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Serbianisation or Serbianization, also known as Serbification[1], and Serbisation or Serbization (Serbian: србизација/srbizacija or посрбљавање/posrbljavanje; Bulgarian: сърбизация, sərbizacija or посръбчване, posrəbčvane; Romanian: serbificarea) is the spread of Serbian culture, people, or politics, either by integration or assimilation.

Contents

1 In Macedonia 2 Romanians and Vlachs 3 Hungarians 4 De-Serbianisation

4.1 Croatia

4.1.1 In the Military Frontier (1500–1800)

4.2 Kosovo

4.2.1 In Orahovac

4.3 Macedonia

5 Notable individuals of non- Serb
Serb
origin who declare as Serbs 6 See also 7 Notes

In Macedonia[edit]

We find here, as everywhere else, the ordinary measures of "Serbization" — the closing of schools, disarmament, invitations to schoolmasters to become Servian officials, nomination of "Serbomanes," "Grecomanes," and vlachs, as village headmen, orders to the clergy of obedience to the Servian Archbishop, acts of violence against influential individuals, prohibition of transit, multiplication of requisitions, forged signatures to declarations and patriotic telegrams, the organization of special bands, military executions in the villages and so forth.[2] — Report of the International Commission

Territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
after the 1913.

Immediately after annexation of Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia
to the Kingdom of Serbia, the Macedonian Slavs
Macedonian Slavs
were faced with the policy of forced serbianisation.[3][4] Those who declare as the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
were, harassed or deported to Bulgaria.[5] Many high clergy of Bulgarian Orthodox Church were expelled: Cosmas of Debar
Debar
(Bishop), Axentius of Bitola
Bitola
(Archbishop), Neophytus of Skopje, Meletius of Veles, Boris of Ohrid
Ohrid
and others.[6] The population of Macedonia was forced to declare as Serbs. Those who refused were beaten and tortured.[7] Prominent people and teachers from Skopje
Skopje
who refused to declare as Serbs
Serbs
were deported to Bulgaria.[6] International Commission concluded that the Serbian state started in Macedonia wide sociological experiment of "assimilation through terror."[6] During the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the government of the Kingdom pursued a linguistic Serbisation policy towards population of the Macedonia,[8] then called "Southern Serbia" (unofficially) or "Vardar Banovina" (officially). The dialects spoken in this region were referred to as dialects of Serbo-Croatian.[9] Either way, those southern dialects were suppressed with regards education, military and other national activities, and their usage was punishable.[10] The Serbianisation of the Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
and population in Republic of Macedonia increased after World War II.[clarification needed][dubious – discuss] Persons declaring their Bulgarian identity were imprisoned or went into exile, and in this way Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia
was effectively de-Bulgarised.[11] The Albanian population of Macedonia was also subjected to policies of Serbianisation, especially from 1912 until the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, when the Slavic Macedonian language became prominent and was imposed upon the Albanian population. Romanians and Vlachs[edit] Voluntarily Serbianisation has been attributed to Romanians and Vlachs, since the 19th century.[12] Hungarians[edit] The Hungarian minority in north Serbia (Vojvodina) has also been affected by Serbianisation since the aftermath of World War II.[13] De-Serbianisation[edit] Croatia[edit] In the Military Frontier (1500–1800)[edit] Serbs
Serbs
in the Roman Catholic Croatian Military Frontier
Croatian Military Frontier
were out of the jurisdiction of the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć
Serbian Patriarchate of Peć
and in 1611, after demands from the community, the Pope establishes the Eparchy of Marča (Vratanija) with seat at the Serbian-built Marča Monastery
Marča Monastery
and instates a Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
vicar bishop as sub-ordinate to the Roman Catholic bishop of Zagreb, working to bring Serbian Orthodox Christians into communion with Rome which caused struggle of power between the Catholics and the Serbs
Serbs
over the region. In 1695 Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Lika- Krbava
Krbava
and Zrinopolje is established by metropolitan Atanasije Ljubojevic and certified by Emperor Josef I in 1707. In 1735 the Serbian Orthodox protested in the Marča Monastery and it became a part of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
until 1753 when the Pope restored the Roman Catholic clergy at it. On June 17, 1777 the Eparchy of Križevci
Eparchy of Križevci
is permanently established by Pope Pius VI with see at Križevci, near Zagreb, thus forming the Croatian Greek Catholic Church which would after the World War I
World War I
include other people; Rusyns and Ukrainians of Yugoslavia.[14][15] Kosovo[edit] The term Arnauti or Arnautaši was coined by Serbian ethnographers for allegedly "Albanized Serbs"; Serbs
Serbs
who were thought to have converted to Islam
Islam
and supposedly went through a process of Albanisation.[16][17] In Orahovac[edit] At the end of the 19th century, writer Branislav Nušić
Branislav Nušić
recorded that the Serb
Serb
poturice (converts to Islam) of Orahovac
Orahovac
began speaking in Albanian and marrying Albanian women.[17] When Dr Jovan Hadži Vasiljević (l. 1866–1948) visited Orahovac
Orahovac
in World War I, he could not distinguish Orthodox from Islamicized and Albanized Serbs.[17] They spoke Serbian, wore the same costumes, but claimed Serbian, Albanian or Turk ethnicity.[17] The Albanian starosedeoci (old urban families) were Slavophone; they did not speak Albanian but a Slavic dialect (naš govor, Our language) at home.[17] In the 1921 census the majority of Muslim Albanians
Albanians
of Orahovac
Orahovac
were registered under the category " Serbs
Serbs
and Croats".[17] This is contrary to the belief that Islamisation
Islamisation
led to Albanisation. This suggests that claims of Islamisation
Islamisation
has led to Albanisation of Serbs
Serbs
are difficult to prove. Also, there has been a continuous and considerable presence of a Slavic Muslim population in Kosovo. Mark Krasniqi, the Kosovo Albanian ethnographer, recalled in 1957:[17] "During my own research, some of them told me that their tongue is similar to Macedonian rather than Serbian (it is clear that they want to dissociate themselves from everything Serbian[17]). It is likely they are the last remnants of what is now known in Serbian sources as 'Arnautaši', Islamicised and half-way Albanianised Slavs."[17] Macedonia[edit] The region of present-day Macedonia is sometimes called southern Serbia (part of Old Serbia) by Serbs, until 1912 part of Ottoman Empire. Marshal Tito
Marshal Tito
formed SR Macedonia
SR Macedonia
out of a part of 1929–1941 Vardar Banovina, and encouraged the Macedonian identity and Macedonian as a group of South Slavic languages
Slavic languages
, and subsequently the Orthodox monasteries in Macedonia.[18] Notable individuals of non- Serb
Serb
origin who declare as Serbs[edit]

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Đorđe Vajfert, industrialist and Governor of the National Bank of Serbia and later Yugoslavia, of German origin. General Pavle Jurišić Šturm (Paulus Sturm), World War I
World War I
hero, born in Prussia, of Sorbian ethnicity. Branislav Nušić, writer, Greek-Aromanian father from Macedonia. Peter Ichko, diplomat, of Aromanian origin.

See also[edit]

Serbophobia Albanisation Croatisation

Notes[edit]

^ "The Real Face of Serbian Education in Macedonia". newspaper "Makedonsko Delo", No. 9 (Jan. 10, 1926), Vienna, original in Bulgarian. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ "Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan War". archive.org. Retrieved 2015-04-12.  ^ Dejan Djokić, Yugoslavism: histories of a failed idea, 1918–1992, p. 123, at Google Books ^ R. J. Crampton, Eastern Europe in the twentieth century—and after, p. 20, at Google Books ^ Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (p. 52) ^ a b c Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (p. 165) ^ Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (p. 53) ^ "An article by Dimiter Vlahov about the persecution of the Bulgarian population in Macedonia". newspaper "Balkanska federatsia", No. 140, 20 August 1930, Vienna, original in Bulgarian. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ Friedman, V. (1985). "The Sociolinguistics of Literary Macedonian". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 52: 31–57. doi:10.1515/ijsl.1985.52.31.  ^ "By the Shar Mountain there is also terror and violence". newspaper "Makedonsko Delo", No. 58, 25 January 1928, Vienna, original in Bulgarian. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia by Bernard Anthony Cook ISBN 0-8153-4058-3 [1] ^ M. V. Fifor. Assimilation or Acculturalisation: Creating Identities in the New Europe. The case of Vlachs in Serbia. Published in Cultural Identity and Ethnicity in Central Europe, Jagellonian University, Cracow ^ Frederick Bernard Singleton, Twentieth-century Yugoslavia, New York, Columbia University Press, 1976, p. 222 ^ Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture at Google Books ^ Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire at Google Books ^ Dietmar Müller, Staatsbürger aus Widerruf: Juden und Muslime als Alteritätspartner im rumänischen und serbischen Nationscode: ethnonationale Staatsbürgerschaftskonzepte 1878–1941, p. 183–208. ISBN 3-447-05248-1, ISBN 978-3-447-05248-1 ^ a b c d e f g h i Religion and the politics of identity in Kosovo, p. 73: see footnotes ^ War of words: Washington tackles the Yugoslav conflict, p. 43, at Google Books

v t e

Cultural assimilation

Africanization Albanisation Americanization

Native Americans names

Anglicisation Arabization

Armenians Berbers Blacks Jews

Araucanization Batavianization Belarusization Bosniakization Bulgarization Castilianization Celticisation Chilenization Christianization Creolization Croatisation Cyrillization Czechization Estonianization Europeanisation Finnicization Francization

Brussels

Gaelicisation Germanisation Globalization Hawaiianize Hellenization Hispanicization Indianisation

placenames

Indigenization Indo-Aryanisation Indonesation Islamization Israelization

names

Italianization Japanization Javanisation Judaization Kurdification Lithuanization Magyarization
Magyarization
or hungarization Malayisation Montenegrization Norwegianization Pakistanisation Pashtunization Persianization

societies

Polonization Romanianization Romanization or latinization

names

Russification Saffronisation Sanskritisation Serbianisation Sinhalization Sinicization Slavicisation Slovakization Sovietization Swahilization Swedification Taiwanization Tamilisation Thaification Turkification

placenames

Turkmenization Ukrainisation Uzbekization Westernization

Opposite trends

Dehellenization De-Russification De-Sinicization Korenizatsiya

Related concepts

Cultural globalization Cultural imperialism Dominant culture Forced assimilation Identity politics Internal colonialism Jewish assimilation Language shift Melting pot Mon

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