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1822-1824

1st Chios Naousa Peta Dervenakia Nauplia 1st Messolonghi Karpenisi 2nd Messolonghi Psara Samos Gerontas

Greek civil wars of 1824–25

Egyptian intervention (1825-1826)

Andros Neocastro Sphacteria Maniaki Souda Mills of Lerna Alexandria 3rd Messolonghi Mani 2nd Acropolis Arachova Kamatero Phaleron

Great powers intervention (1827-1829)

Itea Navarino Morea expedition 2nd Chios Petra

Konstantinos Metaxas

Kitsos Tzavelas

The Second Siege of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
was a second attempt by Ottoman forces to capture the strategically located port town of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
during the third year of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
(1823). The second siege is usually ignored however, and the name is often applied to the greater siege of 1825–1826.

Contents

1 Background 2 Siege 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources

Background[edit] After the first unsuccessful attempt to take the town in 1822, another expedition to western Central Greece
Greece
was undertaken by Mustai Pasha of Shkoder. Mustai proceeded through the city of Trikala
Trikala
to Karpenisi, where a first Greek attempt to stop his advance resulted in the Battle of Karpenisi. During this battle, the Ottoman casualties were 1,200 troops, but the Greeks lost their commander, Markos Botsaris. The second unsuccessful Greek attempt to stop Mustai at Mount Kaliakouda, on 29 August 1823, resulted in 200 Greek casualties.[1] Siege[edit] The Ottoman army arrived before Missolonghi
Missolonghi
and began the siege on 20 September with a bombardment of Aitoliko, an island which controlled the seaways of the Missolonghi
Missolonghi
lagoon. The subsequent attack on Aitoliko
Aitoliko
failed however.[2] On 17 November, Ottoman food supplies were seized by 250 Souliotes
Souliotes
under command of Kitsos Tzavelas.[3] As a result of food shortages and disease, on 20 November Mustai Pasha lifted the siege and withdrew.[4][5][6] Aftermath[edit] Missolonghi
Missolonghi
remained under Greek control. Its resistance achieved wider fame when Lord Byron
Lord Byron
arrived there, dying in the town of fever in April 1824. The city was besieged for a third and final time, resisting both Ottoman and Egyptian armies for almost a year, until its final fall on April 10, 1826. See also[edit]

First Siege of Missolonghi Third Siege of Missolonghi

References[edit]

^ Μεταξά Κώστα,Ιστορικά Απομνημονέυματα εκ τής Ελληνικής Επανασταστάσεως ,Αθήνα 1878 (εκδ.Β, Τσουκαλά 1956),σελ.96,97 ^ Δημήτρη Φωτιάδη,Ιστορία του 21,ΜΕΛΙΣΣΑ,1971,τομ.Β,σελ.352 ^ Μεταξά Κώστα,Ιστορικά Απομνημονέυματα εκ τής Ελληνικής Επανασταστάσεως ,Αθήνα 1878 (εκδ.Β, Τσουκαλά 1956),σελ.107 ^ Δημήτρη Φωτιάδη,Ιστορία του 21,ΜΕΛΙΣΣΑ,1971,τομ.Β,σελ.353 ^ Κουτσονίκα Λ.,Γενική Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως ,Αθήνα 1863-1864 (εκδ.Β, Τσουκαλά 1956) σελ.186 ^ Douglas Dakin,The Unification of Greece
Greece
1770-1923,p.83, ISBN 960-250-150-2

Sources[edit]

Δημήτρη Φωτιάδη,Ιστορία του 21,ΜΕΛΙΣΣΑ,1971,σελ.350-353. Μεταξά Κώστα,Ιστορικά Απομνημονέυματα εκ τής Ελληνικής Επανασταστάσεως, Αθήνα 1878 (εκδ.Β, Τσουκαλά 1956),σελ.96,97,107,111 Κουτσονίκα Λ.,Γενική Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επαναστάσεως, Αθήνα 1863-1864 (εκδ.Β, Τσουκαλά 1956) σελ.186

v t e

Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
(1821–29)

Background

Ottoman Greece

People

Ali Pasha Armatoloi Proestoi Klephts Daskalogiannis Cosmas of Aetolia Dionysius the Philosopher Lambros Katsonis Maniots Phanariotes Souliotes

Events

Orlov Revolt Souliote War (1803)

Greek Enlightenment

People

Athanasios Christopoulos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais Eugenios Voulgaris

Organizations

Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio Filiki Eteria Filomousos Eteria Society of the Phoenix Serene Grand Orient of Greece

Publications

Adelphiki Didaskalia Asma Polemistirion Hellenic Nomarchy Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Salpisma Polemistirion Thourios or Patriotic hymn

European intervention

Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Greek Plan
Greek Plan
of Catherine the Great Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) French Revolution Fall of the Republic of Venice Napoleonic Wars

Septinsular Republic Adriatic campaign of 1807–14 Albanian Regiment 1st Regiment Greek Light Infantry

United States of the Ionian Islands

Ideas

Nationalism Eastern Orthodox Christianity Liberalism Constitutionalism

Events

Battles

Kalamata Patras Wallachian uprising Alamana 1st Acropolis Gravia Valtetsi Doliana Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Trench Tripolitsa Peta Dervenakia 1st Messolonghi Karpenisi 2nd Messolonghi Greek civil wars Sphacteria Neokastro Maniaki Lerna Mills 3rd Messolonghi Mani 2nd Acropolis Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Chios expedition Petra

Massacres

Constantinople Thessaloniki Navarino Tripolitsa Naousa Samothrace Chios Psara Kasos

Naval conflicts

Nauplia Psara Samos Andros Sphacteria Gerontas Souda Alexandria Itea Navarino

Ships

Greek sloop Karteria Greek brig Aris

Greek regional councils and statutes

Messenian Senate Directorate of Achaea Peloponnesian Senate Senate of Western Continental Greece Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece Provisional Regime of Crete Military-Political System of Samos

Greek national assemblies

First (Epidaurus) Second (Astros) Third (Troezen) Fourth (Argos) Fifth (Nafplion)

International Conferences, Treaties and Protocols

Congress of Laibach Congress of Verona Protocol of St. Petersburg Treaty of London Conference of Poros London Protocol of 1828 London Protocol of 1829 Treaty of Adrianople London Protocol of 1830 London Conference Treaty of Constantinople

Personalities

Greece

Chian Committee Odysseas Androutsos Anagnostaras Markos Botsaris Laskarina Bouboulina Constantin Denis Bourbaki Hatzimichalis Dalianis Athanasios Diakos Germanos III of Old Patras Dimitrios Kallergis Athanasios Kanakaris Constantine Kanaris Ioannis Kapodistrias Stamatios Kapsas Georgios Karaiskakis Nikolaos Kasomoulis Ioannis Kolettis Theodoros Kolokotronis Georgios Kountouriotis Antonios Kriezis Nikolaos Kriezotis Kyprianos of Cyprus Georgios Lassanis Lykourgos Logothetis Andreas Londos Yannis Makriyannis Manto Mavrogenous Alexandros Mavrokordatos Petrobey Mavromichalis Andreas Metaxas Andreas Miaoulis Theodoros Negris Nikitaras Antonis Oikonomou Ioannis Orlandos Papaflessas Dimitrios Papanikolis Emmanouel Pappas Ioannis Papafis Christoforos Perraivos Nikolaos Petimezas Georgios Sachtouris Iakovos Tombazis Anastasios Tsamados Ioannis Varvakis Demetrios Ypsilantis

Philhellenes

London Philhellenic Committee Lord Byron François-René de Chateaubriand Richard Church Lord Cochrane Jean-Gabriel Eynard Vincenzo Gallina Charles Fabvier Thomas Gordon Frank Abney Hastings Carl von Heideck Johann Jakob Meyer Karl Normann Maxime Raybaud Giuseppe Rosaroll Santorre di Santa Rosa Friedrich Thiersch Ludwig I of Bavaria German Legion (el) Serbs

Moldavia
Moldavia
and Wallachia (Danubian Principalities)

Alexander Ypsilantis Sacred Band Alexandros Kantakouzinos Georgios Kantakouzinos Giorgakis Olympios Yiannis Pharmakis Dimitrie Macedonski Tudor Vladimirescu

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Egypt

Sultan Mahmud II Hurshid Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha (tr) Omer Vrioni Kara Mehmet Mahmud Dramali Pasha Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Yussuf Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi

Britain, France and Russia

Stratford Canning Edward Codrington Henri de Rigny Nicholas I of Russia Login Geiden

Morea expedition

Military

Nicolas Joseph Maison Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Antoine Virgile Schneider Amédée Despans-Cubières Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély Camille Alphonse Trézel

Scientific

Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent Gabriel Bibron Gaspard Auguste Brullé Gérard Paul Deshayes Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Duval Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Edgar Quinet

Impact

Art

Eugène Delacroix Louis Dupré Peter von Hess Victor Hugo François Pouqueville Alexander Pushkin Karl Krazeisen Andreas Kalvos Dionysios Solomos Theodoros Vryzakis Hellas The Reception of Lord Byron
Lord Byron
at Missolonghi Greece
Greece
on the Ruins of Missolonghi The Massacre at Chios The Free Besieged Hymn to Liberty The Archipelago on Fire The Apotheosis of Athanasios Diakos

Remembrance

25 March (Independence Day) Hymn to Liberty Eleftheria i thanatos Pedion tou Areos Propylaea (Munich) Garden of Heroes (Missolonghi) Royal Phalanx Evzones
Evzones
(Presidential Guard)

Coordinates: 38°26′50″N 21°22′09″E / 38.4472°N 21.3692°E

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