Shavuot ( listen (help·info)) (or Shovuos
( listen (help·info)), in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in
Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (Hebrew: שבועות, lit. "Weeks"),
known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost
(Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek, is a
Jewish holiday that
occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of
Sivan (may fall between
14 May–15 June).
Shavuot has a double significance. It marks the all-important wheat
harvest in the
Land of Israel
Land of Israel (Exodus 34:22); and it commemorates the
anniversary of the day God gave the
Torah to the entire nation of
Israel assembled at Mount Sinai, although the association between the
giving of the
Torah (Matan Torah) and
Shavuot is not explicit in the
The holiday is one of the Shalosh Regalim, the three Biblical
pilgrimage festivals. It marks the conclusion of the Counting of the
Omer, and its date is directly linked to that of Passover. The Torah
mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second
day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting
of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for
the giving of the Torah. On Passover, the people of
Israel were freed
from their enslavement to Pharaoh; on
Shavuot they were given the
Torah and became a nation committed to serving God. The word
Shavuot means weeks, and the festival of
Shavuot marks the completion
of the seven-week counting period between
Passover and Shavuot. The
yahrzeit of King
David is traditionally observed on Shavuot. Hasidic
Jews also observe the yahrzeit of the Baal Shem Tov.
Shavuot is one of the less familiar
Jewish holidays to secular
the Jewish diaspora, while those in
Israel as well as the Orthodox
community are more aware of it. According to Jewish law, Shavuot
is celebrated in
Israel for one day and in the Diaspora (outside of
Israel) for two days. Reform
Judaism celebrates only one day, even in
1.1 Agricultural (wheat harvest)
1.2.1 Names in the Torah
1.2.2 In the Talmud
2 Biblical observances
2.1 Ceremony of First Fruits, Bikkurim
2.2 Temple in Jerusalem
3 Modern observances
3.3 Book of Ruth
3.5.1 Tikkun Leil Shavuot
4 Confirmation ceremonies
5 Dates in dispute
5.1 Giving of the Torah
5.2 Counting of the Omer
Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees and the Essenes
9 External links
Agricultural (wheat harvest)
Shavuot is not explicitly named as the day on which the
revealed by God to the Israelite nation at
Mount Sinai in the Bible,
although this is commonly quoted to be its main significance.
What is indeed textually connected in the Bible to the Feast of
Shavuot, is the season of the grain harvest, specifically of the
wheat, in the Land of Israel. In ancient times, the grain harvest
lasted seven weeks and was a season of gladness (Jer. 5:24, Deut.
16:9–11, Isa. 9:2). It began with the harvesting of the barley
Passover and ended with the harvesting of the wheat at Shavuot.
Shavuot was thus the concluding festival of the grain harvest, just as
the eighth day of
Sukkot (Tabernacles) was the concluding festival of
the fruit harvest. During the existence of the Temple in Jerusalem, an
offering of two loaves of bread from the wheat harvest was made on
Names in the Torah
In the Bible,
Shavuot is called the Festival of Weeks (Hebrew: חג
השבועות, Ḥag ha-Shavuot, Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy 16:10);
Festival of Reaping (Hebrew: חג הקציר, Ḥag ha-Katsir,
Exodus 23:16), and
Day of the First Fruits (Hebrew יום
הבכורים, Yom ha-Bikkurim, Numbers 28:26).
Shavuot, the plural of a word meaning "week" or "seven", alludes to
the fact that this festival happens exactly seven weeks (i.e. "a week
of weeks") after Passover.
In the Talmud
Talmud refers to
Shavuot as Atzeret (Hebrew: עצרת,
literally, "refraining" or "holding back"), referring to the
prohibition against work on this holiday and to the conclusion of
the holiday and season of Passover. Since
Shavuot occurs 50 days
after Passover, Hellenistic
Jews gave it the name "Pentecost"
(πεντηκοστή, "fiftieth day").[Note 1]
Ceremony of First Fruits, Bikkurim
Shavuot was also the first day on which individuals could bring the
Bikkurim (first fruits) to the
Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem (
1:3). The Bikkurim were brought from the
Seven Species for which the
Land of Israel
Land of Israel is praised: wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates,
olives, and dates (Deut. 8:8).
In the largely agrarian society of ancient Israel, Jewish farmers
would tie a reed around the first ripening fruits from each of these
species in their fields. At the time of harvest, the fruits identified
by the reed would be cut and placed in baskets woven of gold and
silver. The baskets would then be loaded on oxen whose horns were
gilded and laced with garlands of flowers, and who were led in a grand
procession to Jerusalem. As the farmer and his entourage passed
through cities and towns, they would be accompanied by music and
Temple in Jerusalem
At the Temple in Jerusalem, each farmer would present his Bikkurim to
Kohen in a ceremony that followed the text of Deut. 26:1–10.
This text begins by stating: "An Aramean tried to destroy my father,"
referring to Laban's efforts to weaken
Jacob and rob him of his
Rashi on Deut. 26:5)—or by an alternate translation, the
text states "My father was a wandering Aramean," referring to the fact
Jacob was a penniless wanderer in the land of Aram for 20 years
Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra on Deut. 26:5).
The text proceeds to retell the history of the Jewish people as they
went into exile in
Ancient Egypt and were enslaved and oppressed;
following which God redeemed them and brought them to the land of
The ceremony of Bikkurim conveys the Jew's gratitude to God both for
the first fruits of the field and for His guidance throughout Jewish
history (Scherman, p. 1068).
A synagogue sanctuary adorned in greenery in honor of Shavuot
Shavuot is unlike other
Jewish holidays in that it has no prescribed
Torah commandments) other than traditional festival
observances of meals and merriment; and the traditional holiday
observances of special prayer services and the required abstention
from work. However, it is also characterized by many minhagim
A mnemonic for these customs is the letters of the Hebrew word acharit
(אחרית, "last"). Since the
Torah is called reishit
(ראשית, "first") the customs of
Shavuot highlight the
importance of custom for the continuation and preservation of Jewish
religious observance. These customs, largely observed in Ashkenazic
אקדמות – Akdamut, the reading of a liturgical poem during
Shavuot morning synagogue services
חלב – Chalav (milk), the consumption of dairy products like
milk and cheese
רות – Ruth, the reading of the
Book of Ruth
Book of Ruth at morning
services (outside Israel: on the second day)
ירק – Yerek, the decoration of homes and synagogues with
תורה – Torah, engaging in all-night
Main article: Akdamut
Akdamut (Aramaic: אקדמות) is a liturgical poem extolling the
greatness of God, the
Israel that is read publicly in the
synagogue right before the morning reading of the
Torah on the first
day of Shavuot. It was composed by
Rabbi Meir of Worms, whose son was
murdered during the
Crusade of 1096.
Rabbi Meir was forced to defend
Torah and his Jewish faith in a debate with local priests, and
successfully conveyed his certainty of God's power, His love for the
Jewish people, and the excellence of Torah. Afterwards he wrote
Akdamut, a 90-line poem in Aramaic that stresses these themes. The
poem is written in a double acrostic pattern according to the order of
the Hebrew alphabet. In addition, each line ends with the syllable
"ta" (תא), the last and first letters of the Hebrew alphabet,
alluding to the endlessness of Torah. The traditional melody that
accompanies this poem also conveys a sense of grandeur and
Sephardim do not read Akdamut, but before the evening service they
sing a poem called Azharot, which sets out the 613 biblical
commandments. The positive commandments are recited on the first day
and the negative commandments on the second day.
The liturgical poem of Yatziv Pitgam (Aramaic: יציב פתגם) is
recited by some synagogues in the Diaspora on the second day of
Shavuot. The author and his father's name appear in an acrostic at the
beginning of the poem's 15 lines.
Cheese blintzes, typically eaten by Ashkenazi
Jews on Shavuot.
Dairy foods such as cheesecake, cheese blintzes, and cheese
kreplach among Ashkenazi Jews; cheese sambusak, kelsonnes
(cheese ravioli), and atayef (a cheese-filled pancake) among
Syrian Jews; kahee (a dough that is buttered and sugared) among Iraqi
Jews; and a seven-layer cake called siete cielos (seven heavens)
among Tunisian and Moroccan Jews are traditionally consumed on
Shavuot holiday. Yemenite
Jews do not eat dairy foods on
In keeping with the observance of other Yom Tovs, there is both a
night meal and a day meal on Shavuot. Meat is usually served at night
and dairy is served either for the day meal or for a morning
Among the explanations given in rabbinic literature for the
consumption of dairy foods on this holiday are:
Before they received the Torah, the
Israelites were not obligated to
follow its laws, which include shechita (ritual slaughter of animals)
and kashrut. Since all their meat pots and dishes now had to be made
kosher before use, they opted to eat dairy foods.
Torah is compared to milk by King Solomon, who wrote: "Like honey
and milk, it lies under your tongue" (
Song of Songs
Song of Songs 4:11).
The gematria of the Hebrew word chalav (חלב, milk) is 40,
corresponding to the 40 days and 40 nights that
Moses spent on Mount
Sinai before bringing down the Torah.
According to the Zohar, each day of the year correlates to one of the
Torah's 365 negative commandments.
Shavuot corresponds to the
commandment "Bring the first fruits of your land to the house of God
your Lord; do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" (Exodus 34:26).
Since the first day to bring Bikkurim (the first fruits) is Shavuot,
the second half of the verse refers to the custom to eat two separate
meals – one milk, one meat – on Shavuot.
The Psalmist calls
Mount Sinai Har Gavnunim (הר גבננים,
mountain of majestic peaks, Psalm 68:16–17/15–16 ), which is
etymologically similar to gevinah (גבינה, cheese).
Book of Ruth
Ruth in Boaz's Field by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, oil on canvas,
1828; National Gallery, London
There are five books in
Tanakh that are known as Megillot (Hebrew:
מגילות, "scrolls") and are publicly read in the synagogues of
some Jewish communities on different Jewish holidays. The Book of
Ruth (מגילת רות, Megillat Ruth) is read on
(1) King David, Ruth's descendant, was born and died on Shavuot
Hagigah 2:3); (2)
Shavuot is harvest time [Exodus
23:16], and the events of
Book of Ruth
Book of Ruth occur at harvest time; (3) The
gematria (numerical value) of Ruth is 606, the number of commandments
given at Sinai in addition to the 7 Noahide Laws already given, for a
total of 613; (4) Because
Shavuot is traditionally cited as the day of
the giving of the Torah, the entry of the entire Jewish people into
the covenant of the
Torah is a major theme of the day. Ruth's
conversion to Judaism, and consequent entry into that covenant, is
described in the book. This theme accordingly resonates with other
themes of the day; (5) Another central theme of the book is hesed
(loving-kindness), a major theme of the Torah.
According to the Midrash,
Mount Sinai suddenly blossomed with flowers
in anticipation of the giving of the
Torah on its summit. Greenery
also figures in the story of the baby
Moses being found among the
bulrushes in a watertight cradle (Ex. 2:3) when he was three months
Moses was born on 7
Adar and placed in the
Nile River on 6 Sivan,
the same day he later brought the Jewish nation to
Mount Sinai to
receive the Torah).
For these reasons, many Jewish families traditionally decorate their
homes and synagogues with plants, flowers and leafy branches in honor
of Shavuot.Some synagogues decorate the bimah with a canopy of
flowers and plants so that it resembles a chuppah, as
mystically referred to as the day the matchmaker (Moses) brought the
bride (the nation of Israel) to the chuppah (Mount Sinai) to marry the
bridegroom (God); the ketubah (marriage contract) was the Torah. Some
Eastern Sephardi communities actually read out a ketubah between God
Israel as part of the service.
Vilna Gaon cancelled the tradition of decorating with trees
because it too closely resembles the Christian decorations for their
The practice of staying up all
Shavuot night to study
Torah – known
as Tikkun Leil
Shavuot (Hebrew: תקון ליל שבועות) –
has its source in the Midrash, which relates that the night before the
Torah was given, the
Israelites retired early to be well-rested for
the momentous day ahead. They overslept and
Moses had to wake them up
because God was already waiting on the mountaintop. To rectify
this perceived flaw in the national character, many religious Jews
stay up all night to learn Torah.
The custom of all-night
Torah study goes back to 1533 when Rabbi
Joseph Caro, author of the Shulchan Aruch, then living in Ottoman
Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz
Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz and other Kabbalistic
colleagues to hold Shavuot-night study vigils for which they prepared
for three days in advance, just as the
Israelites had prepared for
three days before the giving of the Torah. During one of those study
sessions, an angel appeared and taught them Jewish law.
The mass-consumption of coffee in the
Ottoman empire is thought to be
one factor in the emergence of the practice of all-night
Any subject may be studied on
Shavuot night, although Talmud, Mishnah,
Torah typically top the list. People may learn alone or with a
chavruta (study partner), or attend late-night shiurim (lectures) and
In Jerusalem, tens of thousands of people finish off the nighttime
study session by walking to the
Western Wall before dawn and joining
the sunrise minyan there. This practice began in 1967.
One week before
Shavuot of that year, the Israeli army recaptured the
Old City in the Six-
Day War, and on
Shavuot day, the army opened the
Western Wall to visitors. Over 200,000
Jews came to see and pray at
the site that had been off-limits to them since 1948. The custom of
walking to the
Western Wall on
Shavuot has continued every year
Tikkun Leil Shavuot
In keeping with the custom of engaging in all-night
Torah study, the
Arizal, a leading Kabbalist of the 16th century, arranged a special
service for the evening of Shavuot. The Tikkun Leil Shavuot
Shavuot Night") consists of excerpts from the
beginning and end of each of the 24 books of
Tanakh (including the
reading in full of several key sections such as the account of the
days of creation, The Exodus, the giving of the
Ten Commandments and
the Shema) and the 63 books of Mishnah, followed by the
reading of Sefer Yetzirah, the
613 commandments as enumerated by
Maimonides, and excerpts from the Zohar, with opening and concluding
prayers. The whole reading is divided into thirteen parts, after each
of which a Kaddish di-Rabbanan is recited when the Tikkun is studied
with a minyan. This service is held in most communities, with the
notable exception of Spanish and Portuguese Jews.
The service is printed in a special book, itself also called Tikkun
Leil Shavuot. There exist similar books for the vigils before the
seventh day of
Pesach and Hosha'ana Rabbah.
In the 19th century, several Orthodox synagogues in Britain and
Australia held confirmation ceremonies for 12-year-old girls on
Shavuot, a precursor to the modern Bat Mitzvah. The early Reform
Shavuot into a religious school graduation day.
Today, Reform synagogues in North America typically hold confirmation
Shavuot for students aged 16 to 18 who are completing
their religious studies. The graduating class stands in front of an
open ark, recalling the standing of the
Mount Sinai for
the giving of the Torah.
Dates in dispute
Torah does not specify the actual day on which Shavuot
falls, differing interpretations of this date have arisen both in
traditional and non-traditional Jewish circles. These discussions
center around two ways of looking at Shavuot: the day it actually
occurs (i.e., the day the
Torah was given on Mount Sinai), and the day
it occurs in relation to the
Counting of the Omer
Counting of the Omer (being the 50th day
from the first day of the Counting).
Giving of the Torah
While most of the Talmudic Sages concur that the
Torah was given on
the sixth of
Sivan in the Hebrew Calendar; R. Jose holds that it was
given on the seventh of that month. According to the classical
Israelites arrived at the wilderness of Sinai on the new
moon (Ex. 19:1) and the
Ten Commandments were given on the following
Shabbat (i.e., Saturday). The question of whether the new moon fell on
Sunday or Monday is undecided (Talmud, tractate
Shabbat 86b). In
Shavuot is observed on the sixth day of
Sivan in Israel
and a second day is added in the
Jewish diaspora (in keeping with a
separate rabbinical ruling that applies to all biblical holidays,
called Yom tov sheni shel galuyot, Second-
Day Yom Tov in the
Counting of the Omer
Torah states that the Omer offering (i.e., the first day of
counting the Omer) is the first day of the barley harvest (Deut.
16:9). It should begin "on the morrow after the Shabbat", and continue
to be counted for seven Sabbaths. (Lev. 23:11).
The Talmudic Sages determined that "Shabbat" here means a day of rest
and refers to the first day of Passover. Thus, the counting of the
Omer begins on the second day of
Passover and continues for the next
49 days, or seven complete weeks, ending on the day before Shavuot.
According to this calculation,
Shavuot will fall on the day of the
week after that of the first day of
Passover (e.g., if
on a Thursday,
Shavuot will begin on a Friday).
Karaites differ in their understanding of "morrow after the Sabbath".
Karaites interpret the Sabbath to be the first weekly Sabbath that
falls during Passover. As a result, the Karaite
Shavuot is always on a
Sunday, although the actual Hebrew date varies (which compliments the
fact that a specific date is never given for
Shavuot in the Torah, the
only holiday for which this is the case). Other non-Rabbinical
religious leaders such as Anan ben
David (founder of the Ananites);
Benjamin al-Nahawandi (founder of the Benjaminites); Ismail al-Ukbari
(founder of a 9th-century messianic Jewish movement in Babylon); Musa
of Tiflis (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in Babylon); and
Malik al Ramli (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in the Land
of Israel) additionally recognized that
Shavuot should fall out on a
Most secular scholarship, as well as Catholics and the historical
Sadducees and Boethusians, dispute the Rabbinic interpretation. They
infer the "Shabbat" referenced is the weekly Shabbat. Accordingly, the
counting of the Omer always begins on the Sunday of Passover, and
continues for 49 days, so that
Shavuot would always fall on a Sunday
Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees and the Essenes
This literal interpretation of 'Shabbat' as the weekly Shabbat, was
shared by the 2nd-century BCE author of the
Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees who was
motivated by the priestly sabbatical solar calendar of the 3rd and 2nd
centuries BCE, which was designed to have festivals and Sabbaths fall
on the same day of the week every year. On this calendar (best known
from the Book of Luminaries in 1 Enoch),
Shavuot fell on the 15th of
Sivan, a Sunday. The date was reckoned fifty days from the first
Passover (i.e. from the 25th of Nisan). Thus, Jub. 1:1
Mount Sinai to receive the
Torah "on the
sixteenth day of the third month in the first year of the Exodus of
the children of
Israel from Egypt".
In Jub. 6:15–22 and 44:1–5, the holiday is traced to the
appearance of the first rainbow on the 15th of Sivan, the day on which
God made his covenant with Noah.
Qumran community, commonly associated with the Essenes, held in
its library several texts mentioning Shavuot, most notably a Hebrew
original of the Book of Jubilees, which sought to fix the celebration
of this Feast of Weeks on 15 of Sivan, following their interpretation
of Exodus 19:1.
^ The Christian observance of
Pentecost is a different holiday, but
was based on a New Testament event that happened around the gathering
of Jesus's followers on this
Jewish holiday (Acts 2:1 and following).
See also Pentecost.
Jacob (1991). An Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and
Reader. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 58. ISBN 0664253482.
The Feast of Weeks, Shavuot, or Pentecost, comes seven weeks after
Passover. In the ancient Palestinian agricultural calendar, Shavuot
marked the end of the grain harvest and was called the 'Feast of
^ What Is Shavuot
^ "The Baal Shem Tov—A Brief Biography". Chabad. Retrieved
^ a b Goldberg, J.J. (12 May 2010). "Shavuot: The Zeppo Marx of Jewish
Holidays". The Forward. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
Rabbi Berel (21 May 2010). "
Shavuot Thoughts". The Jerusalem
Shavuot In the Community, My Jewish Learning – see 7th paragraph
^ a b Bogomilsky,
Rabbi Moshe (2009). "Dvar
Torah Questions and
Answers on Shavuot". Sichos in English. Retrieved 22 January
Rabbi Berel (2005). "Shavuos". torah.org. Retrieved 6 June
^ The Temple Institute. "The Festival of Shavout: Bringing the
Firstfruits to the Temple". The Temple Institute. Retrieved September
Rabbi Berel (10 May 2005). "Cheese & Flowers". Aish.com.
Retrieved 24 May 2011.
^ a b "
Shavuot – Hag ha'Bikkurim or Festival of the First Fruits".
In Mama's Kitchen. Archived from the original on 6 May 2007. Retrieved
24 May 2011.
^ Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. John Wiley &
Sons. p. 524. ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3.
^ Marks, Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, p. 87.
^ a b c d Kaplan, Sybil. "
Shavuot Foods Span Myriad Cultures". Jewish
News of Greater Phoenix. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011.
Retrieved 24 May 2011.
^ Kagan, Aaron (29 May 2008). "Beyond Blintzes: A Culinary Tour of
Shavuot". The Forward. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
Shavuot Tidbits: An Overview of the Holiday".
ou.org. 2006. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
^ a b Simmons,
Rabbi Shraga (27 May 2006). "Why
Dairy on Shavuot?".
Aish.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
Rabbi Baruch E.; Kumer, Nechama Dina (2011). "Why do we
eat dairy foods on Shavuot?". AskMoses.com. Retrieved 24 May
^ The other four are the Book of Lamentations, read on Tisha B'Av; the
Book of Ecclesiastes, read on Sukkot; the
Book of Esther
Book of Esther (Megillat
Esther) read on Purim; and the Song of Songs, the reading for
Five Megillot for further details.
^ Rosenberg, Yael. "Reading Ruth: Rhyme and Reason". Mazor Guide.
Mazornet, Inc. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
^ a b Ross, Lesli Koppelman. "
Shavuot Decorations". My Jewish
Learning. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
^ Goodman, Philip. "The
Shavuot Marriage Contract". My Jewish
Learning. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
^ Shir Hashirim Rabbah 1:57.
Rabbi Yirmiyahu (22 May 2004). "Sleepless
Shicago". Ohr Somayach. Retrieved 5 September 2007.
^ Altshuler, Dr. Mor (22 December 2008). "Tikkun Leil
Shavuot of R.
Joseph Karo and the Epistle of
Solomon ha-Levi Elkabetz".
jewish-studies.info. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
^ Altshuler, Mor (22 May 2007). "'Let each help his neighbor'".
Haaretz. Retrieved 5 September 2007.
^ "Joseph Karo". Jewish Virtual Library. 2011. Retrieved 8 June
^ Sokolow, Moshe (24 May 2012). "Sleepless on Shavuot". Jewish Ideas
Daily. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
^ Horowitz, Elliot (Spring 1989). "Coffee, Coffeehouses, and the
Nocturnal Rituals of Early Modern Jewry". AJS Review.
JSTOR 1486283. Missing or empty url= (help)
^ a b c Fendel, Hillel (28 May 2009). "Who Replaced My Cheese with
Torah Study?". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
^ a b Wein,
Rabbi Berel (16 May 2002). "Shavuot: Sleepless Nights".
Torah Women.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2011.
Retrieved 8 June 2011.
^ a b "Shavuot". NSW Board of Jewish Education. 2011. Retrieved 22
^ Rosenblum, Jonathan (31 May 2006). "Celebrating Shavuos Alone".
Cross-Currents. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
Rabbi Shraga (12 May 2001). "ABC's of Shavuot". Aish.com.
Retrieved 8 June 2011.
^ Raymond Apple. "Origins of Bat-Mitzvah". OzTorah. Retrieved 24 May
^ Katz, Lisa (2011). "What is Judaism's confirmation ceremony?".
About.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
^ "Shavuot". Jewish FAQ. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
^ Goldin, Shmuel (2010). Unlocking the
Torah Text: Vayikra. Gefen
Publishing House Ltd. p. 207. ISBN 9789652294500.
^ Kohn, Daniel. "Why Some Holidays Last Longer Outside Israel". My
Jewish Learning. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
^ a b Ankori, Zvi, Karaites in Byzantium, p. 276.
^ Kohler, Kaufmann; Magnus, J. L. (2002). "Pentecost". Jewish
Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 29, 2009.
Joseph Fitzmyer Responses to 101 questions on the Dead Sea scrolls
1992 p. 87 – "Particularly important for the
Qumran community was
the celebration of this Feast of Weeks on III/15, because according to
Israel arrived in its exodus-wandering at Mt. Sinai in the
third month after leaving Egypt. Later the renewal of the Covenant
came to be celebrated on the Feast of Weeks (see Jubilees). Qumran
community was deeply researched by Flavius Josephus."
Brofsky, David. "Hilkhot Moadim: Understanding the Laws of the
Festivals." Jerusalem: Koren Publishers, 2013.
Kitov, Eliyahu (1978). The book of our heritage: the Jewish year and
its days of significance. Volume 3: Iyar-Elul. Jerusalem: Feldheim
Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87306-151-3.
Scherman, Nosson, ed. (1993). The Chumash: the Torah: Haftaros and
five Megillos with a commentary anthologized from the Rabbinic
ArtScroll / Mesorah Publications.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shavuot.
Orthodox Union - Jewish Holidays: Shavuot
My Jewish Learning: Jewish Confirmation
Jewish and Israeli holidays and observances
Jewish holidays and
High Holy Days
Fast of Gedalia
Ten Days of Repentance
Fast of the Firstborn
Yom tov sheni shel galuyot
Tenth of Tevet
Fast of Esther
Counting of the Omer
17th of Tammuz
The Three Weeks
The Nine Days
Rosh Hashanah LaBehema
Holidays / memorial days
of the State of Israel
Yom HaAtzmaut (Independence Day)
Yom HaZikaron (Memorial Day)
Yom HaShoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day)
Yom Yerushalayim (
Ethnic minority holidays
Hebrew calendar months
Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050