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The Seminole
Seminole
are a Native American people originally from Florida. Today, they principally live in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
with a minority in Florida, and comprise three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Oklahoma, the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida, as well as independent groups. The Seminole
Seminole
nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis from various Native American groups who settled in Florida
Florida
in the 18th century, most significantly northern Muscogee
Muscogee
(Creeks) from what is now Georgia and Alabama.[1] The word Seminole
Seminole
is derived from the Creek word "simanó-li", which may itself be derived from the Spanish word cimarrón, meaning "runaway" or "wild one".[2] Seminole
Seminole
culture is largely derived from that of the Creek; the most important ceremony is the Green Corn Dance; other notable traditions include use of the black drink and ritual tobacco. As the Seminole adapted to Florida
Florida
environs, they developed local traditions, such as the construction of open-air, thatched-roof houses known as chickees.[3] Historically the Seminole
Seminole
spoke Mikasuki
Mikasuki
and Creek, both Muskogean languages.[4] The Seminole
Seminole
became increasingly independent of other Creek groups and established their own identity. They developed a thriving trade network during the British and second Spanish periods (roughly 1767–1821).[5] The tribe expanded considerably during this time, and was further supplemented from the late 18th century by free blacks and escaped slaves who settled near and paid tribute to Seminole
Seminole
towns. The latter became known as Black Seminoles, although they kept their own Gullah
Gullah
culture.[6] After the United States
United States
achieved independence, its settlers increased pressure on Seminole
Seminole
lands, leading to the Seminole Wars
Seminole Wars
(1818–1858). The Seminole
Seminole
were first confined to a large inland reservation by the Treaty of Moultrie Creek
Treaty of Moultrie Creek
(1823) and then forcibly evicted from Florida
Florida
by the Treaty of Payne's Landing (1832).[6] By 1842, most Seminoles and Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
had been removed to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
west of the Mississippi River. During the American Civil War, most Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Seminole
Seminole
allied with the Confederacy, after which they had to sign a new treaty with the U.S., including freedom and tribal membership for the Black Seminole. Today residents of the reservation are enrolled in the federally recognized Seminole
Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma, while others belong to unorganized groups. Perhaps fewer than 200 Seminoles remained in Florida
Florida
after the Third Seminole
Seminole
War (1855–1858), but they fostered a resurgence in traditional customs and a culture of staunch independence.[7] In the late 19th century, the Florida
Florida
Seminole
Seminole
re-established limited relations with the U.S. government and in 1930 received 5,000 acres (20 km2) of reservation lands. Few Seminole
Seminole
moved to reservations until the 1940s; they reorganized their government and received federal recognition in 1957 as the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida. The more traditional people near the Tamiami Trail
Tamiami Trail
received federal recognition as the Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe in 1962.[8] Seminole
Seminole
groups in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Florida
Florida
had little contact with each other until well into the 20th century, but each developed along similar lines as the groups strived to maintain their culture while they struggled economically. Old crafts and traditions were revived in the mid 20th century as Seminoles began seeking tourism dollars when Americans began to travel more on the country's growing highway system. In the 1970s, Seminole
Seminole
tribes began to run small bingo games on their reservations to raise revenue, winning court challenges to initiate Indian gaming, which many U.S. tribes have adopted to generate revenues for welfare, education and development. The Seminole Tribe of Florida
Florida
has been particularly successful with gambling establishments, and in 2007, it purchased the Hard Rock Café
Hard Rock Café
and has rebranded or opened several large gaming resorts under that name.[9]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Political and social organization

3.1 Seminole
Seminole
Wars

4 Languages 5 Ethnobotany 6 Music 7 Contemporary

7.1 Religion

8 Land claims

8.1 Florida
Florida
Seminole

8.1.1 Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida 8.1.2 Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida

9 Commerce 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The word Seminole
Seminole
is almost certainly derived from the Creek word "simanó-li", which has been variously translated as "frontiersman", "outcast", "runaway", "separatist", and similar words. More speculatively, the Creek word itself, may be derived from the Spanish word cimarrón, meaning "runaway" or "wild one", historically used for certain Native American groups in Florida.[10] The people who constituted the nucleus of this Florida
Florida
group either chose to leave their tribe or were banished. At one time the terms "renegade" and "outcast" were used to describe this status, but the terms have fallen into disuse because of a negative connotation. They identify as yat'siminoli or "free people," because for centuries their ancestors had resisted Spanish efforts to conquer and convert them, as well as English efforts to take their lands and use them in their wars.[11] They signed several treaties with the United States
United States
including the Treaty of Moultrie Creek
Treaty of Moultrie Creek
and the Treaty of Paynes Landing. History[edit] Native American refugees from northern wars, such as the Yuchi
Yuchi
and Yamasee after the Yamasee War in South Carolina, migrated into Spanish Florida
Florida
in the early 18th century. More arrived in the second half of the 18th century, as the Lower Creeks, part of the Muscogee
Muscogee
people, began to migrate from several of their towns into Florida
Florida
to evade the dominance of the Upper Creeks and pressure of English colonists moving into their lands.[12] They spoke primarily Hitchiti, of which Mikasuki is a dialect, which is the primary traditional language spoken today by Miccosukee
Miccosukee
in Florida. Joining them were members of the Choctaw
Choctaw
and Chickasaw
Chickasaw
cultures, who had also left Georgia due to conflicts with colonists and their Native American allies. Also fleeing to Florida were African-Americans who had escaped from slavery in the English colonies. The new arrivals moved into virtually uninhabited lands that had once been peopled by several cultures indigenous to Florida, such as the Apalachee, Timucua, Calusa, and others. The native population had been devastated by infectious diseases accidentally brought by Spanish explorers in the 1500s. Later, raids by English and Native American slavers destroyed the string of Spanish missions across northern Florida, and most of the survivors left for Cuba when the Spanish withdrew after ceding Florida
Florida
to the British in 1763, following the French and Indian War. As they established themselves in northern and peninsular Florida throughout the 1700s, the various new arrivals intermingled with each other and with the few remaining indigenous people. In a process of ethnogenesis. They constructed a new culture which they called "Seminole", a derivative of the Mvskoke' (a Creek language) word simano-li, an adaptation of the Spanish cimarrón which means "wild" (in their case, "wild men"), or "runaway" [men].[13] The Seminole
Seminole
were a heterogeneous tribe made up of mostly Lower Creeks from Georgia, who by the time of the Creek Wars
Creek Wars
(1812–1813) numbered about 4,000 in Florida. At that time, numerous refugees of the Red Sticks migrated south, adding about 2,000 people to the population. They were Creek-speaking Muscogee, and were the ancestors of most of the later Creek-speaking Seminole.[14] In addition, a few hundred escaped African-American
African-American
slaves (known as the Black Seminole) had settled near the Seminole
Seminole
towns and, to a lesser extent, Native Americans from other tribes, and some white Americans. The unified Seminole
Seminole
spoke two languages: Creek and Mikasuki
Mikasuki
(mutually intelligible with its dialect Hitchiti),[15] two among the Muskogean languages
Muskogean languages
family. Creek became the dominant language for political and social discourse, so Mikasuki speakers learned it if participating in high-level negotiations. (The Muskogean language group includes Choctaw
Choctaw
and Chickasaw, associated with two other major Southeastern tribes.) During the colonial years, the Seminole
Seminole
were on good terms with both the Spanish and the British. In 1784, after the American Revolutionary War, Britain came to a settlement with Spain
Spain
and transferred East and West Florida
Florida
to it. The Spanish Empire's decline enabled the Seminole to settle more deeply into Florida. They were led by a dynasty of chiefs of the Alachua chiefdom, founded in eastern Florida
Florida
in the 18th century by Cowkeeper. Beginning in 1825, Micanopy was the principal chief of the unified Seminole, until his death in 1849, after Removal to Indian Territory.[16] This chiefly dynasty lasted past Removal, when the US forced the majority of Seminole
Seminole
to move from Florida
Florida
to the Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(modern Oklahoma) after the Second Seminole
Seminole
War. Micanopy's sister's son, John Jumper, succeeded him in 1849 and, after his death in 1853, his brother Jim Jumper became principal chief. He was in power through the American Civil War, after which the US government began to interfere with tribal government, supporting its own candidate for chief.[16] After the independent United States
United States
acquired Florida
Florida
from Spain
Spain
in 1821,[17] white settlers increased political and governmental pressure on the Seminole
Seminole
to move and give up their lands. "The Seminoles were victims of a system that often blatantly favored whites"[18] During the period of the Seminole Wars
Seminole Wars
(1818–1858), the tribe was first confined to a large reservation in the center of the Florida peninsula by the Treaty of Moultrie Creek
Treaty of Moultrie Creek
(1823) and then evicted from the territory altogether according to the Treaty of Payne's Landing (1832).[6] By 1842, most Seminoles and Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
had been coerced or forced to move to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
west of the Mississippi River. During the American Civil War, most of the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Seminole allied with the Confederacy, after which they had to sign a new treaty with the U.S., including freedom and tribal membership for the Black Seminole. Today residents of the reservation are enrolled in the federally recognized Seminole
Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma, while others belong to unorganized groups. Perhaps fewer than 200 Seminoles remained in Florida
Florida
after the Third Seminole
Seminole
War (1855–1858), but they fostered a resurgence in traditional customs and a culture of staunch independence.[19] In the late 19th century, the Florida
Florida
Seminole
Seminole
re-established limited relations with the U.S. government and in 1930 received 5,000 acres (20 km2) of reservation lands. Few Seminole
Seminole
moved to reservations until the 1940s; they reorganized their government and received federal recognition in 1957 as the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida. The more traditional people near the Tamiami Trail
Tamiami Trail
received federal recognition as the Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe in 1962.[8] The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Florida
Florida
Seminole
Seminole
filed land claim suits in the 1950s, which were combined in the government's settlement of 1976. The tribes and Traditionals took until 1990 to negotiate an agreement as to division of the settlement, a judgment trust against which members can draw for education and other benefits. The Florida
Florida
Seminole
Seminole
founded a high-stakes bingo game on their reservation in the late 1970s, winning court challenges to initiate Indian Gaming, which many tribes have adopted to generate revenues for welfare, education and development. Political and social organization[edit] The Seminole
Seminole
were organized around itálwa, the basis of their social, political and ritual systems, and roughly equivalent to towns or bands in English. Membership was matrilineal but males held the leading political and social positions. Each itálwa had civil, military and religious leaders; they were self-governing throughout the nineteenth century, but would cooperate for mutual defense. The itálwa continued to be the basis of Seminole
Seminole
society in the West into the 21st century.[20] Seminole
Seminole
Wars[edit] Main article: Seminole
Seminole
Wars

Coeehajo, Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum

After attacks by Spanish colonists on American Indian towns, Natives began raiding Georgia settlements, purportedly at the behest of the Spanish. The Seminoles always accepted blacks and intermarried with former slaves as they escaped slavery. This angered the plantation owners.[21] In the early 19th century, the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
made increasingly frequent invasions of Spanish territory to recapture escaped slaves. General Andrew Jackson's 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole
Seminole
became known as the First Seminole
Seminole
War[22] . Following the war, the United States effectively controlled East Florida. In 1819 the United States
United States
and Spain
Spain
signed the Adams-Onís Treaty,[23] which took effect in 1821. According to its terms, the United States acquired Florida
Florida
and, in exchange, renounced all claims to Texas. Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
was named military governor of Florida. As European-American colonization increased after the treaty, colonists pressured the Federal government to remove Natives from Florida. Slaveholders resented that tribes harbored runaway Black slaves, and more colonists wanted access to desirable lands held by Native Americans. Georgian slaveholders wanted the "maroons" and fugitive slaves living among the Seminoles, known today as Black Seminoles, returned to slavery.[24]

Sign at Bill Baggs Cape Florida
Florida
State Park commemorating hundreds of African-American
African-American
slaves who escaped to freedom in the early 1820s in the Bahamas.

After acquisition by the U.S. of Florida
Florida
in 1821, many American slaves and Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
frequently escaped from Cape Florida
Florida
to the British colony of the Bahamas, settling mostly on Andros Island. Contemporary accounts noted a group of 120 migrating in 1821, and a much larger group of 300 African-American
African-American
slaves escaping in 1823, picked up by Bahamians in 27 sloops and also by canoes.[25] They developed a village known as Red Bays on Andros.[26] Federal construction and staffing of the Cape Florida
Florida
Lighthouse in 1825 reduced the number of slave escapes from this site. Cape Florida
Florida
and Red Bays are sites on the National Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
Network to Freedom Trail. Under colonists' pressure, the US government made the 1823 Treaty of Camp Moultrie with the Seminole, seizing 24 million acres in northern Florida[27] and offering them a greatly reduced reservation in the Everglades
Everglades
of about 100,000-acre (400 km2).[28] They and the Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
moved into central and southern Florida. In 1832, the United States
United States
government signed the Treaty of Payne's Landing
Treaty of Payne's Landing
with a few of the Seminole
Seminole
chiefs. They promised lands west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
if the chiefs agreed to leave Florida
Florida
voluntarily with their people. The Seminoles who remained prepared for war. White colonists continued to press for their removal. In 1835, the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
arrived to enforce the treaty. The Seminole leader Osceola
Osceola
led the vastly outnumbered resistance during the Second Seminole
Seminole
War. Drawing on a population of about 4,000 Seminole
Seminole
and 800 allied Black Seminoles, he mustered at most 1,400 warriors (Andrew Jackson estimated they had only 900). They countered combined U.S. Army and militia forces that ranged from 6,000 troops at the outset to 9,000 at the peak of deployment in 1837. To survive, the Seminole allies employed guerrilla tactics with devastating effect against U.S. forces, as they knew how to move within the Everglades
Everglades
and use this area for their protection. Osceola
Osceola
was arrested (in a breach of honor) when he came under a flag of truce to negotiations with the US in 1837. He died in jail less than a year later. He was decapitated, his body buried without his head. Other war chiefs, such as Halleck Tustenuggee and John Jumper, and the Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
Abraham
Abraham
and John Horse, continued the Seminole resistance against the army. After a full decade of fighting, the war ended in 1842. Scholars estimate the U.S. government spent about $40,000,000 on the war, at the time a huge sum. An estimated 3,000 Seminole
Seminole
and 800 Black Seminole
Black Seminole
were forcibly exiled to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi, where they were settled on the Creek reservation. A few hundred survivors retreated into the Everglades. In the end, after the Third Seminole
Seminole
War, the government gave up trying to subjugate the Seminole
Seminole
and left the estimated fewer than 500 survivors in peace.[29][30] Several treaties seem to bear the mark of representatives of the Seminole
Seminole
tribe, [31]including the Treaty of Moultrie Creek
Treaty of Moultrie Creek
and the Treaty of Payne's Landing
Treaty of Payne's Landing
some claim that the Florida
Florida
Seminole
Seminole
are the only tribe in America to have never signed a peace treaty with the U.S. Government.[32] Languages[edit] Historically, the various groups of Seminole
Seminole
spoke two mutually unintelligible Muskogean languages: Mikasuki
Mikasuki
(and its dialect, Hitchiti) and Creek. Mikasuki
Mikasuki
is now restricted to Florida, where it was the native language of 1,600 people as of 2000. The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is working to revive the use of Creek, which was the dominant language of politics and social discourse, among its people.[4] Creek is spoken by some Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Seminole
Seminole
and about 200 older Florida Seminole
Seminole
(the youngest native speaker was born in 1960). Today English is the predominant language among both Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Florida
Florida
Seminole, particularly the younger generations. Most Mikasuki
Mikasuki
speakers are bilingual.[4] Ethnobotany[edit] The Seminole
Seminole
use Cirsium horridulum
Cirsium horridulum
to make blowgun darts. [33] Music[edit] Main article: Seminole
Seminole
music Contemporary[edit]

Seminole
Seminole
woman painted by George Catlin
George Catlin
1834

During the Seminole
Seminole
Wars, the Seminole
Seminole
people began to separate due to the conflict and differences in ideology. The Seminole
Seminole
population had also been growing significantly, though it was diminished by the wars.[34] With the division of the Seminole
Seminole
population between Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Florida, some traditions such as powwow trails and ceremonies were maintained among them. In general, the cultures grew apart and had little contact for a century. The Seminole
Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma, and the Seminole Tribe of Florida
Seminole Tribe of Florida
and Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida, described below, are federally recognized, independent nations that operate in their own spheres.[35] Religion[edit] Seminole
Seminole
tribes generally follow Christianity, both Protestantism
Protestantism
and Roman Catholicism, and their traditional Native religion, which is expressed through the stomp dance and the Green Corn Ceremony
Green Corn Ceremony
held at their ceremonial grounds. Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
have practiced Green Corn rituals for centuries. Contemporary southeastern Native American tribes, such as the Seminole
Seminole
and Muscogee
Muscogee
Creek, still practice these ceremonies. As converted Christian Seminole
Seminole
established their own churches, they incorporated their traditions, as Christianity is a syncretic religion, able to absorb other influences. Seminole Christian churches often sing hymns in their traditional languages.[36] In the 1950s, federal projects in Florida
Florida
encouraged the tribe's reorganization. They created organizations within tribal governance to promote modernization. As Christian pastors began preaching on reservations, Green Corn Ceremony
Green Corn Ceremony
attendance decreased. This created tension between religiously traditional Seminole
Seminole
and those who began adopting Christianity. In the 1960s and 1970s, some tribal members on reservations, such as the Brighton Seminole Indian Reservation
Brighton Seminole Indian Reservation
in Florida, viewed organized Christianity as a threat to their traditions. By the 1980s, Seminole
Seminole
communities were concerned about loss of language and tradition. Many tribal members began to revive the observance of traditional Green Corn Dance
Green Corn Dance
ceremonies, and some moved away from Christianity observance. By 2000 religious tension between Green Corn Dance
Green Corn Dance
attendees and Christians (particularly Baptists) decreased. Some Seminole
Seminole
families participate in both religions; these practitioners have developed a Christianity that has absorbed some tribal traditions.[37] Land claims[edit] In 1946 the Department of Interior established the Indian Claims Commission, to consider compensation for tribes that claimed their lands were seized by the federal government during times of conflict. Tribes seeking settlements had to file claims by August 1961, and both the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Florida
Florida
Seminoles did so.[27] After combining their claims, the Commission awarded the Seminole
Seminole
a total of $16 million on April 1976. It had established that, at the time of the 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek, the Seminole
Seminole
exclusively occupied and used 24 million acres in Florida, which they ceded under the treaty.[27] Assuming that most blacks in Florida
Florida
were escaped slaves, the United States
United States
did not recognize the Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
as legally members of the tribe, nor as free in Florida
Florida
under Spanish rule. Although the Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
also owned or controlled land that was seized in this cession, they were not acknowledged in the treaty. In 1976 the groups struggled on allocation of funds among the Oklahoma and Florida
Florida
tribes. Based on early 20th-century population records, at which time most of the people were full-blood, the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was to receive three-quarters of the judgment and the Florida peoples one-quarter. The Miccosukee
Miccosukee
and allied Traditionals filed suit against the settlement in 1976 to refuse the money; they did not want to give up their claim for return of lands in Florida.[27] The federal government put the settlement in trust until the court cases could be decided. The Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Florida
Florida
tribes entered negotiations, which was their first sustained contact in the more than a century since removal. In 1990 the settlement was awarded: three-quarters to the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and one-quarter to the Seminole
Seminole
of Florida, including the Miccosukee. By that time the total settlement was worth $40 million.[38] The tribes have set up judgment trusts, which fund programs to benefit their people, such as education and health. Main article: Seminole
Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma As a result of the Second Seminole War
Second Seminole War
(1835–1842) about 3,800 Seminole
Seminole
and Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles
were forcibly removed to Indian Territory (the modern state of Oklahoma).[39] During the American Civil War, the members and leaders split over their loyalties, with John Chupco refusing to sign a treaty with the Confederacy. From 1861–1866, he led as chief of the Seminole
Seminole
who supported the Union and fought in the Indian Brigade. The split among the Seminole
Seminole
lasted until 1872. After the war, the United States
United States
government negotiated only with the loyal Seminole, requiring the tribe to make a new peace treaty to cover those who allied with the Confederacy, to emancipate the slaves, and to extend tribal citizenship to those freedmen who chose to stay in Seminole territory. The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
now has about 16,000 enrolled members, who are divided into a total of fourteen bands; for the Seminole members, these are similar to tribal clans. The Seminole
Seminole
have a society based on a matrilineal kinship system of descent and inheritance: children are born into their mother's band and derive their status from her people. To the end of the nineteenth century, they spoke mostly Mikasuki
Mikasuki
and Creek. Two of the fourteen are " Freedmen
Freedmen
Bands," composed of members descended from Black Seminoles, who were legally freed by the US and tribal nations after the Civil War. They have a tradition of extended patriarchal families in close communities. While the elite interacted with the Seminole, most of the Freedmen
Freedmen
were involved most closely with other Freedmen. They maintained their own culture, religion and social relationships. At the turn of the 20th century, they still spoke mostly Afro- Seminole
Seminole
Creole, a language developed in Florida related to other African-based Creole languages. The Nation is ruled by an elected council, with two members from each of the fourteen bands, including the Freedmen's bands. The capital is at Wewoka, Oklahoma. The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
has had tribal citizenship disputes related to the Seminole
Seminole
Freedmen, both in terms of their sharing in a judgment trust awarded in settlement of a land claim suit, and their membership in the Nation.[39] Florida
Florida
Seminole[edit]

Seminole
Seminole
family of tribal elder, Cypress Tiger, at their camp near Kendall, Florida, 1916. Photo taken by botanist, John Kunkel Small

The remaining few hundred Seminoles survived in the Florida swamplands, avoiding removal. They lived in the Everglades, to isolate themselves from European-Americans. Seminoles continued their distinctive life, such as "clan-based matrilocal residence in scattered thatched-roof chickee camps."[39] Today, the Florida Seminole
Seminole
proudly note the fact that their ancestors were never conquered.[40] In the 20th century before World War II, the Seminole
Seminole
in Florida divided into two groups; those who were more traditional and those willing to adapt to the reservations. Those who accepted reservation lands and made adaptations achieved federal recognition in 1957 as the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida.[34] Those who had kept to traditional ways and spoke the Mikasuki
Mikasuki
language organized as the Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida, gaining state recognition in 1957 and federal recognition in 1962. (See also Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida, below.) With federal recognition, they gained reservation lands and worked out a separate arrangement with the state for control of extensive wetlands. Other Seminoles not affiliated with either of the federally recognized groups are known as Traditional or Independent Seminoles.[34] At the time the tribes were recognized, in 1957 and 1962, respectively, they entered into agreements with the US government confirming their sovereignty over tribal lands. Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida[edit] Main article: Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida

Seminole
Seminole
patchwork shawl made by Susie Cypress from Big Cypress Indian Reservation, ca. 1980s

The Seminole
Seminole
worked to adapt, but they were highly affected by the rapidly changing American environment. Natural disasters magnified changes from the governmental drainage project of the Everglades. Residential, agricultural and business development changed the "natural, social, political, and economic environment" of the Seminole.[35] In the 1930s, the Seminole
Seminole
slowly began to move onto federally designated reservation lands within the region. The US government had purchased lands and put them in trust for Seminole use.[41] Initially, few Seminoles had any interest in moving to the reservation land or in establishing more formal relations with the government. Some feared that if they moved onto reservations, they would be forced to move to Oklahoma. Others accepted the move in hopes of stability, jobs promised by the Indian New Deal, or as new converts to Christianity.[42]

Seminoles' Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving
meal mid-1950s

Beginning in the 1940s, however, more Seminoles began to move to the reservations. A major catalyst for this was the conversion of many Seminole
Seminole
to Christianity, following missionary effort spearheaded by the Creek Baptist evangelist Stanley Smith. For the new converts, relocating to the reservations afforded them the opportunity to establish their own churches, where they adapted traditions to incorporate into their style of Christianity.[43] Reservation Seminoles began forming tribal governments and forming ties with the Bureau of Indian Affairs.[43] In 1957 the nation reorganized and established formal relations with the US government as the Seminole Tribe of Florida.[35] The Seminole Tribe of Florida
Seminole Tribe of Florida
is headquartered in Hollywood, Florida. They control several reservations: Big Cypress, Brighton Reservation, Fort Pierce Reservation, Hollywood Reservation, Immokalee Reservation, and Tampa Reservation.[44] Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida[edit] Main article: Miccosukee A traditional group who became known as the Trail Indians moved their camps closer to the Tamiami Trail
Tamiami Trail
connecting Tampa and Miami, where they could sell crafts to travelers. They felt disfranchised by the move of the Seminole
Seminole
to reservations, who they felt were adapting too many European-American ways. Their differences were exacerbated in 1950 when some reservation Seminoles filed a land claim suit against the federal government for seizure of lands in the 19th century, an action not supported by the Trail Indians.[8] Following federal recognition of the Seminole Tribe of Florida
Seminole Tribe of Florida
in 1957, the Trail Indians decided to organize a separate government. They sought recognition as the Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe, as they spoke the Mikasuki
Mikasuki
language. They received federal recognition in 1962, and received their own reservation lands, collectively known as the Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Indian Reservation.[8] The Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe set up a 333-acre (1.35 km2) reservation on the northern border of Everglades
Everglades
National Park, about 45 miles (72 km) west of Miami.[28] Commerce[edit] In the United States
United States
2000 Census, 12,431 people self-reported as Seminole
Seminole
American. An additional 15,000 people identified as Seminole in combination with some other tribal affiliation or race.[45]

A Seminole
Seminole
spearing a garfish from a dugout, Florida, 1930

The Seminole
Seminole
in Florida
Florida
have been engaged in stock raising since the mid-1930s, when they received cattle from western Native Americans. The Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA) hoped that the cattle raising would teach Seminoles to become citizens by adapting to agricultural settlements. The BIA also hoped that this program would lead to Seminole
Seminole
self-sufficiency. Cattle owners realized that by using their cattle as equity, they could engage in "new capital-intensive pursuits", such as housing.[46] Since then, the two Florida
Florida
tribes have developed economies based chiefly on sales of duty-free tobacco, heritage and resort tourism, and gambling. On December 7, 2006, the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida purchased the Hard Rock Cafe
Hard Rock Cafe
chain of restaurants. They had previously licensed it for several of their casinos.[47] From beginnings in the 1930s during the Great Depression, the Seminole Tribe of Florida
Florida
today owns "one of the largest cattle operations in Florida, and the 12th largest in the nation.

Seminole
Seminole
clipper ship card

Florida
Florida
experienced a population boom in the early 20th century when the Flagler railroad to Miami
Miami
was completed. The state became a growing destination for tourists and many resort towns were developed.[39] In the years that followed, many Seminoles worked in the cultural tourism trade. By the 1920s, many Seminoles were involved in service jobs. In addition, they were able to market their culture [48] by selling traditional craft products (made mostly by women) and by exhibitions of traditional skills, such as wrestling alligators (by men). Some of the crafts included woodcarving, basket weaving, beadworking, patchworking, and palmetto-doll making. These crafts are still practiced today.[35] Fewer Seminole
Seminole
rely on crafts for income because gaming has become so lucrative.[35] The Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe earns revenue by owning and operating a casino, resort, a golf club, several museum attractions, and the "Indian Village". At the "Indian Village", Miccosukee demonstrate traditional, pre-contact lifestyles to educate people about their culture. "In 1979, the Seminoles opened the first casino on Indian land, ushering in what has become a multibillion-dollar industry operated by numerous tribes nationwide."[49] This casino was the first tribally operated bingo hall in North America. Since its establishment, gaming has become an important source of revenue for tribal governments. Tribal gaming has provided secure employment, and the revenues have supported higher education, health insurance, services for the elderly, and personal income.[50] In more recent years, income from the gaming industry has funded major economic projects such as sugarcane fields, citrus groves, cattle, ecotourism, and commercial agriculture.[51] The Seminole
Seminole
are reflected in numerous Florida
Florida
place names:

Seminole
Seminole
County; Osceola
Osceola
County; Seminole, a city in Pinellas County; and Seminole, a small community in Okaloosa County. Historic Seminole
Seminole
Heights, a residential district in Tampa, Florida.

See also[edit]

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of North America portal

Seminole
Seminole
(clipper), 1865 clipper ship Florida
Florida
State Seminoles, athletic teams of Florida
Florida
State University

Notes[edit]

^ Mahon, pp. 183–187. ^ Mahon, p. 183. ^ Mahon, pp. 183–184; 201–202. ^ a b c Sturtevant, William C., Jessica R. Cattelino (2004). "Florida Seminole
Seminole
and Miccosukee". In Raymond D. Fogelson. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 14 (PDF). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 429–449. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ Mahon, pp. 187–189. ^ a b c Mahon, pp. 190–191. ^ Mahon, pp. 201–202. ^ a b c d Mahon, pp. 203–204. ^ Herrera, Chabeli (27 May 2016). "How the Seminole
Seminole
Tribe came to rock the Hard Rock empire". The Miami
Miami
Herald.  ^ Mahon, p. 183 ^ "History" Archived April 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Seminole Tribe website ^ Hawkins, Philip Colin (June 2011). "The Textual Archaeology of Seminole
Seminole
Colonization". Florida
Florida
Anthropologist. 64 (2): 107–113.  ^ "Definition of Seminole". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2011-03-02.  ^ Sturtevant and Cattelino (2004), p.432 ^ Hardy, Heather & Janine Scancarelli. (2005). Native Languages of the Southeastern United States, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, pp. 69-70 ^ a b Sattler (2004), p. 461 ^ https://www.floridamemory.com/onlineclassroom/seminoles/timeline/ ^ Hatch, Thom (2012). Osceola
Osceola
and the Great Seminole
Seminole
War. New York: St. Martin’s Press. p. 68.  ^ Mahon, pp. 201–202. ^ Sattler (2004), p. 459 ^ Hatch, Thom (2012). Osceola
Osceola
and the Great Seminole
Seminole
War. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 34–70.  ^ Hatch, Thom (2012). Osceola
Osceola
and the Great Seminole
Seminole
War. New York: St. Martin’s Press. p. 100.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2001-03-03. Retrieved 2003-02-19.  ^ Hatch, Thom (2012). Osceola
Osceola
and the Great Seminole
Seminole
War. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 106–110.  ^ "Bill Baggs Cape Florida
Florida
State Park" Archived July 18, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Network to Freedom, National Park Service, 2010, accessed 10 April 2013 ^ Howard, Rosalyn. (2006) "The 'Wild Indians' of Andros Island: Black Seminole
Seminole
Legacy in the Bahamas"], Journal of Black Studies. Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 275–298. Abstract on-line at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-05. Retrieved 2013-04-11. . ^ a b c d Bill Drummond, "Indian Land Claims Unsettled 150 Years After Jackson Wars", LA Times/Washington Post News Service, printed in Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 20 October 1978, accessed 13 April 2013 ^ a b "Concerning the Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe's Ongoing Negotiations with the National Park Service Regarding the Special
Special
Use Permit Area". Resources Committee, US House of Representatives. September 25, 1997. Retrieved 2011-03-02.  ^ Covington, James W. 1993. The Seminoles of Florida, Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1196-5. pp. 145–6. ^ Garbarino, Merwyn S. 1989 The Seminole, p. 55. ^ Hatch, Thom (2012). Osceola
Osceola
and the Great Seminole
Seminole
War. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 261–275.  ^ "No Surrender" Archived October 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Seminole
Seminole
Tribe website ^ Sturtevant, William, 1954, The Mikasuki
Mikasuki
Seminole: Medical Beliefs and Practices, Yale University, PhD Thesis, page 507 ^ a b c " Seminole
Seminole
History". Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida. Retrieved 2011-03-02.  ^ a b c d e Cattelino, p. 41. ^ Clark, pp. 750, 752. ^ Cattelino, pp. 64–65. ^ Sturtevant, pp. 454-455 ^ a b c d Cattelino, p. 23. ^ Carl Waldman (2009). Atlas of the North American Indian (3, illustrated ed.). Facts on File. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-8160-6858-6. Retrieved April 24, 2014.  ^ Cattelino, p. 130. ^ Cattelino, p. 142. ^ a b Mahon, p. 203. ^ Atlas of the North American Indian, 3rd ed. New York: Checkmark Books, 2009. Print. ^ US Census. ^ Cattelino, pp. 32 and 34. ^ "Seminoles to buy Hard Rock chain". Market Watch. December 7, 2006. Retrieved 2011-03-02.  ^ Cattelino, p. 40. ^ Robert Andrew Powell (August 24, 2005). " Florida
Florida
State Can Keep Its Seminoles". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-03-02.  ^ Cattelino. Ibid p. 9. ^ Cattelino. Ibid p. 113.

References[edit]

Adams, Mikaëla M., “Savage Foes, Noble Warriors, and Frail Remnants: Florida
Florida
Seminoles in the White Imagination, 1865–1934,” Florida
Florida
Historical Quarterly, 87 (Winter 2009), 404–35. Cattelino, Jessica R. High Stakes: Florida
Florida
Seminole
Seminole
Gaming and Sovereignty. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8223-4227-4 Clark, C. Blue. "Native Christianity Since 1800." Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Raymond D. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. ISBN 0-16-072300-0. Hatch, Thom. Osceola
Osceola
and the Great Seminole
Seminole
War:St. Martin's Press. New York, 2012. ISBN 978-0-312-35591-3 Hawkins, Philip Colin. Creek Schism: Seminole
Seminole
Genesis Revisited. M.A. thesis, Department of History, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2009. LINK TO PDF Hawkins, Philip Colin. "The Textual Archaeology of Seminole Colonization." Florida
Florida
Anthropologist 64 (June 2011), 107–113. Mahon, John K.; Brent R. Weisman (1996). "Florida's Seminole
Seminole
and Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Peoples". In Gannon, Michael (Ed.). The New History of Florida, pp. 183–206. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1415-8.

Further reading[edit]

Hudson, Charles (1976). The Southeastern Indians, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. McReynolds, Edwin C. (1957). The Seminoles, Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. Sturtevant, William C. (1971). "Creek into Seminole." In North American Indians in Historical Perspective, edited by Eleanor B. Leacock and Nancy O. Lurie, 92–128. New York: Random House. Sturtevant, William C. (1987). A Seminole
Seminole
Source Book, New York: Garland Publishing.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Seminole.

Seminole
Seminole
Nation Historical site Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
official website Seminole Tribe of Florida
Seminole Tribe of Florida
official site The Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida
official site Hitchiti- Mikasuki
Mikasuki
Creation Story Resources for Hitchiti and Mikasuki, William and Mary College Seminole
Seminole
history, Florida
Florida
Department of State John Horse
John Horse
and the Black Seminoles, First Black Rebels to Beat American Slavery Clay MacCauley, The Seminole
Seminole
Indians of Florida, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, 1884, Project Gutenberg

v t e

Seminole

Federally recognized tribes

Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida Seminole
Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Florida

Reservations

Big Cypress Brighton Fort Pierce Hollywood Immokalee Miccosukee Tampa

Languages

Afro- Seminole
Seminole
Creole Mikasuki
Mikasuki
language Muscogee
Muscogee
language

Culture

Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum Alligator wrestling Black Seminoles

Mascogos

Chickee Fastachee Four Mothers Society Green Corn Ceremony Seminole
Seminole
music Stomp dance

History

Indigenous people of the Everglades
Everglades
region Seminole
Seminole
Wars Trail of Tears Green Corn Rebellion

Politics and law

List of chiefs Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Tax Commission v. United States Seminole
Seminole
Nation v. United States

v t e

Native American tribes in  Oklahoma

Federally recognized tribes

Absentee Shawnee Alabama-Quassarte Apache Caddo Cherokee Cheyenne and Arapaho Chickasaw Choctaw Citizen Potawatomi Comanche Delaware Nation Delaware Tribe Eastern Shawnee Fort Sill Apache Iowa Kaw Kialegee Kickapoo Kiowa Miami Modoc Muscogee
Muscogee
(Creek) Osage Otoe-Missouria Ottawa Pawnee Peoria Ponca Quapaw Sac and Fox Seminole Seneca-Cayuga Shawnee Thlopthlocco Tonkawa United Keetoowah Wichita Wyandotte

Tribal languages (still spoken)

Alabama Arapaho Caddo Cayuga Cherokee Cheyenne Chickasaw Chiwere (Iowa and Otoe) Choctaw Comanche Delaware Koasati Hitchiti-Mikasuki Mescalero-Chiricahua Mesquakie (Fox, Kickapoo, and Sauk) Muscogee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Ponca Potawatomi Quapaw Seneca Shawnee Wic

.