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The Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
or Auxiliary Police (literally: "protective, or guard units"; plural: Schutzmannschaften,[1] abbreviated as Schuma) was the collaborationist auxiliary police of native policemen serving in those areas of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II. Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
established the Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
on July 25, 1941, and subordinated it to the Order Police (Ordnungspolizei; Orpo).[2] By the end of 1941, some 45,000 men served in Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
units, about half of them in the battalions.[3] During 1942, Schutzmannschaften expanded to an estimated 300,000 men, with battalions accounting for about a third, or less than one half of the local force.[4][5] Everywhere, local police far outnumbered the equivalent German personnel several times (in most places, the ratio of Germans to natives was about 1-to-10).[6] The Schutzmannschaften had a reputation for their auxiliary police battalions (Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen). Created to support the German offensive, in particular by combating the anti-Nazi resistance, many of these battalions participated in the Holocaust and caused thousands of Jewish deaths. Usually the battalions were voluntary units and were not directly involved in combat. In total, about 200 battalions were formed.[7] Each battalion had an authorized strength of about 500, but the actual size varied greatly. They should not be confused with native German police battalions (SS-Polizei-Bataillone) which the Order Police formed between 1939 and 1945 and which also participated in the Holocaust (see Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
Police Battalions and Reserve Police Battalion 101).[8] The Order Police organized the Schutzmannschaften by nationality (see Lithuanian Auxiliary Police, Latvian Auxiliary Police, Estonian Auxiliary Police, Belarusian Auxiliary Police, and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police).[9]

Contents

1 Formation 2 Organization 3 Police battalions 4 Ranks in ascending order 5 Notes 6 References

Formation[edit] The Germans did not want to use local collaborators on a large scale as they were deemed to be unreliable and inferior (Untermensch).[10] However, the rapid German advance in the Eastern Front and manpower shortages forced Germans to reconsider. Therefore, on July 25, 1941, Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Himmler authorized creation of Schutzmannschaft.[11] Initially, it was called Hilfspolizei, but Germans did not want to attach a reputable police title to this force.[2] Schutzmannschaften was an integral part of German police structure and dealt with variety of issues, including everyday crimes (except when concerning German citizens).[9] Initially, only a small fraction of local auxiliaries were armed.[6] Due to limited supervision, particularly in rural areas, members of Schutzmannschaften had considerable power and there were frequent complaints of corruption and abuse.[12]

Local policemen serving in Schutzmannschaften at the end of 1942 [5]

Territory Police battalions Police stations Shuma Total German Orpo Police

Ostland 23,758 31,804 54,984 4,442

Ukraine 35,000 70,000 105,000 10,194

[Russian] Military administration 140,000 14,194

Grand total [5] 299,984 28,830

Initially, Schutzmannschaften was organized based on existing structures and spontaneous anti-Soviet groups that formed at the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union.[3] For example, in Lithuania, Schutzmannschaften absorbed units formed by the Provisional Government. Due to this legacy and its semi-military status, Lithuanians associated police battalions with their national aspirations of independent Lithuania.[13] This caused a rift within German ranks: ideologues like Hitler and Himmler saw no place for Baltic nationalism within the Greater Germanic Reich, but the Nazis needed local collaboration and had to maintain at least a shadow of national institutions.[3] Local men joined Schutzmannschaften due to a variety of reasons.[14] A number of them had prior police or military experience and wanted a job which paid steady wages and provided food rations. Joining the German war apparatus also provided certain privileges and protections for the men and their families (for example, exemption from forced labor).[14] Pensions were available to family members of those killed in anti-partisan operations.[9] Others were motivated by ideological reasons (antisemitism, anticommunism, nationalism) or by opportunities to loot property of murdered Jews. Captured Soviet POWs saw Schutzmannschaften as a way to avoid concentration camps. Such considerations attracted criminals and other opportunists.[14] Most of them were young: in 1944, about half of Schutzmannschaften near Mir were under 25 years of age.[15] Germans complained about their lack of training, discipline, and in some cases refused to supply them with weapons.[3] During 1942, in compliance with orders to enlarge Schutzmannschaft, Germans began to force men to sign up for the service[16] and eliminated service term limits[9] (initially men signed up for one-year[11] or six-month[17] terms). There was a marked difference in attitudes of more enthusiastic early volunteers and later forced recruits.[18] To increase their reliability, Himmler ordered the organization of NCO training,[19] which would include political education, that lasted up to eight weeks.[15] Organization[edit] The Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
comprised four sections:[20]

Schutzmannschaft-Einzeldienst (stationary regular police; patrolmen in cities and districts) Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen (mobile police battalions for anti-partisan operations) Hilfsschutzmannschaft (reserve units - guarded POWs and carried out work-details) Feuerschutzmannschaft (fire brigades)

Police battalions[edit] Police battalions were divided based on their intended functions into five categories:[20][21]

Schutzmannschaft-Front-Bataillonen (combat) Schutzmannschaft-Wach-Bataillonen (guard) Schutzmannschaft-Ersatz-Bataillonen (reserve/replacement) Schutzmannschaft-Pionier-Bataillonen (engineer) Schutzmannschaft-Bau-Bataillonen (construction)

Each battalion had a projected number of four companies of 124 men each, one with a group of machine gun and three groups of infantry.[20] In reality, the numbers varied greatly between occupied territories. Baltic (Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian) battalions were commanded by a native, while Ukrainian and Belarusian battalions had German commanders.[20] The battalions did not have a prescribed uniform and often used uniforms from pre-war national armies. They were identified by a white armband which usually had the inscription Schutzmann, a service number and location.[3] Hitler expressly prohibited Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
to use German badges of rank, the eagle and swastika emblem, or German military shoulder straps. Schutzmannschaften were generally armed with confiscated Soviet rifles and some officers had pistols. Machine guns were used in anti-partisan operations and mortars were employed in the later stages of the war.[22] In general, the battalions were poorly provided for, sometimes even lacking food rations, as priority and preference was given to German units fighting in the front lines.[23] The Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
battalions were organized by nationality: Ukrainians, Belarusians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Tatars. Germans attempted to organize police battalions in occupied Poland, but did not find volunteers and had to use force in forming the single Polish Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
Battalion 202.[24] The battalions were initially allotted numbers as follows (in brackets: re-allotted numbers in 1942; not all numbers were actually used):[25]

Reichskommissariat Ostland: battalions 1 through 50

Lithuanian Auxiliary Police: battalions 1 through 15 (1–15, 250–265, 301–310) Latvian Police Battalions: battalions 16 through 28 (16–28, 266–285, 311–328) Estonian Auxiliary Police: battalions 29 through 40 (29–45, 50, 286–293) Belarusian Auxiliary Police: battalions 41 through 50 (46–49)

Reichskommissariat Moskowien: battalions 51 through 100

Never actually formed

Reichskommissariat Ukraine: battalions 101 through 200

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
(including Tatar units)

The battalions were not confined to their locations and could be easily moved to locations far outside their home country. Since formation of the battalions was particularly slow in Belarus, many of them were first stationed there.[3] One of the first tasks of the battalions was mass execution of Jews. Attached to Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
as needed, the battalions rounded up, executed, and disposed of Jews. For example, it is estimated that Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
killed 78,000 Jews in Lithuania and Belarus.[26] The mass executions largely ceased by the end of 1941. By that time German advance into Soviet Union halted and Nazi officials considered using the battalions for more direct military duties. In particular, Franz Walter Stahlecker asked to relieve the 16th Army in the Demyansk Pocket.[3] However, Hitler refused. In Directive no. 46, dated August 1942, he agreed to strengthen and enlarge Schutzmannschaft, but to use it only for anti-partisan operations and other auxiliary duties behind the front lines.[27] Some battalions continued to participate in the Holocaust (guarding or eliminating Jewish ghettos).[28] The issue of involving Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
in combat was revisited after the Battle of Stalingrad. Some Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
battalions in Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine and elsewhere were reorganized into Waffen-SS divisions wearing national insignia.[3] Deserters were a constant problem for the battalions. For example, some 3,000 men deserted Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
between September 1943 and April 1944.[29] Ranks in ascending order[edit]

Estonian Latvian Lithuanian (June 1942) [30] Estonian Latvian Lithuanian (November 1942) [30] Ukrainian Belorussian (June 1942) [31] Ukrainian Belorussian (later) [31] Equivalent in the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
[30][31] Equivalent in the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
[30][31]

Schutzmann Schutzmann Schutzmann Schutzmann Anwärter Schütze

Unterkorporal Oberschutzmann Unterkorporal Unterkorporal Unterwachtmeister Gefreiter

Vizekorporal Revieroberschutzmann Vizekorporal Vizekorporal Rottwachtmeister Obergefreiter

Korporal Hauptschutzmann Korporal Korporal Wachtmeister Unteroffizier

Vizefeldwebel Stabsschutzmann Vizefeldwebel Vizefeldwebel Zugwachtmeister Feldwebel

Kompaniefeldwebel Revierstabsschutzmann Kompaniefeldwebel Kompaniefeldwebel Hauptwachtmeister Oberfeldwebel

Zugführer Leutnant Zugführer Lieutenant Leutnant Leutnant

Oberzugführer Oberleutnant Oberzugführer Starshiy Lieutenant Oberleutnant Oberleutnant

Kompanieführer Hauptmann Kompanieführer Kapitan Hauptmann Hauptmann

Batallionsführer Major Bataillonsführer Mayor Major Major

Oberstleutnant

Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant

Notes[edit]

^ Brandon, Ray; Lower, Wendy (2008). The Shoah in Ukraine: history, testimony, memorialization. Indiana University Press. p. 268. ISBN 0253350840. Some sources attempt to translate Schutzmann and Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
literally. The word is merely an old-fashioned German word for police, which the Order Police apparently adopted to distinguish the indigenous police from the German police in its various manifestations (Gendarmerie, Security Police, etc.).  ^ a b Schiessl (2009), p. 39 ^ a b c d e f g h Breitman (1990) ^ Dean (2003), p. 60 ^ a b c Arad (2009), pp. 107–108 ^ a b Browning (2002), p. 257 ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 459 ^ Goldhagen (2007), pp. 181–282 ^ a b c d Dean (2003), p. 69 ^ Schiessl (2009), p. 38 ^ a b Arad (2009), p. 106 ^ Dean (2003), pp. 70–71 ^ Bubnys (1998), pp. 133–134 ^ a b c Schiessl (2009), pp. 41–43 ^ a b Dean (2003), p. 73 ^ Dean (2003), pp. 66–67 ^ Bubnys (1998), p. 116 ^ Dean (2003), p. 72 ^ Arad (2009), p. 109 ^ a b c d Abbott (1983), p. 15 ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 465 ^ Dean (2003), p. 68 ^ Bubnys (1998), pp. 126–127 ^ Niewiński (2005), p. 491 ^ Stankeras (2008), pp. 464–465 ^ Bubnys (2000), p. 32 ^ Dean (2003), p. 66 ^ Schiessl (2009), p. 46 ^ Bubnys (1998), p. 138 ^ a b c d Niglas & Hiio (2006), p. 833 ^ a b c d Mollo (1992), pp. 24–26

References[edit]

Abbott, Peter (1983). Partisan Warfare 1941-45. Men-at-arms. 142. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9780850455137.  Arad, Yitzhak (2009). The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in the Soviet Union. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803222700.  Breitman, Richard (1990). "Himmler's Police Auxiliaries in the Occupied Soviet Territories". Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual (7). ISSN 0741-8450.  Browning, Christopher R. (2002). "Ordinary Germans or Ordinary Men? A Reply to the Critics". In Berenbaum, Michael; Peck, Abraham J. The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253215291.  Bubnys, Arūnas (1998), Vokiečių okupuota Lietuva (1941–1944) (in Lithuanian), Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras, ISBN 9986-757-12-6  Bubnys, Arūnas (2000), Lithuanian Police Battalions and the Holocaust (1941–1943) (PDF), The International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania  Dean, Martin (2003). Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403963710.  Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah (2007). Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307426239.  Mollo, Andrew (1992). Uniforms of the SS. 5. London: Windrow & Greene. ISBN 9781872004624.  Niewiński, Jan (2005). Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie: "Głos Kresowian". Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego. ISBN 8360093105.  Niglas, Aivar; Hiio, Toomas (2006). "Ranks of Defence Battalion soldiers, non-commissioned officers and officers" (PDF). Estonia 1940-1945: Reports of the Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Tallinn: Estonian Institute of Historical Memory. ISBN 9949-13-040-9.  Schiessl, Christoph (2009). The Search for Nazi Collaborators in the United States (Ph.D. thesis). ProQuest. ISBN 9781109090079.  Stankeras, Pertas (2008). Lietuvių policija Antrajame pasauliniame kare (in Lithuanian). Mintis. ISBN 978-5-417-00958-7. 

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Ukraine

People

Perpetrators

Algimantas Dailidė Erich Ehrlinger Joachim Hamann Karl Jäger Bruno Kittel Algirdas Klimaitis Hinrich Lohse Franz Murer Helmut Rauca Adrian von Renteln Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

Chaim Yellin Alexander Bogen Josef Glazman Jay M. Ipson Shmerke Kaczerginski Zelig Kalmanovich Abba Kovner Ephraim Oshry Abraham Sutzkever Elchonon Wasserman Yitzhak Wittenberg Jacob Wygodzki Wolf Durmashkin See also: Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

Rescuers

Kazys Binkis Petronėlė Lastienė Karl Plagge Antanas Poška Ona Šimaitė Chiune Sugihara Jan Zwartendijk See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations

Groups

Perpetrators

Einsatzgruppen Police Battalions Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Resistance

Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

Events

Jäger Report Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Places

HKP 562 forced labor camp Kailis forced labor camp Kovno Ghetto Lukiškės Prison Marcinkonys Ghetto Ninth Fort Šiauliai Ghetto Švenčionys Ghetto Vilna Ghetto

Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany History of the Jews in Lithuania

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

Crimes

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Victims

Jewish people of Latvia Gypsies Joseph Carlebach Simon Dubnow Else Hirsch

Perpetrators

Alois Brunner Rudolf Batz Fritz Dietrich Otto-Heinrich Drechsler Erich Ehrlinger Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Heinz Jost Konrāds Kalējs Ernst Kaltenbrunner Wolfgang Kügler Rudolf Lange Hinrich Lohse Friedrich Panzinger Hans-Adolf Prützmann Eduard Roschmann Alfred Rosenberg Martin Sandberger Albert Sauer Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Eduard Strauch

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Reichskommissariat Ostland Rollkommando Hamann

Collaborators

Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe

Organizations Arajs Kommando Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

Ghettos and camps

Daugavpils Ghetto Jungfernhof concentration camp Kaiserwald concentration camp Riga Ghetto Salaspils concentration camp

Documentation

Generalplan Ost Jäger Report

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

War crimes investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Jānis Lipke Roberts Sedols

Memorials

Bikernieki Memorial

Related articles

The Holocaust Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Estonia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

Crimes

Kalevi-Liiva

Prominent victims

Zelig Kalmanovich Wolf Durmashkin

Major perpetrators

Hans Aumeier Karl Jäger Ernst Kaltenbrunner Aleksander Laak Hinrich Lohse Ain-Ervin Mere Alfred Rosenberg Martin Sandberger Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Reichskommissariat Ostland

Notable collaborators

Karl Linnas Evald Mikson

Concentration camps

Klooga Jägala Vaivara

Documentation

Jäger Report Judenfrei

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

War crimes investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia Estonian International Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Uku Masing Eha Masing Polina Lentsman

Related articles

History of the Jews in Estonia Estonia in World War II Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transn

.