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(i)

The SCHUTZMANNSCHAFT or AUXILIARY POLICE (literally: "protection team"; plural: Schutzmannschaften, abbreviated as Schuma) was the collaborationist auxiliary police of native policemen serving in those areas of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II
World War II
. Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
established the Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
on July 25, 1941 and subordinated it to the Order Police (Ordnungspolizei ; Orpo). By the end of 1941, some 45,000 men served in Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
units, about half of them in the battalions. During 1942, Schutzmannschaften expanded to an estimated 300,000 men, with battalions accounting for about a third of the force. Everywhere, local police far outnumbered the equivalent German personnel several times (in most places, the ratio of Germans to natives was about 1-to-10).

The Schutzmannschaften have a reputation for their POLICE BATTALIONS (Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen). Created to support German war efforts, in particular combating anti-Nazi partisans , many of these battalions participated in the Holocaust and caused thousands of Jewish deaths. Usually the battalions were voluntary units and were not directly involved in combat. In total, about 200 battalions were formed. Each battalion had an authorized strength of about 500, but the actual size varied greatly. They should not be confused with native German police battalions (SS-Polizei-Bataillone) which the Order Police formed between 1939 and 1945 and which also participated in the Holocaust (see Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
Police Battalions and Reserve Police Battalion 101 ).

The Order Police organized the Schutzmannschaften by nationality (see Lithuanian Auxiliary Police , Latvian Auxiliary Police , Estonian Auxiliary Police , Belarusian Auxiliary Police , and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Formation * 2 Organization * 3 Police battalions * 4 Ranks * 5 References

FORMATION

The Germans did not want to use local collaborators on a large scale as they were deemed to be unreliable and inferior ( Untermensch ). However, the rapid German advance in the Eastern Front and manpower shortages forced Germans to reconsider. Therefore, on July 25, 1941, Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Himmler authorized creation of Schutzmannschaft. Initially, it was called Hilfspolizei, but Germans did not want to attach a reputable police title to this force. Schutzmannschaften was an integral part of German police structure and dealt with variety of issues, including everyday crimes (except when concerning German citizens). Initially, only a small fraction of local auxiliaries were armed. Due to limited supervision, particularly in rural areas, members of Schutzmannschaften had considerable power and there were frequent complaints of corruption and abuse.

Men serving in Schutzmannschaften at the end of 1942 AREA Police stations Police battalions German police

Ostland 31,804 23,758 4,442

Ukraine 70,000 35,000 10,194

Military administration 140,000 14,194

Initially, Schutzmannschaften was organized based on existing structures and spontaneous anti-Soviet groups that formed at the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union . For example, in Lithuania, Schutzmannschaften absorbed units formed by the Provisional Government . Due to this legacy and its semi-military status, Lithuanians associated police battalions with their national aspirations of independent Lithuania. This caused a rift within German ranks: ideologues like Hitler and Himmler saw no place for Baltic nationalism within the Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
, but the Nazis needed local collaboration and had to maintain at least a shadow of national institutions.

Local men joined Schutzmannschaften due to a variety of reasons. A number of them had prior police or military experience and wanted a job which paid steady wages and provided food rations. Joining the German war apparatus also provided certain privileges and protections for the men and their families (for example, exemption from forced labor ). Pensions were available to family members of those killed in anti-partisan operations. Others were motivated by ideological reasons (antisemitism, anticommunism, nationalism) or by opportunities to loot property of murdered Jews. Captured Soviet POWs saw Schutzmannschaften as a way to avoid concentration camps. Such considerations attracted criminals and other opportunists. Most of them were young: in 1944, about half of Schutzmannschaften near Mir were under 25 years of age. Germans complained about their lack of training, discipline, and in some cases refused to supply them with weapons. During 1942, in compliance with orders to enlarge Schutzmannschaft, Germans began to force men to sign up for the service and eliminated service term limits (initially men signed up for one-year or six-month terms). There was a marked difference in attitudes of more enthusiastic early volunteers and later forced recruits. To increase their reliability, Himmler ordered the organization of NCO training, which would include political education, that lasted up to eight weeks.

ORGANIZATION

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
was divided into four sections:

* Schutzmannschaft-Einzeldienst (stationary regular police, patrolmen in cities and districts) * Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen (mobile police battalions for anti-partisan operations) * Hilfsschutzmannschaft (reserve units, guarded POWs and carried work details) * Feuerschutzmannschaft (fire brigades)

POLICE BATTALIONS

Police battalions were divided based on their intended functions into five categories:

* Schutzmannschaft-Front-Bataillonen (combat) * Schutzmannschaft-Wach-Bataillonen (guard) * Schutzmannschaft-Ersatz-Bataillonen (reserve/replacement) * Schutzmannschaft-Pionier-Bataillonen (engineer) * Schutzmannschaft-Bau-Bataillonen (construction)

Each battalion had a projected number of four companies of 124 men each, one with a group of machine gun and three groups of infantry . In reality, the numbers varied greatly between occupied territories. Baltic (Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian) battalions were commanded by a native, while Ukrainian and Belarusian battalions had German commanders. The battalions did not have a prescribed uniform and often used uniforms from pre-war national armies. They were identified by a white armband which usually had the inscription Schutzmann, a service number and location. Hitler expressly prohibited Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
to use German badges of rank , the eagle and swastika emblem, or German military shoulder straps. Schutzmannschaften were generally armed with confiscated Soviet rifles and some officers had pistols. Machine guns were used in anti-partisan operations and mortars were employed in the later stages of the war. In general, the battalions were poorly provided for, sometimes even lacking food rations, as priority and preference was given to German units fighting in the front lines.

The Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
battalions were organized by nationality: Ukrainians, Belarusians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Tatars. Germans attempted to organize police battalions in occupied Poland , but did not find volunteers and had to use force in forming the single Polish Schutzmannschaft Battalion 202 . The battalions were initially allotted numbers as follows (in brackets: re-allotted numbers in 1942; not all numbers were actually used):

* Reichskommissariat Ostland : battalions 1 through 50

* Lithuanian Auxiliary Police : battalions 1 through 15 (1–15, 250–265, 301–310) * Latvian Police Battalions : battalions 16 through 28 (16–28, 266–285, 311–328) * Estonian Auxiliary Police : battalions 29 through 40 (29–45, 50, 286–293) * Belarusian Auxiliary Police : battalions 41 through 50 (46–49)

* Reichskommissariat Moskowien : battalions 51 through 100

* Never actually formed

* Reichskommissariat Ukraine : battalions 101 through 200

* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police (including Tatar units)

The battalions were not confined to their locations and could be easily moved to locations far outside their home country. Since formation of the battalions was particularly slow in Belarus, many of them were first stationed there. One of the first tasks of the battalions was mass execution of Jews. Attached to Einsatzgruppen as needed, the battalions rounded up, executed, and disposed of Jews. For example, it is estimated that Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
killed 78,000 Jews in Lithuania and Belarus. The mass executions largely ceased by the end of 1941. By that time German advance into Soviet Union halted and Nazi officials considered using the battalions for more direct military duties. In particular, Franz Walter Stahlecker asked to relieve the 16th Army in the Demyansk Pocket
Demyansk Pocket
. However, Hitler refused. In Directive no. 46 , dated August 1942, he agreed to strengthen and enlarge Schutzmannschaft, but to use it only for anti-partisan operations and other auxiliary duties behind the front lines. Some battalions continued to participate in the Holocaust (guarding or eliminating Jewish ghettos ). The issue of involving Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
in combat was revisited after the Battle of Stalingrad . Some Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
battalions in Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine and elsewhere were reorganized into Waffen-SS divisions wearing national insignia. Deserters were a constant problem for the battalions. For example, some 3,000 men deserted Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
between September 1943 and April 1944.

RANKS

Estonian Latvian Lithuanian units June 1942 Estonian Latvian Lithuanian units November 1942 Ukraine Belorussian units June 1942 Ukraine Beolurussian units later Equivalent in the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
Equivalent in the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht

Schutzmann Schutzmann Schutzmann Schutzmann Anwärter Schütze

Unterkorporal Oberschutzmann Unterkorporal Unterkorporal Unterwachtmeister Gefreiter

Vizekorporal Revieroberschutzmann Vizekorporal Vizekorporal Rottwachtmeister Obergefreiter

Korporal Hauptschutzmann Korporal Korporal Wachtmeister Unteroffizier

Vizefeldwebel Stabsschutzmann Vizefeldwebel Vizefeldwebel Zugwachtmeister Feldwebel

Kompaniefeldwebel Revierstabsschutzmann Kompaniefeldwebel Kompaniefeldwebel Hauptwachtmeister Oberfeldwebel

Zugführer Leutnant Zugführer Leitenant Leutnant Leutnant

Oberzugführer Oberleutnant Oberzugführer Starshiy Leitenant Oberleutnant Oberleutnant

Kompanieführer Hauptmann Kompanieführer Kapitan Hauptmann Hauptmann

Batallionsführer Major Bataillonsführer Mayor Major Major

- Oberstleutnant - - Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant

REFERENCES

Notes

* ^ A B Schiessl (2009), p. 39 * ^ A B C D E F G H Breitman (1990) * ^ Dean (2003), p. 60 * ^ A B Browning (2002), p. 257 * ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 459 * ^ Goldhagen (2007), pp. 181–282 * ^ Schiessl (2009), p. 38 * ^ A B Arad (2009), p. 106 * ^ A B C Dean (2003), p. 69 * ^ Dean (2003), pp. 70–71 * ^ Arad (2009), pp. 107–108 * ^ Bubnys (1998), pp. 133–134 * ^ A B C Schiessl (2009), pp. 41–43 * ^ A B Dean (2003), p. 73 * ^ Dean (2003), pp. 66–67 * ^ Bubnys (1998), p. 116 * ^ Dean (2003), p. 72 * ^ Arad (2009), p. 109 * ^ A B C D Abbott (1983), p. 15 * ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 465 * ^ Dean (2003), p. 68 * ^ Bubnys (1998), pp. 126–127 * ^ Niewiński (2005), p. 491 * ^ Stankeras (2008), pp. 464–465 * ^ Bubnys (2000), p. 32 * ^ Dean (2003), p. 66 * ^ Schiessl (2009), p. 46 * ^ Bubnys (1998), p. 138 * ^ A B C D Niglas & Hiio (2006), p. 833 * ^ A B C D Mollo (1992), pp. 24–26

Bibliography

* Abbott, Peter (1983). Partisan Warfare 1941-45. Men-at-arms. 142. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9780850455137 . * Arad, Yitzhak (2009). The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in the Soviet Union. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803222700 . * Breitman, Richard (1990). "Himmler\'s Police Auxiliaries in the Occupied Soviet Territories". Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual (7). ISSN 0741-8450 . * Browning, Christopher R. (2002). "Ordinary Germans or Ordinary Men? A Reply to the Critics". In Berenbaum, Michael; Peck, Abraham J. The Holocaust
The Holocaust
and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253215291 . * Bubnys, Arūnas (1998), Vokiečių okupuota Lietuva (1941–1944) (in Lithuanian), Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras, ISBN 9986-757-12-6 * Bubnys, Arūnas (2000), Lithuanian Police Battalions and the Holocaust (1941–1943) (PDF), The International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania * Dean, Martin (2003). Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403963710 . * Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah (2007). Hitler\'s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307426239 . * Mollo, Andrew (1992). Uniforms of the SS. 5. London: Windrow & Greene. ISBN 9781872004624 . * Niewiński, Jan (2005). Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie: "Głos Kresowian". Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego. ISBN 8360093105 . * Niglas, Aivar; Hiio, Toomas (2006). "Ranks of Defence Battalion soldiers, non-commissioned officers and officers" (PDF). Estonia 1940-1945: Reports of the Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Talinn: Estonian Institute of Historical Memory. ISBN 9949-13-040-9 . * Schiessl, Christoph (2009). The Search for Nazi Collaborators in the United States (Ph.D. thesis). ProQuest. ISBN 9781109090079 . * Stankeras, Pertas (2008). Lietuvių policija Antrajame pasauliniame kare (in Lithuanian). Mintis. ISBN 978-5-417-00958-7 .

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Erich Naumann
Erich Naumann
* Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
* Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski * Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein
Ernst Biberstein
* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune
Werner Braune
* Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln * Waldemar Klingelhöfer
Waldemar Klingelhöfer
* Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff * Martin Sandberger * Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
* Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
* Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Franz Six
Franz Six
* Eugen Steimle * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch
Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker
August Becker
* Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann
Emil Haussmann
* Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst
Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto
Łachwa Ghetto
* Minsk Ghetto
Minsk Ghetto
* Slutsk Affair

ESTONIA

* Kalevi-Liiva
Kalevi-Liiva

LATVIA

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

LITHUANIA

* Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
* Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 * Ponary

POLAND

* Operation Tannenberg
Operation Tannenberg
* Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
* AB-Aktion * Operation Reinhard

RUSSIA

* Gully of Petrushino
Gully of Petrushino
* Zmievskaya Balka
Zmievskaya Balka
* Lokot Autonomy

UKRAINE

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobycz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms
Lviv pogroms
* Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa

RECORDS

* The Black Book * Commissar Order
Commissar Order
* Einsatzgruppen trial * Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report * Korherr Report * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen)

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Ukraine

PEOPLE

PERPETRATORS

* Algimantas Dailidė * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Joachim Hamann * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Bruno Kittel * Algirdas Klimaitis * Hinrich Lohse * Franz Murer * Helmut Rauca * Adrian von Renteln * Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

* Kazys Binkis * Alexander Bogen * Josef Glazman * Jay M. Ipson * Zelig Kalmanovich * Abba Kovner * Ephraim Oshry * Karl Plagge * Ona Šimaitė * Chiune Sugihara * Abraham Sutzkever * Elchonon Wasserman * Yitzhak Wittenberg * Jacob Wygodzki * See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations * Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

GROUPS

PERPETRATORS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Battalions * Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys

RESISTANCE

* Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

EVENTS

* Jäger Report * Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 * Ponary

PLACES

* HKP 562 forced labor camp * Kailis forced labor camp * Kovno Ghetto * Lukiškės Prison * Marcinkonys Ghetto * Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
* Šiauliai Ghetto * Švenčionys Ghetto * Vilna Ghetto

* Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* History of the Jews in Lithuania
History of the Jews in Lithuania

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

CRIMES

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

VICTIMS

* Jewish people of Latvia * Gypsies * Joseph Carlebach
Joseph Carlebach
* Simon Dubnow * Else Hirsch

PERPETRATORS

* Alois Brunner
Alois Brunner
* Rudolf Batz * Fritz Dietrich * Otto-Heinrich Drechsler * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln * Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Konrāds Kalējs * Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Wolfgang Kügler * Rudolf Lange * Hinrich Lohse * Friedrich Panzinger * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Eduard Roschmann * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Martin Sandberger * Albert Sauer * Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Reichskommissariat Ostland * Rollkommando Hamann

COLLABORATORS Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe Organizations Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft

GHETTOS AND CAMPS

* Daugavpils Ghetto * Jungfernhof concentration camp
Jungfernhof concentration camp
* Kaiserwald concentration camp * Riga Ghetto * Salaspils concentration camp
Salaspils concentration camp

DOCUMENTATION

* Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Jānis Lipke * Roberts Sedols

MEMORIALS

* Bikernieki Memorial

RELATED ARTICLES

* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Estonia

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

CRIMES

* Kalevi-Liiva
Kalevi-Liiva

PROMINENT VICTIMS

* Zelig Kalmanovich

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

* Hans Aumeier * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Aleksander Laak * Hinrich Lohse * Ain-Ervin Mere * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Martin Sandberger * Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Reichskommissariat Ostland

NOTABLE COLLABORATORS

* Karl Linnas * Evald Mikson

CONCENTRATION CAMPS

* Klooga * Jägala * Vaivara

DOCUMENTATION

* Jäger Report * Judenfrei

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia * Estonian International Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Uku Masing * Eha Masing * Polina Lentsman

RELATED ARTICLES

* History of the Jews in Estonia * Estonia in World War II
World War II
* Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms
Lviv pogroms
* Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau
Sonderaktion Krakau
* Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Wilno * Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw * Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler * Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle
Hermann Höfle
* Fritz Katzmann
Fritz Katzmann
* Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
* Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert
Erwin Lambert
* Ernst Lerch
Ernst Lerch
* Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
* Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange
Herbert Lange
* Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein * Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths
Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel * Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government * Hotel Polski * WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys
* Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
* Icchak Cukierman * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler
Leon Feldhendler
* Paweł Frenkiel * Henryk Iwański * Itzhak Katzenelson * Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman
Miles Lerman
* Alexander Pechersky
Alexander Pechersky
* Witold Pilecki
Witold Pilecki
* Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota
Roza Robota
* Szmul Zygielbojm
Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album
Höcker Album
* Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* Katzmann Report
Katzmann Report
* Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland * Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report * Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van
Gas van
* Holocaust train
Holocaust train
* Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B
Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Bricha
Bricha
* Kielce pogrom
Kielce pogrom
* Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt Auschwitz trials * Treblinka trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial (Poland) * Stutthof trials
Stutthof trials
* Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews * Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum
Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum
* Majdanek State Museum * Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
* Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust * Garden of the Righteous

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

CRIMES

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobych * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms
Lviv pogroms
* Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa * Pripyat Swamps

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

* Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Werner Braune
Werner Braune
* Lothar Fendler * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Günther Herrmann * Friedrich Jeckeln * Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Fritz Katzmann
Fritz Katzmann
* Erich Koch * Felix Landau * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
* Paul Otto Radomski * Otto Rasch * Walter Schimana * Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Heinrich Seetzen * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Dieter Wisliceny

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Regiment South * Reichskommissariat Ukraine

COLLABORATORS Individuals Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky Organizations Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

GHETTOS, CAMPS AND PRISONS

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