British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval short take-off and
vertical landing/vertical take-off and landing jet fighter,
reconnaissance and attack aircraft; the second member of the Harrier
Jump Jet family developed. It first entered service with the Royal
Navy in April 1980 as the Sea Harrier FRS1 and became informally known
as the "Shar". Unusual in an era in which most naval and land-based
air superiority fighters were large and supersonic, the principal role
of the subsonic Sea Harrier was to provide air defence for Royal Navy
task groups centred around the aircraft carriers.
The Sea Harrier served in the Falklands War, and the Balkans
conflicts; on all occasions it mainly operated from aircraft carriers
positioned within the conflict zone. Its usage in the Falklands War
was its most high profile and important success, where it was the only
fixed-wing fighter available to protect the British Task Force. The
Sea Harriers shot down 20 enemy aircraft during the conflict with two
lost to enemy ground fire. They were also used to launch ground
attacks in the same manner as the Harriers operated by the Royal Air
The Sea Harrier was marketed for sales abroad, but by 1983
the only operator other than Britain after sales to Argentina and
Australia were unsuccessful. A second, updated version for the
Royal Navy was made in 1993 as the Sea Harrier FA2, improving its
air-to-air abilities and weapons compatibilities, along with a more
powerful engine; this version continued manufacture until 1998. The
aircraft was withdrawn from service early by the
Royal Navy in 2006.
The Sea Harrier remained in service for a further decade with the
Indian Navy until its retirement in 2016.
3 Operational history
3.1 Royal Navy
3.1.1 Entry into service
3.1.2 Falklands War
3.1.3 Operations in the 1990s
3.2 Indian Navy
6 Surviving aircraft
6.2 United Kingdom
6.3 United States
7 Specifications (Sea Harrier FA2)
8 Notable appearances in media
9 See also
11 External links
Invincible class aircraft carrier
Invincible class aircraft carrier and Hawker Siddeley
Harrier FRS.1 of 800 NAS using the ski-jump during takeoff from HMS
Invincible in 1990
Harrier FA2 hovering. Bolt-on refuelling probe, top right
In the post-war era, the
Royal Navy began contracting in parallel with
the break-up of the
British Empire overseas and the emergence of the
Commonwealth of Nations, reducing the need for a larger navy. By 1960,
the last battleship, HMS Vanguard, was retired from the Navy, having
been in service for less than fifteen years. Perhaps the biggest
sign of the new trend towards naval austerity came in 1966, when the
CVA-01 class of large aircraft carriers destined for the Royal
Navy was cancelled. During this time, requirements within the Royal
Navy began to form for a vertical and/or short take-off and landing
(V/STOL) carrier-based interceptor to replace the de Havilland Sea
Vixen. Afterward, the first
V/STOL tests on a ship began with a Hawker
Siddeley P.1127 landing on HMS Ark Royal in 1963.
A second concept for the future of naval aviation emerged in the early
1970s as the first of a new class of "through deck cruisers" was
planned. These were very carefully and politically designated as
cruisers to deliberately avoid the term "aircraft carrier", in
order to increase the chances of funding from a hostile political
climate against expensive capital ships, they were considerably
smaller than the previously sought CVA-01. These ships were
ordered as the Invincible class in 1973, and are now popularly
recognised as aircraft carriers. Almost immediately upon their
construction, a ski-jump was added to the end of the 170-metre deck,
enabling the carriers to effectively operate a small number of V/STOL
jets. The Royal Air Force's
Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR1s had
entered service in April 1969. A navalised variant of the Harrier was
Hawker Siddeley to serve on the upcoming ships, this
became the Sea Harrier. In 1975, the
Royal Navy ordered 24 Sea Harrier
FRS.1 (standing for 'Fighter, Reconnaissance, Strike')
aircraft, the first of which entered service in 1978. During
Hawker Siddeley became part of
British Aerospace through
nationalisation in 1977. By the time the prototype Sea Harrier was
flown at Dunsfold on 20 August 1978 the order had been increased to
34. The Sea Harrier was declared operational in 1981 on board the
first Invincible class ship HMS Invincible, and further aircraft
joined the ageing HMS Hermes aircraft carrier later that year.
Following their key role in the 1982 Falklands War, several
lessons were learned from the aircraft's performance, which led to
approval for an upgrade of the fleet to FRS.2 (later known as FA2)
standard to be given in 1984. The first flight of the prototype took
place in September 1988 and a contract was signed for 29 upgraded
aircraft in December that year. In 1990, the Navy ordered 18
new-build FA2s, at a unit cost of around £12 million, four
further upgraded aircraft were ordered in 1994. The first aircraft was
delivered on 2 April 1993.
Hawker Siddeley Harrier § design
Sea Harrier FA2 ZA195 (upgrade) vector thrust nozzle –
distinguishing feature of the jump jet
Locations of the four nozzles at the sides of the Pegasus engine.
The Sea Harrier is a subsonic aircraft designed to fill strike,
reconnaissance and fighter roles. It features a single Rolls-Royce
Pegasus turbofan engine with two intakes and four vectorable
nozzles. It has two landing gear on the fuselage and two outrigger
landing gear on the wings. The Sea Harrier is equipped with four wing
and three fuselage pylons for carrying weapons and external fuel
tanks. Use of the ski jump allowed the aircraft to take off from a
short flight deck with a heavier loadout than otherwise possible,
although it can also take off like a conventional loaded fighter
without thrust vectoring from a normal airport runway.
The Sea Harrier was largely based on the Harrier GR3, but was modified
to have a raised cockpit with a "bubble" canopy for greater
visibility, and an extended forward fuselage to accommodate the
Ferranti Blue Fox
Ferranti Blue Fox radar. Parts were changed to use corrosion
resistant alloys or coatings were added to protect against the marine
environment. After the Falklands War, the Sea Harrier was fitted
with the new anti-ship Sea Eagle missile.
The Sea Harrier FA2 featured the
Blue Vixen radar, which was described
as one of the most advanced pulse doppler radar systems in the
world; the Blue Fox radar was seen by some critics as having
comparatively low performance for what was available at the time of
Blue Vixen formed the basis for development of
the Eurofighter Typhoon's CAPTOR radar. The Sea Harrier FA2 also
AIM-120 AMRAAM missile, the first UK aircraft to be
provided with this capability. An upgraded model of the Pegasus
engine, the Pegasus Mk 106, was used in the Sea Harrier FA2; in
response to the threat of radar-based anti aircraft weapons electronic
countermeasures were added. Other improvements included an
increase to the air-to-air weapons load, look-down radar, increased
range, and improved cockpit displays.
The cockpit in the Sea Harrier includes a conventional centre stick
arrangement and left-hand throttle. In addition to normal flight
controls, the Harrier has a lever for controlling the direction of the
four vectorable nozzles. The nozzles point rearward with the lever in
the forward position for horizontal flight. With the lever back, the
nozzles point downward for vertical takeoff or landing. The
usefulness of the vertical landing capability of the Sea Harrier was
demonstrated in an incident on 6 June 1983, when Sub Lieutenant Ian
Watson lost contact with the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious and had
to land Sea Harrier ZA176 on the foredeck of the Spanish cargo
In 2005, although already timetabled to be retired, a Sea Harrier was
modified with an 'Autoland' system to allow the fighter to perform a
safe vertical landing without any pilot interaction. Despite the
pitching of a ship posing a natural problem, the system was designed
to be aware of such data, and successfully performed a landing at sea
in May 2005.
Entry into service
The first three Sea Harriers were a development batch and were used
for clearance trials. The first production aircraft was delivered
to RNAS Yeovilton in 1979 to form an Intensive Flying Trials Unit
(also known as 700A Naval Air Squadron). In March 1980 the
Intensive Flying Trials Unit became
899 Naval Air Squadron
899 Naval Air Squadron and would
act as the landborne headquarters unit for the type. The first
800 Naval Air Squadron
800 Naval Air Squadron was also formed in March
1980 initially to operate from HMS Invincible before it transferred to
HMS Hermes. In January 1981, a second operation squadron 801 Naval
Air Squadron was formed to operate from HMS Invincible.
Sea Harrier at RNAS Yeovilton. The pre-
Falklands War paint scheme seen
here was altered by painting over the white undersides and markings en
route to the islands.
Sea Harriers took part in the
Falklands War of 1982, flying from the
aircraft carriers HMS Invincible and HMS Hermes. The Sea Harriers
performed the primary air defence role with a secondary role of ground
attack; the RAF Harrier GR3 provided the main ground attack force. A
total of 28 Sea Harriers and 14 Harrier GR3s were deployed in the
theatre. The Sea Harrier squadrons shot down 20 Argentine aircraft
in air-to-air combat with no air-to-air losses, although two Sea
Harriers were lost to ground fire and four to accidents. Out of
the total Argentine air losses, 28% were shot down by Harriers.
A number of factors contributed to the failure of the Argentinian
fighters to shoot down a Sea Harrier. Although the Mirage III and
Dagger jets were faster, the Sea Harrier was considerably more
manoeuvrable. Moreover, the Harrier employed the latest AIM-9L
Sidewinder missiles and the Blue Fox radar. Contrary to
contemporary reports that "viffing" proved decisive in dogfights,
the maneuver was not used by RN pilots in the Falklands as it was
only used in emergencies against enemies unfamiliar with the
aircraft. The British pilots had superior air-combat training, one
manifestation of which was that they thought they noticed Argentinian
pilots occasionally releasing weapons outside of their operating
parameters. This is now thought to have been Mirages releasing
external fuel tanks rather than weapons, and turning away from
conflict with the Sea Harrier. This later reduced their capability to
fight an effective campaign against the Sea Harrier due to reduced
range and lack of external fuel tanks.
800 NAS Sea Harrier FRS1 from HMS Illustrious in post-Falklands War
low-visibility paint scheme.
British aircraft received fighter control from warships in San Carlos
Water, although its effectiveness was limited by their being stationed
close to the islands, which severely limited the effectiveness of
their radar. The differences in tactics and training between 800
Squadron and 801 Squadron has been a point of criticism, suggesting
that the losses of several ships were preventable had Sea Harriers
from Hermes been used more effectively.
Both sides' aircraft were operating in adverse conditions. Argentine
aircraft were forced to operate from the mainland because airfields on
the Falklands were only suited for propellor-driven transports. In
addition, fears partly aroused by the bombing of Port Stanley airport
by a British Vulcan bomber added to the Argentinians' decision to
operate them from afar. As most Argentine aircraft lacked
in-flight refuelling capability, they were forced to operate at the
limit of their range. The Sea Harriers also had limited fuel
reserves due to the tactical decision to station the British carriers
Exocet missile range and the dispersal of the fleet. The
result was that an Argentine aircraft could only allow five minutes
over the islands to search and attack an objective, while a Sea
Harrier could stay near to 30 minutes waiting in the Argentine
approach corridors and provide
Combat Air Patrol
Combat Air Patrol coverage for up to an
I counted them all out, and I counted them all back.
Brian Hanrahan, BBC reporter, on board HMS Hermes; stated after the
first Harrier mission during the 1982 Falklands War
The Sea Harriers were outnumbered by the available Argentinian
aircraft, and were on occasion decoyed away by the activities of
Escuadrón Fénix or civilian jet aircraft used by the Argentine
Air Force. They had to operate without a fleet early warning system
such as AWACS that would have been available to a full NATO fleet in
Royal Navy had expected to operate, which was a significant
weakness in the operational environment. However, it is now known
that British units based in Chile did provide early radar warning to
the Task Force. The result was that the Sea Harriers could not
establish complete air superiority and prevent Argentine attacks
during day or night, nor could they completely stop the daily C-130
Hercules transports' night flights to the islands. A total of
six Sea Harriers were lost during the war to either enemy fire,
accidents, or mechanical failure. The total aggregate loss rate
for both the Harriers and Sea Harriers on strike operations was
Operations in the 1990s
British Aerospace Sea Harrier FA2 of the
Royal Navy on the flight deck
of HMS Invincible
The Sea Harrier saw action in war again when it was deployed in the
1992–1995 conflict in Bosnia, part of the Yugoslav Wars. It
launched raids on Serb forces and provided air-support for the
international taskforce units conducting Operations Deny Flight and
Deliberate Force against the Army of Republika Srpska. On 16
April 1994, a Sea Harrier of the 801 Naval Air Squadron, operating
from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, was brought down by a Igla-1
surface-to-air missile fired by the
Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska while
attempting to bomb two Bosnian Serb tanks. The pilot, Lieutenant
Nick Richardson, ejected and landed in territory controlled by
friendly Bosnian Muslims.
It was used again in the 1999 NATO campaign against the Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia in Operation Allied Force, Sea Harriers
which operated from HMS Invincible frequently patrolled the airspace
to keep Yugoslavian MiGs on the ground. They were also deployed to
Sierra Leone on board HMS Illustrious in 2000, which was itself part
Royal Navy convoy to supply and reinforce British intervention
forces in the region.
A Sea Harrier FA2 on display at the
National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum in May
The Sea Harrier was withdrawn from service in 2006 and the last
remaining aircraft from
801 Naval Air Squadron
801 Naval Air Squadron were decommissioned on
29 March 2006. The plans for retirement were announced in 2002
by the Ministry of Defence. The aircraft's replacement, the F-35
Lightning II, was originally due in 2012, the MoD arguing that
significant expenditure would be required to upgrade the fleet for
only six years of service. By March 2010, the F-35's introduction
had been pushed back to 2016 at the earliest, with the price
doubled. The decision to retire the Sea Harrier early has been
criticised by some officers within the military.
Both versions of Harrier experienced reduced engine performance
(Pegasus Mk 106 in FA2 – Mk 105 in GR7) in the higher ambient
temperatures of the Middle East, which restricted the weight of
payload that the Harrier could return to the carrier in 'vertical'
recoveries. This was due to the safety factors associated with
aircraft "land-on" weights. The option to install higher-rated Pegasus
engines would not have been as straightforward as on the Harrier GR7
upgrade and would have likely been an expensive and slow process.
Furthermore, the Sea Harriers were subject to a generally more hostile
environment than land-based Harriers, with corrosive salt spray a
particular problem. A number of aircraft were retained by the School
of Flight Deck Operations at RNAS Culdrose.
The Royal Navy's
Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm would continue to share the other
component of Joint Force Harrier. Harrier GR7 and the upgraded
Harrier GR9 were transferred to
Royal Navy squadrons in 2006, but
were retired prematurely a few years later due to budget cuts. The
UK plans to purchase the STOVL F-35B to be operated from the Royal
Navy's Future Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier.
Although withdrawn from active
Royal Navy service, Sea Harriers are
used to train naval aircraft handlers at the
Royal Navy School of
Flight Deck Operations.
A pair of Indian Sea Harriers fly alongside an
F/A-18F Super Hornet
F/A-18F Super Hornet of
the U.S. Navy during Malabar 2007.
In 1977, the Indian government approved of plans to acquire the Sea
Harrier for the Indian Navy; prior to this, rumours reportedly were
circulating of a potential Indian purchase of the Soviet
V/STOL-capable Yak-36. The BAE Sea Hawk was phased out from the
Indian Navy in 1978, in preparation for the purchase of Sea
Harriers. In November 1979,
India placed its first order for six
Sea Harrier FRS Mk 51 fighters and two T Mk 60 Trainers; the first
three Sea Harriers arrived at
Dabolim Airport on 16 December 1983, and
were inducted the same year. Ten more Sea Harriers were
purchased in November 1985; eventually a total of 30 Harriers were
procured, 25 for operational use and the remainder as dual-seat
trainer aircraft. Until the 1990s, significant portions of pilot
training was carried out in Britain due to limited aircraft
The introduction of the Sea Harrier allowed for the retirement of
India's previous carrier fighter aircraft, the Hawker Sea Hawk, as
well as for the Navy's aircraft carrier, INS Vikrant (ex-HMS
Hercules), to be extensively modernised between 1987 and 1989.
India has operated Sea Harriers from both the aircraft carriers INS
INS Viraat (ex-HMS Hermes). The Sea Harrier allowed
several modern missiles to be introduced into naval operations, such
as the British anti-ship Sea Eagle missile, and the French Matra
Magic missile for air-to-air combat. Other ordnance has included
68 mm rockets, runway-denial bombs, cluster bombs, and podded
30 mm cannons.
There have been a significant number of accidents involving the Sea
Harrier; this accident rate has caused approximately half the fleet to
be lost with only 11 fighters remaining in service. Following a crash
in August 2009, all Sea Harriers were temporarily grounded for
inspection. Since the beginning of operational service in the
Indian Navy, seven pilots have died in 17 crashes involving the Sea
Harrier, usually during routine sorties.
The Indian aircraft carrier INS Vikrant in the early 1980s, carrying
Sea Harriers, Sea Hawks, Allouette and Sea King helicopters, and Alize
In 2006, the
Indian Navy expressed interest in acquiring up to eight
of the Royal Navy's recently retired Sea Harrier FA2s in order to
maintain their operational Sea Harrier fleet. Neither the Sea
Blue Vixen radar, the radar warning receiver or AMRAAM
capability was proposed to be included; certain US software would be
also be uninstalled prior to shipment. By October 2006, reports
emerged that the deal had not materialised due to the cost of airframe
In 2006, the
Indian Navy started upgrading up to 15 Sea Harriers in
Israel by installing the
EL/M-2032 radar and
the Rafael 'Derby' medium-range air-to-air BVR missile. This
will enable the Sea Harrier to remain in Indian service until beyond
2012, and also see limited service off the new carriers it will
acquire by that time frame. By 2009, crashes had reduced India's fleet
to 12 (from original 30).
India plans to introduce larger aircraft
carriers that can operate Russian MiG-29K carrier fighters from their
flight decks to replace the Sea Harrier.
The Sea Harriers operated from
INS Viraat for the last time on 6 March
2016. On 11 May 2016, a ceremony was held at INS Hansa, Dabolim,
Goa to commemorate the phasing out of Sea Harriers from INAS 300
("White Tigers"). Sea Harriers and MiG 29Ks performed an air display
at the ceremony, marking the final flight of the Sea Harriers in the
INAS 300 subsequently introduced MiG 29K/Kub fighters to
replace the retired Sea Harrier fleet.
Main article: List of Harrier variants
A Sea Harrier FRS 1 on HMS Invincible
Sea Harrier FRS.1
57 FRS1s were delivered between 1978 and 1988; most survivors
converted to Sea Harrier FA2 specifications from 1988.
Sea Harrier FRS.51
Single-seat fighter, reconnaissance, and attack aircraft made for the
Indian Navy, similar to the British FRS1. Unlike the FRS1 Sea Harrier,
it is fitted with Matra
R550 Magic air-to-air missiles. These
aircraft were later upgraded with the
EL/M-2032 radar and the
Rafael Derby BVRAAM missiles.
Sea Harrier F(A).2
Upgrade of FRS1 fleet in 1988, featuring the
Blue Vixen Pulse-Doppler
radar and the
AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.
Main article: List of Harrier operators
Indian Naval Air Arm
Indian Naval Air Arm (1983-2016)
Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm (1978–2006)
Sea Harrier FA2 ZE694 at the Midland Air Museum
Sea Harrier T Mk. 60 IN-654 at Rashtriya Indian Military College
A number of surviving Sea Harrier airframes are held by museums and
private owners, and some others are at the
Royal Navy School of Flight
Deck Operations at RNAS Culdrose and other military bases for
training. The following is list of those not used by the military
Sea Harrier FRS 51 (IN-621) at the
Naval Aviation Museum (India)
Naval Aviation Museum (India) in
Sea Harrier T Mk.60 (IN-654) at the Rashtriya Indian Military College
in Dehradun, India.
Sea Harrier FA.2 XZ457 at the Boscombe Down Aviation Collection, Old
Sea Harrier FRS.1 XZ493 at the
Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm Museum, Yeovilton,
Sea Harrier FA.2 XZ494 at the Castle Farm Camping and Caravanning,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZA175 at the Norfolk & Suffolk Aviation Museum,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZA176 at the Newark Air Museum, Newark,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZD607 at the Defence Storage and Distribution Agency,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZD613 on the roof of a building at the Cross Green
Industrial Estate, Leeds, West Yorkshire.
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZE691 at Woodford Park Industrial Estate, Northwich,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZE694 at the Midland Air Museum, Coventry,
Stored or under restoration
Sea Harrier FA.2 XZ459 with a private collection in West Sussex.
Sea Harrier FA.2 XZ497 with a private collection at Charlwood,
Sea Harrier FA.2 XZ499 with the
Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm Museum storage facility
Cobham Hall, Yeovilton.
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZD582 with a private collection at Aynho,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZD612 with a private collection at Topsham,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZD614 with a private collection at Lymington,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZE697 at the former RAF Binbrook, Lincolnshire.
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZE698 with a private collection at Charlwood,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZH799 with a private collection at Tunbridge Wells,
Sea Harrier FA.2 ZH806, ZH810 and ZH812 with a dealer near Ipswich,
Sea Harrier FA2 registered N94422 (formerly
Royal Navy serial number
XZ439) Nalls Aviation St Mary's County, Maryland. The former
Royal Navy Sea Harrier FA2 was purchased in 2006 by Art Nalls, who
spent the next two years restoring it to flying condition. In December
2007, it was damaged in a hard landing, while undergoing testing at
Naval Air Station Patuxent River
Naval Air Station Patuxent River and had to be repaired. The
aircraft made its first public appearance at an air show in Culpeper,
Virginia in October 2008. The aircraft is the only privately
owned, civilian-flown Harrier in the world.
Specifications (Sea Harrier FA2)
Sea Harrier FRS51. of the
Indian Navy taking off from INS Viraat
Data from Wilson, Bull, Donald Spick
Length: 46 ft 6 in (14.2 m)
Wingspan: 25 ft 3 in (7.6 m)
Height: 12 ft 2 in (3.71 m)
Wing area: 201.1 ft² (18.68 m²)
Empty weight: 14,052 lb (6,374 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 26,200 lb (11,900 kg)
Powerplant: 1 ×
Rolls-Royce Pegasus turbofan, 21,500 lbf (95.64 kN)
Maximum speed: 635 knots (735 mph, 1,182 km/h)
Combat radius: 540 nmi (620 mi, 1,000 km)
Ferry range: 1,740 nmi (2,000 mi, 3,600 km)
Service ceiling: 51,000 ft (16,000 m)
Rate of climb: 50,000 ft/min (250 m/s)
Guns: 2× 30 mm (1.18 in)
ADEN cannon pods under the fuselage, with
130 rounds each
Hardpoints: 4× under-wing pylon stations, and 1 fuselage pylon on
centerline plus 2 attach points for gun pods with a total capability
of 8,000 lb (3,630 kg) of payload.
Rockets: 4× Matra rocket pods with 18
SNEB 68 mm rockets each
R550 Magic (Sea Harrier FRS51)
ALARM anti-radiation missile (ARM)
Martel missile ARM
Bombs: A variety of unguided iron bombs (including 3 kg and 14 kg
reconnaissance pods or
2× auxiliary drop tanks for ferry flight or extended range/loitering
Blue Vixen all-weather airborne radar
BAE Systems AD2770 Tactical Air Navigation System
Thales MADGE Microwave Airborne Digital Guidance Equipment
Allied Signal AN/APX-100 mk12 IFF
Notable appearances in media
Harrier Jump Jet
Harrier Jump Jet in fiction
The Harrier's unique characteristics have led to it being featured a
number of films and video games.
Royal Navy portal
British aircraft since
World War II
World War II portal
Harrier Jump Jet, an overview of the Harrier family
Harrier Jump Jet
Harrier Jump Jet family losses
Hawker Siddeley Harrier
McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
British Aerospace Harrier II
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
List of aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm
List of attack aircraft
List of fighter aircraft
India Retires Sea Harriers".
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last-ditch manoeuvre. It can be useful if the guy behind hasn't seen
it before and doesn't know what you're going to do. You can decelerate
from 450 knots down to 150 in about three or four seconds, and that is
enough to fly people out in front - however, if he sees it coming, all
he has to do is go vertical and just sit around on top of you. You end
up with no energy at all and he's got all the time in the world to
take you out.
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