

Notes[edit]

^ The Christian observance of Pentecost
Pentecost
is a different holiday, but was based on a New Testament event that happened around the gathering of Jesus's followers on this Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
(Acts 2:1 and following). See also Pentecost.

References[edit]

^ Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
(1991). An Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and Reader. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 58. ISBN 0664253482. The Feast of Weeks, Shavuot, or Pentecost, comes seven weeks after Passover. In the ancient Palestinian agricultural calendar, Shavuot marked the end of the grain harvest and was called the 'Feast of Harvest'  ^ What Is Shavuot ^ "The Baal Shem Tov—A Brief Biography". Chabad. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ a b Goldberg, J.J. (12 May 2010). "Shavuot: The Zeppo Marx of Jewish Holidays". The Forward. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ Wein, Rabbi
Rabbi
Berel (21 May 2010). " Shavuot
Shavuot
Thoughts". The Jerusalem Post.  ^ Shavuot
Shavuot
In the Community, My Jewish Learning – see 7th paragraph ^ Pesachim 68b. ^ a b Bogomilsky, Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe (2009). "Dvar Torah
Torah
Questions and Answers on Shavuot". Sichos in English. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ Wein, Rabbi
Rabbi
Berel (2005). "Shavuos". torah.org. Retrieved 6 June 2011.  ^ The Temple Institute. "The Festival of Shavout: Bringing the Firstfruits to the Temple". The Temple Institute. Retrieved September 5, 2007.  ^ https://www.ou.org/holidays/shavuot/customs_of_shavuot/ ^ https://www.ou.org/holidays/shavuot/akdamut_and_ketuvah/ ^ http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/783211/dr-lawrence-schiffman/yatziv-pitgam-one-of-our-last-aramaic-piyyutim/ ^ Wein, Rabbi
Rabbi
Berel (10 May 2005). "Cheese & Flowers". Aish.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ a b " Shavuot
Shavuot
– Hag ha'Bikkurim or Festival of the First Fruits". In Mama's Kitchen. Archived from the original on 6 May 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. John Wiley & Sons. p. 524. ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3.  ^ Marks, Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, p. 87. ^ a b c d Kaplan, Sybil. " Shavuot
Shavuot
Foods Span Myriad Cultures". Jewish News of Greater Phoenix. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ Kagan, Aaron (29 May 2008). "Beyond Blintzes: A Culinary Tour of Shavuot". The Forward. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ " Shavuot
Shavuot
Tidbits: An Overview of the Holiday". Torah
Torah
Tidbits. ou.org. 2006. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ a b Simmons, Rabbi
Rabbi
Shraga (27 May 2006). "Why Dairy
Dairy
on Shavuot?". Aish.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ Erdstein, Rabbi
Rabbi
Baruch E.; Kumer, Nechama Dina (2011). "Why do we eat dairy foods on Shavuot?". AskMoses.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ The other four are the Book of Lamentations, read on Tisha B'Av; the Book of Ecclesiastes, read on Sukkot; the Book of Esther
Book of Esther
(Megillat Esther) read on Purim; and the Song of Songs, the reading for Passover. See Five Megillot
Five Megillot
for further details. ^ Rosenberg, Yael. "Reading Ruth: Rhyme and Reason". Mazor Guide. Mazornet, Inc. Retrieved 30 May 2017.  ^ a b Ross, Lesli Koppelman. " Shavuot
Shavuot
Decorations". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 30 May 2017.  ^ Goodman, Philip. "The Shavuot
Shavuot
Marriage Contract". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 30 May 2017.  ^ Shir Hashirim Rabbah 1:57. ^ Ullman, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yirmiyahu (22 May 2004). "Sleepless Shavuot
Shavuot
in Shicago". Ohr Somayach. Retrieved 5 September 2007.  ^ Altshuler, Dr. Mor (22 December 2008). "Tikkun Leil Shavuot
Shavuot
of R. Joseph Karo and the Epistle of Solomon
Solomon
ha-Levi Elkabetz". jewish-studies.info. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ Altshuler, Mor (22 May 2007). "'Let each help his neighbor'". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 September 2007.  ^ "Joseph Karo". Jewish Virtual Library. 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ Sokolow, Moshe (24 May 2012). "Sleepless on Shavuot". Jewish Ideas Daily. Retrieved 22 July 2013.  ^ Horowitz, Elliot (Spring 1989). "Coffee, Coffeehouses, and the Nocturnal Rituals of Early Modern Jewry". AJS Review. JSTOR 1486283.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ a b c Fendel, Hillel (28 May 2009). "Who Replaced My Cheese with Torah
Torah
Study?". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ a b Wein, Rabbi
Rabbi
Berel (16 May 2002). "Shavuot: Sleepless Nights". Torah
Torah
Women.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ a b "Shavuot". NSW Board of Jewish Education. 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ Rosenblum, Jonathan (31 May 2006). "Celebrating Shavuos Alone". Cross-Currents. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ Simmons, Rabbi
Rabbi
Shraga (12 May 2001). "ABC's of Shavuot". Aish.com. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/2156/jewish/Learning-on-Shavuot-Night-Tikun-Leil-Shavuot.htm ^ http://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/tikkun-leil-shavuot/ ^ Raymond Apple. "Origins of Bat-Mitzvah". OzTorah. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ Katz, Lisa (2011). "What is Judaism's confirmation ceremony?". About.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011.  ^ "Shavuot". Jewish FAQ. Retrieved 31 May 2017.  ^ Goldin, Shmuel (2010). Unlocking the Torah
Torah
Text: Vayikra. Gefen Publishing House Ltd. p. 207. ISBN 9789652294500.  ^ Kohn, Daniel. "Why Some Holidays Last Longer Outside Israel". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 31 May 2017.  ^ a b Ankori, Zvi, Karaites in Byzantium, p. 276. ^ Kohler, Kaufmann; Magnus, J. L. (2002). "Pentecost". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 29, 2009.  ^ Joseph Fitzmyer Responses to 101 questions on the Dead Sea scrolls 1992 p. 87 – "Particularly important for the Qumran
Qumran
community was the celebration of this Feast of Weeks on III/15, because according to Ex. 19:1 Israel
Israel
arrived in its exodus-wandering at Mt. Sinai in the third month after leaving Egypt. Later the renewal of the Covenant came to be celebrated on the Feast of Weeks (see Jubilees). Qumran community was deeply researched by Flavius Josephus."

Sources[edit]

Brofsky, David. "Hilkhot Moadim: Understanding the Laws of the Festivals." Jerusalem: Koren Publishers, 2013. Kitov, Eliyahu (1978). The book of our heritage: the Jewish year and its days of significance. Volume 3: Iyar-Elul. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87306-151-3.  Scherman, Nosson, ed. (1993). The Chumash: the Torah: Haftaros and five Megillos with a commentary anthologized from the Rabbinic writings. ArtScroll
ArtScroll
/ Mesorah Publications. ISBN 978-0-89906-014-9. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shavuot.

Chabad.org: Shavuot Orthodox Union - Jewish Holidays: Shavuot My Jewish Learning: Jewish Confirmation

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