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Schindler's List
Schindler's List
is a 1993 American historical period drama film directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
and written by Steven Zaillian. It is based on the novel Schindler's Ark
Schindler's Ark
by Australian novelist Thomas Keneally. The film follows Oskar Schindler, a Sudeten German businessman, who saved more than a thousand mostly Polish-Jewish refugees from the Holocaust by employing them in his factories during World War II. It stars Liam Neeson
Liam Neeson
as Schindler, Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
as SS officer Amon Göth, and Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
as Schindler's Jewish accountant Itzhak Stern. Ideas for a film about the Schindlerjuden
Schindlerjuden
(Schindler Jews) were proposed as early as 1963. Poldek Pfefferberg, one of the Schindlerjuden, made it his life's mission to tell Schindler's story. Spielberg became interested when executive Sidney Sheinberg sent him a book review of Schindler's Ark. Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
bought the rights to the novel, but Spielberg, unsure if he was ready to make a film about the Holocaust, tried to pass the project to several directors before deciding to direct it. Principal photography
Principal photography
took place in Kraków, Poland, over 72 days in 1993. Spielberg shot in black and white and approached the film as a documentary. Cinematographer Janusz Kamiński
Janusz Kamiński
wanted to create a sense of timelessness. John Williams
John Williams
composed the score, and violinist Itzhak Perlman
Itzhak Perlman
performed the main theme. Schindler's List
Schindler's List
premiered on November 30, 1993, in Washington, D.C. and was released on December 15, 1993, in the United States. Often listed among the greatest films ever made,[4][5][6][7] it was also a box office success, earning $322 million worldwide on a $22 million budget. It was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, winning seven, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Original Score, and won numerous other awards, including seven BAFTAs and three Golden Globes. In 2007, the American Film Institute ranked Schindler's List
Schindler's List
8th on its list of the 100 best American films of all time. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry
National Film Registry
in 2004.

Contents

1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Production

3.1 Development 3.2 Casting 3.3 Filming 3.4 Cinematography 3.5 Music

4 Themes and symbolism

4.1 The girl in red 4.2 Candles 4.3 Other symbolism

5 Release 6 Reception

6.1 Critical response 6.2 Assessment by other filmmakers 6.3 Reaction of the Jewish community 6.4 Accolades

7 Controversies 8 Effect on Kraków 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Plot[edit] In Kraków
Kraków
during World War II, the Germans have forced local Polish Jews into the overcrowded Kraków
Kraków
Ghetto. Oskar Schindler, an ethnic German from Czechoslovakia, arrives in the city hoping to make his fortune. A member of the Nazi Party, Schindler lavishes bribes on Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
(German armed forces) and SS officials and acquires a factory to produce enamelware. To help him run the business, Schindler enlists the aid of Itzhak Stern, a local Jewish official who has contacts with black marketeers and the Jewish business community. Stern helps Schindler arrange financing for the factory. Schindler maintains friendly relations with the Nazis and enjoys wealth and status as "Herr Direktor", and Stern handles administration. Schindler hires Jewish workers because they cost less, while Stern ensures that as many people as possible are deemed essential to the German war effort, which saves them from being transported to concentration camps or killed. SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
(second lieutenant) Amon Göth
Amon Göth
arrives in Kraków to oversee construction of Płaszów concentration camp. When the camp is completed, he orders the ghetto liquidated. Many people are shot and killed in the process of emptying the ghetto. Schindler witnesses the massacre and is profoundly affected. He particularly notices a young girl in a red coat as she hides from the Nazis, and later sees her body among a wagonload of corpses. Schindler is careful to maintain his friendship with Göth and, through bribery and lavish gifts, continues to enjoy SS support. Göth brutally mistreats his Jewish maid Helen Hirsch and randomly shoots people from the balcony of his villa, and the prisoners are in constant fear for their lives. As time passes, Schindler's focus shifts from making money to trying to save as many lives as possible. To better protect his workers, Schindler bribes Göth into allowing him to build a sub-camp. As the Germans begin to lose the war, Göth is ordered to ship the remaining Jews at Płaszów to Auschwitz concentration camp. Schindler asks Göth to allow him to move his workers to a new munitions factory he plans to build in Brünnlitz near his home town Zwittau. Göth agrees, but charges a huge bribe. Schindler and Stern create "Schindler's List" – a list of about 850 people to be transferred to Brinnlitz and thus saved from transport to Auschwitz. The train carrying the women and children is accidentally redirected to Auschwitz-Birkenau; Schindler bribes Rudolf Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz, with a bag of diamonds to win their release. At the new factory, Schindler forbids the SS guards from entering the factory floor and encourages the Jews to observe the Jewish Sabbath. Over the next seven months, he spends much of his fortune bribing Nazi officials and buying shell casings from other companies; due to Schindler's own machinations, the factory does not produce any usable armaments during this period. Schindler runs out of money in 1945, just as Germany surrenders, ending the war in Europe. As a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
member and war profiteer, Schindler must flee the advancing Red Army
Red Army
to avoid capture. The SS guards in Schindler's factory have been ordered to kill the Jewish workforce, but Schindler persuades them not to, so that they can "return to [their] families as men, instead of murderers." He bids farewell to his workers and prepares to head west, hoping to surrender to the Americans. The workers give Schindler a signed statement attesting to his role in saving Jewish lives and present him with a ring engraved with a Talmudic quotation: "Whoever saves one life saves the world entire." Schindler is touched but also ashamed, as he feels he should have done even more. He breaks down sobbing, and is comforted by the workers. After he and his wife leave, the Schindlerjuden
Schindlerjuden
spend the night on the factory grounds and are awoken the next morning by a Soviet soldier, who announces that they have been liberated. The Jews leave the factory and walk to a nearby town. An epilogue reveals that Schindler's marriage failed after the war, as did his attempts to start new businesses, while Göth was arrested, tried, and executed for crimes against humanity. Schindler was later honored by Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
for his efforts to save his workers from being put to death. In the present, many of the surviving Schindlerjuden
Schindlerjuden
and the actors portraying them visit Schindler's grave and place stones on its marker, the traditional Jewish sign of respect on visiting a grave. The final visitor is Liam Neeson, who lays two roses on the marker.

Cast[edit] Liam Neeson
Liam Neeson
(seen here in 2012) was cast as Oskar Schindler
Oskar Schindler
in the film.

Liam Neeson
Liam Neeson
as Oskar Schindler Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
as Itzhak Stern Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
as Amon Göth Caroline Goodall as Emilie Schindler Jonathan Sagall as Poldek Pfefferberg Embeth Davidtz
Embeth Davidtz
as Helen Hirsch Małgorzata Gebel as Wiktoria Klonowska Mark Ivanir as Marcel Goldberg Beatrice Macola
Beatrice Macola
as Ingrid Andrzej Seweryn
Andrzej Seweryn
as Julian Scherner Friedrich von Thun
Friedrich von Thun
as Rolf Czurda Jerzy Nowak as Investor Norbert Weisser as Albert Hujar Anna Mucha as Danka Dresner Adi Nitzan as Mila Pfefferberg Piotr Polk
Piotr Polk
as Leo Rosner Rami Heuberger
Rami Heuberger
as Joseph Bau Ezra Dagan
Ezra Dagan
as Rabbi Menasha Lewartow Elina Löwensohn as Diana Reiter Hans-Jörg Assmann as Julius Madritsch Hans-Michael Rehberg
Hans-Michael Rehberg
as Rudolf Höß Daniel Del Ponte as Josef Mengele August Schmölzer
August Schmölzer
as Dieter Reeder Ludger Pistor
Ludger Pistor
as Josef Leipold[a] Oliwia Dąbrowska as the Girl in Red

Production[edit] Development[edit] Pfefferberg, one of the Schindlerjuden, made it his life's mission to tell the story of his savior. Pfefferberg attempted to produce a biopic of Oskar Schindler
Oskar Schindler
with MGM in 1963, with Howard Koch writing, but the deal fell through.[9][10] In 1982, Thomas Keneally published his historical novel Schindler's Ark, which he wrote after a chance meeting with Pfefferberg in Los Angeles in 1980.[11] MCA president Sid Sheinberg sent director Steven Spielberg a New York Times review of the book. Spielberg, astounded by Schindler's story, jokingly asked if it was true. "I was drawn to it because of the paradoxical nature of the character," he said. "What would drive a man like this to suddenly take everything he had earned and put it all in the service of saving these lives?"[12] Spielberg expressed enough interest for Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
to buy the rights to the novel.[12] At their first meeting in spring 1983, he told Pfefferberg he would start filming in ten years.[13] In the end credits of the film, Pfefferberg is credited as a consultant under the name Leopold Page.[14]

The liquidation of the Kraków
Kraków
Ghetto in March 1943 is the subject of a 15-minute segment of the film. Spielberg was unsure if he was mature enough to make a film about the Holocaust, and the project remained "on [his] guilty conscience".[13] Spielberg tried to pass the project to director Roman Polanski, who turned it down. Polanski's mother was killed at Auschwitz, and he had lived in and survived the Kraków Ghetto.[13] Polanski eventually directed his own Holocaust drama The Pianist (2002). Spielberg also offered the film to Sydney Pollack and Martin Scorsese, who was attached to direct Schindler's List in 1988. However, Spielberg was unsure of letting Scorsese direct the film, as "I'd given away a chance to do something for my children and family about the Holocaust."[15] Spielberg offered him the chance to direct the 1991 remake of Cape Fear instead.[16] Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
expressed an interest in directing the film as a memorial to his family, most of whom were murdered in the Holocaust.[17] Spielberg finally decided to take on the project when he noticed that Holocaust deniers were being given serious consideration by the media. With the rise of neo-Nazism after the fall of the Berlin Wall, he worried that people were too accepting of intolerance, as they were in the 1930s.[17] Sid Sheinberg greenlit the film on condition that Spielberg made Jurassic Park first. Spielberg later said, "He knew that once I had directed Schindler I wouldn't be able to do Jurassic Park."[2] The picture was assigned a small budget of $22 million, as Holocaust films are not usually profitable.[18][2] Spielberg forwent a salary for the film, calling it "blood money",[2] and believed the film would flop.[2] In 1983, Keneally was hired to adapt his book, and he turned in a 220-page script. His adaptation focused on Schindler's numerous relationships, and Keneally admitted he did not compress the story enough. Spielberg hired Kurt Luedtke, who had adapted the screenplay of Out of Africa, to write the next draft. Luedtke gave up almost four years later, as he found Schindler's change of heart too unbelievable.[15] During his time as director, Scorsese hired Steven Zaillian to write a script. When he was handed back the project, Spielberg found Zaillian's 115-page draft too short, and asked him to extend it to 195 pages. Spielberg wanted more focus on the Jews in the story, and he wanted Schindler's transition to be gradual and ambiguous, not a sudden breakthrough or epiphany. He extended the ghetto liquidation sequence, as he "felt very strongly that the sequence had to be almost unwatchable."[15]

Casting[edit] Neeson auditioned as Schindler early on, and was cast in December 1992, after Spielberg saw him perform in Anna Christie
Anna Christie
on Broadway.[19] Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
participated in a script reading, but Spielberg was concerned that he could not disguise his accent and that he would bring "movie star baggage".[20] Kevin Costner and Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
expressed interest in portraying Schindler, but Spielberg preferred to cast the relatively unknown Neeson, so the actor's star quality would not overpower the character.[21] Neeson felt Schindler enjoyed outsmarting the Nazis, who regarded him as a bit of a buffoon. "They don't quite take him seriously, and he used that to full effect."[22] To help him prepare for the role, Spielberg showed Neeson film clips of Time Warner
Time Warner
CEO Steve Ross, who had a charisma that Spielberg compared to Schindler's.[23] He also located a tape of Schindler speaking, which Neeson studied to learn the correct intonations and pitch.[24] Fiennes was cast as Amon Göth
Amon Göth
after Spielberg viewed his performances in A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights. Spielberg said of Fiennes' audition that "I saw sexual evil. It is all about subtlety: there were moments of kindness that would move across his eyes and then instantly run cold."[25] Fiennes put on 28 pounds (13 kg) to play the role. He watched historic newsreels and talked to Holocaust survivors who knew Göth. In portraying him, Fiennes said "I got close to his pain. Inside him is a fractured, miserable human being. I feel split about him, sorry for him. He's like some dirty, battered doll I was given and that I came to feel peculiarly attached to."[25] Doctors Samuel J. Leistedt and Paul Linkowski of the Université libre de Bruxelles describe Göth's character in the film as a classic psychopath.[26] Fiennes looked so much like Göth in costume that when Mila Pfefferberg (a survivor of the events) met him, she trembled with fear.[25] The character of Itzhak Stern
Itzhak Stern
(played by Ben Kingsley) is a composite of the accountant Stern, factory manager Abraham Bankier, and Göth's personal secretary, Mietek Pemper.[27] The character serves as Schindler's alter ego and conscience.[28] Kingsley is best known for his Academy Award-winning performance as Gandhi in the 1982 biographical film.[29] Overall, there are 126 speaking parts in the film. Thousands of extras were hired during filming.[15] Spielberg cast Israeli and Polish actors specially chosen for their Eastern European appearance.[30] Many of the German actors were reluctant to don the SS uniform, but some of them later thanked Spielberg for the cathartic experience of performing in the movie.[20] Halfway through the shoot, Spielberg conceived the epilogue, where 128 survivors pay their respects at Schindler's grave in Jerusalem. The producers scrambled to find the Schindlerjuden
Schindlerjuden
and fly them in to film the scene.[15]

Filming[edit] Principal photography
Principal photography
began on March 1, 1993 in Kraków, Poland, with a planned schedule of 75 days.[31] The crew shot at or near the actual locations, though the Płaszów camp had to be reconstructed in a nearby abandoned quarry, as modern high rise apartments were visible from the site of the original camp.[32][33] Interior shots of the enamelware factory in Kraków
Kraków
were filmed at a similar facility in Olkusz, while exterior shots and the scenes on the factory stairs were filmed at the actual factory.[34] The crew was forbidden to do extensive shooting or construct sets on the grounds at Auschwitz, so they shot at a replica constructed just outside the entrance.[35] There were some antisemitic incidents. A woman who encountered Fiennes in his Nazi uniform told him that "the Germans were charming people. They didn't kill anybody who didn't deserve it".[25] Antisemitic symbols were scrawled on billboards near shooting locations,[15] while Kingsley nearly entered a brawl with an elderly German-speaking businessman who insulted Israeli actor Michael Schneider.[36] Nonetheless, Spielberg stated that at Passover, "all the German actors showed up. They put on yarmulkes and opened up Haggadas, and the Israeli actors moved right next to them and began explaining it to them. And this family of actors sat around and race and culture were just left behind."[36]

.mw-parser-output .quotebox background-color:#F9F9F9;border:1px solid #aaa;box-sizing:border-box;padding:10px;font-size:88%;max-width:100% .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft margin:0.5em 1.4em 0.8em 0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright margin:0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em .mw-parser-output .quotebox.centered margin:0.5em auto 0.8em auto .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft p,.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright p font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .quotebox-title background-color:#F9F9F9;text-align:center;font-size:larger;font-weight:bold .mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:before font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" “ ";vertical-align:-45%;line-height:0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:after font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" ” ";line-height:0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox .left-aligned text-align:left .mw-parser-output .quotebox .right-aligned text-align:right .mw-parser-output .quotebox .center-aligned text-align:center .mw-parser-output .quotebox cite display:block;font-style:normal @media screen and (max-width:360px) .mw-parser-output .quotebox min-width:100%;margin:0 0 0.8em!important;float:none!important I was hit in the face with my personal life. My upbringing. My Jewishness. The stories my grandparents told me about the Shoah. And Jewish life came pouring back into my heart. I cried all the time. — Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
on his emotional state during the shoot[37]

Shooting Schindler's List
Schindler's List
was deeply emotional for Spielberg, the subject matter forcing him to confront elements of his childhood, such as the antisemitism he faced. He was surprised that he did not cry while visiting Auschwitz; instead he found himself filled with outrage. He was one of many crew members who could not force themselves to watch during shooting of the scene where aging Jews are forced to run naked while being selected by Nazi doctors to go to Auschwitz.[38] Spielberg commented that he felt more like a reporter than a film maker – he would set up scenes and then watch events unfold, almost as though he were witnessing them rather than creating a movie.[32] Several actresses broke down when filming the shower scene, including one who was born in a concentration camp.[20] Spielberg, his wife Kate Capshaw, and their five children rented a house in suburban Kraków
Kraków
for the duration of filming.[39] He later thanked his wife "for rescuing me ninety-two days in a row ... when things just got too unbearable".[40] Robin Williams
Robin Williams
called Spielberg to cheer him up, given the profound lack of humor on the set.[40] Spielberg spent several hours each evening editing Jurassic Park, which was scheduled to premiere in June 1993.[41] Spielberg occasionally used German and Polish language
Polish language
dialogue to create a sense of realism. He initially considered making the film entirely in those languages, but decided "there's too much safety in reading [subtitles]. It would have been an excuse [for the audience] to take their eyes off the screen and watch something else."[20]

Cinematography[edit] Influenced by the 1985 documentary film Shoah, Spielberg decided not to plan the film with storyboards, and to shoot it like a documentary. Forty percent of the film was shot with handheld cameras, and the modest budget meant the film was shot quickly over seventy-two days.[42] Spielberg felt that this gave the film "a spontaneity, an edge, and it also serves the subject."[43] He filmed without using Steadicams, elevated shots, or zoom lenses, "everything that for me might be considered a safety net."[43] This matured Spielberg, who felt that in the past he had always been paying tribute to directors such as Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
or David Lean.[36] The decision to shoot the film mainly in black and white contributed to the documentary style of cinematography, which cinematographer Janusz Kamiński
Janusz Kamiński
compared to German Expressionism
German Expressionism
and Italian neorealism.[43] Kamiński said that he wanted to give the impression of timelessness to the film, so the audience would "not have a sense of when it was made."[32] Spielberg decided to use black and white to match the feel of actual documentary footage of the era.[43] Universal chairman Tom Pollock asked him to shoot the film on a color negative, to allow color VHS copies of the film to later be sold, but Spielberg did not want to accidentally "beautify events."[43]

Music[edit] Main article: Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(soundtrack) John Williams, who frequently collaborates with Spielberg, composed the score for Schindler's List. The composer was amazed by the film, and felt it would be too challenging. He said to Spielberg, "You need a better composer than I am for this film." Spielberg responded, "I know. But they're all dead!"[44] Itzhak Perlman
Itzhak Perlman
performs the theme on the violin.[14] Regarding Schindler's List, Perlman said:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 Perlman: "I couldn't believe how authentic he [John Williams] got everything to sound, and I said, 'John, where did it come from?' and he said, 'Well I had some practice with Fiddler on the Roof and so on, and everything just came very naturally' and that's the way it sounds." Interviewer: "When you were first approached to play for Schindler's List, did you give it a second thought, did you agree at once, or did you say 'I'm not sure I want to play for movie music'? Perlman: "No, that never occurred to me, because in that particular case the subject of the movie was so important to me, and I felt that I could contribute simply by just knowing the history, and feeling the history, and indirectly actually being a victim of that history."[45]

In the scene where the ghetto is being liquidated by the Nazis, the folk song "Oyfn Pripetshik" (Yiddish: אויפֿן פּריפּעטשיק‎, "On the Cooking Stove") is sung by a children's choir. The song was often sung by Spielberg's grandmother, Becky, to her grandchildren.[46] The clarinet solos heard in the film were recorded by Klezmer
Klezmer
virtuoso Giora Feidman.[47] Williams won an Academy Award for Best Original Score for Schindler's List, his fifth win.[48] Selections from the score were released on a soundtrack album.[49]

Themes and symbolism[edit] The film explores the theme of good versus evil, using as its main protagonist a "good German", a popular characterization in American cinema.[50][17] While Göth is characterized as an almost completely dark and evil person, Schindler gradually evolves from Nazi supporter to rescuer and hero.[51] Thus a second theme of redemption is introduced as Schindler, a disreputable schemer on the edges of respectability, becomes a father figure responsible for saving the lives of more than a thousand people.[52][53]

The girl in red[edit] Schindler sees a girl in red during the liquidation of the Kraków ghetto. The red coat is one of the few instances of color used in this predominantly black and white film. While the film is shot primarily in black and white, a red coat is used to distinguish a little girl in the scene depicting the liquidation of the Kraków
Kraków
ghetto. Later in the film, Schindler sees her dead body, recognizable only by the red coat she is still wearing. Spielberg said the scene was intended to symbolize how members of the highest levels of government in the United States knew the Holocaust was occurring, yet did nothing to stop it. "It was as obvious as a little girl wearing a red coat, walking down the street, and yet nothing was done to bomb the German rail lines. Nothing was being done to slow down ... the annihilation of European Jewry," he said. "So that was my message in letting that scene be in color."[54] Andy Patrizio of IGN
IGN
notes that the point at which Schindler sees the girl's dead body is the point at which he changes, no longer seeing "the ash and soot of burning corpses piling up on his car as just an annoyance."[55] Professor André H. Caron of the Université de Montréal
Université de Montréal
wonders if the red symbolises "innocence, hope or the red blood of the Jewish people being sacrificed in the horror of the Holocaust."[56] The girl was portrayed by Oliwia Dąbrowska, three years old at the time of filming. Spielberg asked Dąbrowska not to watch the film until she was eighteen, but she watched it when she was eleven, and says she was "horrified".[57] Upon seeing the film again as an adult, she was proud of the role she played.[57] Although it was unintentional, the character is similar to Roma Ligocka, who was known in the Kraków
Kraków
Ghetto for her red coat. Ligocka, unlike her fictional counterpart, survived the Holocaust. After the film was released, she wrote and published her own story, The Girl in the Red Coat: A Memoir (2002, in translation).[58] According to a 2014 interview of family members, the girl in red was inspired by Kraków resident Genya Gitel Chil.[59]

Candles[edit] The opening scene features a family observing Shabbat. Spielberg said that "to start the film with the candles being lit ... would be a rich bookend, to start the film with a normal Shabbat
Shabbat
service before the juggernaut against the Jews begins."[15] When the color fades out in the film's opening moments, it gives way to a world in which smoke comes to symbolize bodies being burnt at Auschwitz. Only at the end, when Schindler allows his workers to hold Shabbat services, do the images of candle fire regain their warmth. For Spielberg, they represent "just a glint of color, and a glimmer of hope."[15] Sara Horowitz, director of the Koschitzky Centre for Jewish Studies at York University, sees the candles as a symbol for the Jews of Europe, killed and then burned in the crematoria. The two scenes bracket the Nazi era, marking its beginning and end.[60] She points out that normally the woman of the house lights the Sabbath candles. In the film it is men who perform this ritual, demonstrating not only the subservient role of women, but also the subservient position of Jewish men in relation to Aryan men, especially Göth and Schindler.[61]

Other symbolism[edit] To Spielberg, the black and white presentation of the film came to represent the Holocaust itself: " The Holocaust
The Holocaust
was life without light. For me the symbol of life is color. That's why a film about the Holocaust has to be in black-and-white."[62] Robert Gellately notes the film in its entirety can be seen as a metaphor for the Holocaust, with early sporadic violence increasing into a crescendo of death and destruction. He also notes a parallel between the situation of the Jews in the film and the debate in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
between making use of the Jews for slave labor or exterminating them outright.[63] Water is seen as giving deliverance by Alan Mintz, Holocaust Studies professor at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York. He notes its presence in the scene where Schindler arranges for a Holocaust train
Holocaust train
loaded with victims awaiting transport to be hosed down, and the scene in Auschwitz, where the women are given an actual shower instead of receiving the expected gassing.[64]

Release[edit] The film opened on December 15, 1993. By the time it closed in theaters on September 29, 1994, it had grossed $96.1 million ($167 million in 2018 dollars)[65] in the United States and over $321.2 million worldwide.[66] In Germany, where it was shown in 500 theaters, the film was viewed by over 100,000 people in its first week alone[67] and was eventually seen by six million people.[68] The film was popular in Germany and a success worldwide.[69] Schindler's List
Schindler's List
made its U.S. network television premiere on NBC
NBC
on February 23, 1997. Shown without commercials, it ranked #3 for the week with a 20.9/31 rating/share,[70] the highest Nielsen rating for any film since NBC's broadcast of Jurassic Park in May 1995. The film aired on public television in Israel on Holocaust Memorial Day in 1998.[71] The DVD
DVD
was released on March 9, 2004 in widescreen and fullscreen editions, on a double-sided disc with the feature film beginning on side A and continuing on side B. Special
Special
features include a documentary introduced by Spielberg.[72] Also released for both formats was a limited edition gift set, which included the widescreen version of the film, Keneally's novel, the film's soundtrack on CD, a senitype, and a photo booklet titled Schindler's List: Images of the Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
Film, all housed in a plexiglass case.[73] The laserdisc gift set was a limited edition that included the soundtrack, the original novel, and an exclusive photo booklet.[74] As part of its 20th anniversary, the movie was released on Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
on March 5, 2013.[75] A digitally remastered version of the film was released into theaters on December 7, 2018 for its 25th anniversary,[76] grossing $551,000 in 1,029 theaters.[77] The film was released on 4K UHD Blu-Ray on December 18, 2018.[78] Following the success of the film, Spielberg founded the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, a nonprofit organization with the goal of providing an archive for the filmed testimony of as many survivors of the Holocaust as possible, to save their stories. He continues to finance that work.[79] Spielberg used proceeds from the film to finance several related documentaries, including Anne Frank Remembered (1995), The Lost Children of Berlin (1996), and The Last Days (1998).[80]

Reception[edit] Critical response[edit] Schindler's List
Schindler's List
received acclaim from both film critics and audiences.[81] On Rotten Tomatoes, the film received an approval rating of 97% based on 95 reviews, with an average rating of 9.02/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Schindler's List blends the abject horror of the Holocaust with Steven Spielberg's signature tender humanism to create the director's dramatic masterpiece."[82] Metacritic
Metacritic
gave the film a weighted average score of 93 out of 100, based on 23 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[83] Americans such as talk show host Oprah Winfrey and President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
urged their countrymen to see it.[84][85] World leaders in many countries saw the film, and some met personally with Spielberg.[84] Audiences polled by CinemaScore
CinemaScore
gave the film a rare "A+" grade on an A+ to F scale.[86] Stephen Schiff of The New Yorker
The New Yorker
called it the best historical drama about the Holocaust, a movie that "will take its place in cultural history and remain there."[87] Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
of the Chicago Sun-Times described it as Spielberg's best, "brilliantly acted, written, directed, and seen."[88] Ebert named it one of his ten favorite films of 1993.[89] Terrence Rafferty, also with The New Yorker, admired the film's "narrative boldness, visual audacity, and emotional directness." He noted the performances of Neeson, Fiennes, Kingsley, and Davidtz as warranting special praise,[90] and calls the scene in the shower at Auschwitz "the most terrifying sequence ever filmed."[91] In the 2013 edition of his Movie and Video Guide, Leonard Maltin
Leonard Maltin
awarded the picture a four-out-of-four-star rating; he described the movie as a "staggering adaptation of Thomas Keneally's best-seller ... with such frenzied pacing that it looks and feels like nothing Hollywood has ever made before ... Spielberg's most intense and personal film to date".[92] James Verniere of the Boston Herald
Boston Herald
noted the film's restraint and lack of sensationalism, and called it a "major addition to the body of work about the Holocaust."[93] In his review for The New York Review of Books, British critic John Gross said his misgivings that the story would be overly sentimentalized "were altogether misplaced. Spielberg shows a firm moral and emotional grasp of his material. The film is an outstanding achievement."[94] Mintz notes that even the film's harshest critics admire the "visual brilliance" of the fifteen-minute segment depicting the liquidation of the Kraków
Kraków
ghetto. He describes the sequence as "realistic" and "stunning".[95] He points out that the film has done much to increase Holocaust remembrance and awareness as the remaining survivors pass away, severing the last living links with the catastrophe.[96] The film's release in Germany led to widespread discussion about why most Germans did not do more to help.[97] Criticism of the film also appeared, mostly from academia rather than the popular press.[98] Horowitz points out that much of the Jewish activity seen in the ghetto consists of financial transactions such as lending money, trading on the black market, or hiding wealth, thus perpetuating a stereotypical view of Jewish life.[99] Horowitz notes that while the depiction of women in the film accurately reflects Nazi ideology, the low status of women and the link between violence and sexuality is not explored further.[100] History professor Omer Bartov
Omer Bartov
of Brown University notes that the physically large and strongly drawn characters of Schindler and Göth overshadow the Jewish victims, who are depicted as small, scurrying, and frightened – a mere backdrop to the struggle of good versus evil.[101] Horowitz points out that the film's dichotomy of absolute good versus absolute evil glosses over the fact that most Holocaust perpetrators were ordinary people; the movie does not explore how the average German rationalized their knowledge of or participation in the Holocaust.[102] Author Jason Epstein
Jason Epstein
commented that the movie gives the impression that if people were smart enough or lucky enough, they could survive the Holocaust; this was not actually the case.[103] Spielberg responded to criticism that Schindler's breakdown as he says farewell is too maudlin and even out of character by pointing out that the scene is needed to drive home the sense of loss and to allow the viewer an opportunity to mourn alongside the characters on the screen.[104] Bartov wrote that the "positively repulsive kitsch of the last two scenes seriously undermines much of the film's previous merits". He describes the humanization of Schindler as "banal", and is critical of what he describes as the "Zionist closure" set to the song "Jerusalem of Gold".[105]

Assessment by other filmmakers[edit] Schindler's List
Schindler's List
was very well received by many of Spielberg's peers. Filmmaker Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
wrote to Spielberg saying, "They couldn't have gotten a better man. This movie is absolutely perfection."[17] Polanski, who turned down the chance to direct the film, later commented, "I certainly wouldn't have done as good a job as Spielberg because I couldn't have been as objective as he was."[106] He cited Schindler's List
Schindler's List
as an influence on his 1995 film Death and the Maiden.[107] The success of Schindler's List
Schindler's List
led filmmaker Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
to abandon his own Holocaust project, Aryan Papers, which would have been about a Jewish boy and his aunt who survive the war by sneaking through Poland
Poland
while pretending to be Catholic.[108] According to scriptwriter Frederic Raphael, when he suggested to Kubrick that Schindler's List
Schindler's List
was a good representation of the Holocaust, Kubrick commented, "Think that's about the Holocaust? That was about success, wasn't it? The Holocaust is about 6 million people who get killed. Schindler's List
Schindler's List
is about 600 who don't."[108][b] Filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
accused Spielberg of using the film to make a profit out of a tragedy while Schindler's wife, Emilie Schindler, lived in poverty in Argentina.[110] Keneally disputed claims that she was never paid for her contributions, "not least because I had recently sent Emilie a check myself."[111] He also confirmed with Spielberg's office that payment had been sent from there.[111] Filmmaker Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
criticized the sequence in which Schindler's women are accidentally sent off to Auschwitz and herded into showers: "There's a scene in that film when we don't know if there's gas or water coming out in the showers in the camp. You can only do something like that with a naive audience like in the United States. It's not an appropriate use of the form. Spielberg meant well – but it was dumb."[112] The film was criticized by filmmaker and lecturer Claude Lanzmann, director of the nine-hour Holocaust film Shoah, who called Schindler's List a "kitschy melodrama" and a "deformation" of historical truth. "Fiction is a transgression, I am deeply convinced that there is a ban on depiction [of the Holocaust]", he said. Lanzmann also criticized Spielberg for viewing the Holocaust through the eyes of a German, saying "it is the world in reverse." He complained, "I sincerely thought that there was a time before Shoah, and a time after Shoah, and that after Shoah certain things could no longer be done. Spielberg did them anyway."[113]

Reaction of the Jewish community[edit] At a 1994 Village Voice
Village Voice
symposium about the film, historian Annette Insdorf described how her mother, a survivor of three concentration camps, felt gratitude that the Holocaust story was finally being told in a major film that would be widely viewed.[114] Hungarian Jewish author Imre Kertész, a Holocaust survivor, feels it is impossible for life in a Nazi concentration camp to be accurately portrayed by anyone who did not experience it first-hand. While commending Spielberg for bringing the story to a wide audience, he found the film's final scene at the graveyard neglected the terrible after-effects of the experience on the survivors and implied that they came through emotionally unscathed.[115] Rabbi Uri D. Herscher found the film an "appealing" and "uplifting" demonstration of humanitarianism.[116] Norbert Friedman noted that, like many Holocaust survivors, he reacted with a feeling of solidarity towards Spielberg of a sort normally reserved for other survivors.[117] Albert L. Lewis, Spielberg's childhood rabbi and teacher, described the movie as "Steven's gift to his mother, to his people, and in a sense to himself. Now he is a full human being."[116]

Accolades[edit] Schindler's List
Schindler's List
featured on a number of "best of" lists, including the TIME magazine's Top Hundred as selected by critics Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel,[4] Time Out magazine's 100 Greatest Films Centenary Poll conducted in 1995,[118] and Leonard Maltin's "100 Must See Movies of the Century".[5] The Vatican named Schindler's List
Schindler's List
among the most important 45 films ever made.[119] A Channel 4
Channel 4
poll named Schindler's List
Schindler's List
the ninth greatest film of all time,[6] and it ranked fourth in their 2005 war films poll.[120] The film was named the best of 1993 by critics such as James Berardinelli,[121] Roger Ebert,[89] and Gene Siskel.[122] Deeming the film "culturally significant", the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry
National Film Registry
in 2004.[123] Spielberg won the Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film for his work,[124] and shared the Producers Guild of America Award for Best Theatrical Motion Picture with co-producers Branko Lustig
Branko Lustig
and Gerald R. Molen.[125] Steven Zaillian won the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay.[126] The film also won the National Board of Review
National Board of Review
for Best Film, along with the National Society of Film Critics for Best Film, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor, and Best Cinematography.[127] Awards from the New York Film Critics Circle were also won for Best Film, Best Supporting Actor, and Best Cinematographer.[128] The Los Angeles Film Critics Association awarded the film for Best Film, Best Cinematography (tied with The Piano), and Best Production Design.[129] The film also won numerous other awards and nominations worldwide.[130]

Major awards

Category

Subject

Result

Academy Awards[48]

Best Picture

Steven Spielberg Gerald R. Molen Branko Lustig

Won

Best Director

Steven Spielberg

Won

Best Adapted Screenplay

Steven Zaillian

Won

Best Original Score

John Williams

Won[c]

Best Film Editing

Michael Kahn

Won

Best Cinematography

Janusz Kamiński

Won

Best Art Direction

Ewa Braun Allan Starski

Won

Best Actor

Liam Neeson

Nominated

Best Supporting Actor

Ralph Fiennes

Nominated

Best Sound

Andy Nelson Steve Pederson Scott Millan Ron Judkins

Nominated

Best Makeup

Christina Smith Matthew Mungle Judy Alexander Cory

Nominated

Best Costume Design

Anna B. Sheppard

Nominated

ACE Eddie Award[131]

Best Editing

Michael Kahn

Won

BAFTA
BAFTA
Awards[132]

Best Film

Steven Spielberg Branko Lustig Gerald R. Molen

Won

Best Direction

Steven Spielberg

Won

Best Supporting Actor

Ralph Fiennes

Won

Best Adapted Screenplay

Steven Zaillian

Won

Best Music

John Williams

Won

Best Editing

Michael Kahn

Won

Best Cinematography

Janusz Kamiński

Won

Best Supporting Actor

Ben Kingsley

Nominated

Best Actor

Liam Neeson

Nominated

Best Makeup and Hair

Christina Smith Matthew W. Mungle Waldemar Pokromski Pauline Heys

Nominated

Best Production Design

Allan Starski

Nominated

Best Costume Design

Anna B. Sheppard

Nominated

Best Sound

Charles L. Campbell Louis L Edemann Robert Jackson Ronald Judkins Andy Nelson Steve Pederson Scott Millan

Nominated

Chicago Film Critics Association Awards[133]

Best Film

Steven Spielberg Gerald R. Molen Branko Lustig

Won

Best Director

Steven Spielberg

Won

Best Screenplay

Steven Zaillian

Won

Best Cinematography

Janusz Kamiński

Won

Best Actor

Liam Neeson

Won

Best Supporting Actor

Ralph Fiennes

Won

Golden Globe
Golden Globe
Awards[134]

Best Motion Picture – Drama

Steven Spielberg Gerald R. Molen Branko Lustig

Won

Best Director

Steven Spielberg

Won

Best Screenplay

Steven Zaillian

Won

Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama

Liam Neeson

Nominated

Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture

Ralph Fiennes

Nominated

Best Original Score

John Williams

Nominated

American Film Institute
American Film Institute
recognition

Year

List

Result

1998

AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies

#9[135]

2003

AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Heroes and Villains

Oskar Schindler
Oskar Schindler
– #13 hero; Amon Göth
Amon Göth
– #15 villain[136]

2005

AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movie Quotes

"The list is an absolute good. The list is life." – nominated[137]

2006

AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Cheers

#3[138]

2007

AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)

#8[139]

2008

AFI's 10 Top 10

#3 epic film[140]

Controversies[edit] Commemorative plaque at Emalia, Schindler's factory in Kraków For the 1997 American television showing, the film was broadcast virtually unedited. The telecast was the first to receive a TV-M (now TV-MA) rating under the TV Parental Guidelines that had been established earlier that year.[141] Tom Coburn, then an Oklahoma
Oklahoma
congressman, said that in airing the film, NBC
NBC
had brought television "to an all-time low, with full-frontal nudity, violence and profanity", adding that it was an insult to "decent-minded individuals everywhere".[142] Under fire from both Republicans and Democrats, Coburn apologized, saying, "My intentions were good, but I've obviously made an error in judgment in how I've gone about saying what I wanted to say." He clarified his opinion, stating that the film ought to have been aired later at night when there would not be "large numbers of children watching without parental supervision".[143] Controversy arose in Germany for the film's television premiere on ProSieben. Protests among the Jewish community ensued when the station intended to televise it with two commercial breaks of 3–4 minutes each. Ignatz Bubis, head of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, said: "It is problematic to interrupt such a movie by commercials".[68] Jerzy Kanal, chairman of the Jewish Community of Berlin, added "It is obvious that the film could have a greater impact [on society] when broadcast unimpeded by commercials. The station has to do everything possible to broadcast the film without interruption."[68] As a compromise, the broadcast included one break consisting of a short news update framed with commercials. ProSieben
ProSieben
was also obliged to broadcast two accompanying documentaries to the film, showing "The daily lives of the Jews in Hebron and New York" prior to broadcast and "The survivors of the Holocaust" afterwards.[68] In the Philippines, chief censor Henrietta Mendez ordered cuts of three scenes depicting sexual intercourse and female nudity before the movie could be shown in theaters. Spielberg refused, and pulled the film from screening in Philippine cinemas, which prompted the Senate to demand the abolition of the censorship board. President Fidel V. Ramos himself intervened, ruling that the movie could be shown uncut to anyone over the age of 15.[144] According to Slovak filmmaker Juraj Herz, the scene in which a group of women confuse an actual shower with a gas chamber is taken directly, shot by shot, from his film Zastihla mě noc (Night Caught Up with Me, 1986). Herz wanted to sue, but was unable to fund the case.[145] The song Yerushalayim Shel Zahav ("Jerusalem of Gold") is featured in the film's soundtrack and plays near the end of the film. This caused some controversy in Israel, as the song (which was written in 1967 by Naomi Shemer) is widely considered an informal anthem of the Israeli victory in the Six-Day War. In Israeli prints of the film the song was replaced with Halikha LeKesariya ("A Walk to Caesarea") by Hannah Szenes, a World War II
World War II
resistance fighter.[146]

Effect on Kraków[edit] Due to the increased interest in Kraków
Kraków
created by the film, the city bought Oskar Schindler's Enamel Factory
Oskar Schindler's Enamel Factory
in 2007 to create a permanent exhibition about the German occupation of the city from 1939 to 1945. The museum opened in June 2010.[147]

See also[edit] 1993 in film List of Holocaust films Notes[edit]

^ The film incorrectly spells Leipold's name as "Josef Liepold"[8]

^ Schindler is actually credited with saving more than 1,200 Jews.[109]

^ Williams also won a Grammy for the film's musical score. Freer 2001, p. 234.

References[edit]

^ British Film Board.

^ a b c d e McBride 1997, p. 416.

^ " Schindler's List
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^ " AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies – 10th Anniversary Edition". American Film Institute. June 20, 2007. Retrieved November 24, 2018.

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^ Palowski 1998, p. 14.

^ Palowski 1998, pp. 109, 111.

^ Palowski 1998, p. 62.

^ a b c Ansen & Kuflik 1993.

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^ Palowski 1998, p. 44.

^ a b McBride 1997, p. 415.

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^ McBride 1997, pp. 431–432, 434.

^ a b c d e McBride 1997, p. 432.

^ Gangel 2005.

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Academy Awards
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^ Schickel 2012, pp. 161–162.

^ Patrizio 2004.

^ Caron 2003.

^ a b Gilman 2013.

^ Ligocka 2002.

^ Rosner 2014.

^ Horowitz 1997, p. 124.

^ Horowitz 1997, pp. 126–127.

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^ Gellately 1993.

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^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.

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^ a b c d Berliner Zeitung
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^ Broadcasting & Cable 1997.

^ Meyers, Zandberg & Neiger 2009, p. 456.

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^ Cronin 2005, p. 167.

^ a b Goldman 2005.

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– Censors Object To Sex, Not The Nazi Horrors". The Seattle Times. Bresheeth, Haim (1997). "The Great Taboo Broken: Reflections on the Israeli Reception of Schindler's List". In Loshitzky, Yosefa (ed.). Spielberg's Holocaust: Critical Perspectives on Schindler's List. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 193–212. ISBN 978-0-253-21098-2. "Schindler's List". British Board of Film Classification. Caron, André (July 25, 2003). "Spielberg's Fiery Lights". The Question Spielberg: A Symposium Part Two: Films and Moments. Senses of Cinema. Retrieved July 24, 2014. Chuang, Angie (February 25, 1997). "Television: 'Schindler's' Showing". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 27, 2013. Corliss, Richard (February 21, 1994). "The Man Behind the Monster". Time. Retrieved October 13, 2014. Corliss, Richard; Schickel, Richard (2005). "All-Time 100 Best Movies". Time. Retrieved October 27, 2013. Cronin, Paul, ed. (2005). Roman Polanski: Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-799-2. Crowe, David M. (2004). Oskar Schindler: The Untold Account of His Life, Wartime Activities, and the True Story Behind the List. Cambridge, MA: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-465-00253-5. Ebert, Roger (December 15, 1993). "Schindler's List". Roger Ebert's Journal. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Ebert, Roger (December 31, 1993). "The Best 10 Movies of 1993". Roger Ebert's Journal. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Ebert, Roger (October 18, 2002). "In Praise Of Love". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Epstein, Jason (April 21, 1994). "A Dissent on 'Schindler's List'". The New York Review of Books. New York. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Freer, Ian (2001). The Complete Spielberg. Virgin Books. pp. 220–237. ISBN 978-0-7535-0556-4. Gangel, Jamie (May 6, 2005). "The man behind the music of 'Star Wars'". NBC. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Gellately, Robert (1993). "Between Exploitation, Rescue, and Annihilation: Reviewing Schindler's List". Central European History. 26 (4): 475–489. doi:10.1017/S0008938900009419. JSTOR 4546374. Giardina, Carolyn (February 7, 2011). "Michael Kahn, Michael Brown to Receive ACE Lifetime Achievement Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Gilman, Greg (March 5, 2013). "Red coat girl traumatized by 'Schindler's List'". Sarnia Observer. Sarnia, Ontario. Retrieved October 20, 2013. Goldman, A. J. (August 25, 2005). "Stanley Kubrick's Unrealized Vision". Jewish Journal. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Greydanus, Steven D. (March 17, 1995). "The Vatican Film List". Decent Films. Retrieved October 27, 2013. Gross, John (February 3, 1994). "Hollywood and the Holocaust". New York Review of Books. Vol. 16 no. 3. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Haneke, Michael (November 14, 2009). " Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
discusses 'The White Ribbon'". Time Out London. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Horowitz, Sara (1997). "But Is It Good for the Jews? Spielberg's Schindler and the Aesthetics of Atrocity". In Loshitzky, Yosefa (ed.). Spielberg's Holocaust: Critical Perspectives on Schindler's List. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 119–139. ISBN 978-0-253-21098-2. Johnson, Eric C. (February 28, 2011). "Gene Siskel's Top Ten Lists 1969–1998". Index of Critics. Retrieved December 14, 2013. Keneally, Thomas (2007). Searching for Schindler: A Memoir. New York: Nan A. Talese. ISBN 978-0-385-52617-3. Kertész, Imre (Spring 2001). "Who Owns Auschwitz?". Yale Journal of Criticism. 14 (1): 267–272. doi:10.1353/yale.2001.0010. (subscription required) Kosulicova, Ivana (January 7, 2002). "Drowning the bad times: Juraj Herz interviewed". Kinoeye. Vol. 2 no. 1. Retrieved October 28, 2013. Lanzmann, Claude (2007). " Schindler's List
Schindler's List
is an impossible story". University College Utrecht. Retrieved October 23, 2014. Leistedt, Samuel J.; Linkowski, Paul (January 2014). "Psychopathy and the Cinema: Fact or Fiction?". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 59 (1): 167–174. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12359. PMID 24329037. (subscription required) "Librarian of Congress Adds 25 Films to National Film Registry". Library of Congress. December 28, 2004. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Ligocka, Roma (2002). The Girl in the Red Coat: A Memoir. New York: St Martin's Press. Loshitsky, Yosefa (1997). "Introduction". In Loshitzky, Yosefa (ed.). Spielberg's Holocaust: Critical Perspectives on Schindler's List. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 1–17. ISBN 978-0-253-21098-2. Maltin, Leonard (1999). "100 Must-See Films of the 20th Century". Movie and Video Guide 2000. American Movie Classics Company. Retrieved October 27, 2013. Maltin, Leonard (2013). Leonard Maltin's 2013 Movie Guide: The Modern Era. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-451-23774-3. Maslin, Janet (December 16, 1993). "New York Critics Honor 'Schindler's List'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2013. McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81167-3. Medien, Nasiri (2011). "A Life Like A Song With Ever Changing Verses". giorafeidman-online.com. Retrieved October 27, 2013. Meyers, Oren; Zandberg, Eyal; Neiger, Motti (September 2009). "Prime Time Commemoration: An Analysis of Television Broadcasts on Israel's Memorial Day for the Holocaust and the Heroism" (PDF). Journal of Communication. 59 (3): 456–480. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01424.x. ISSN 0021-9916. Retrieved October 23, 2014. Mintz, Alan (2001). Popular Culture and the Shaping of Holocaust Memory in America. The Samuel and Althea Stroum Lectures in Jewish Studies. Seattle; London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98161-1. Palowski, Franciszek (1998) [1993]. The Making of Schindler's List: Behind the Scenes of an Epic Film. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-55972-445-6. "Past Awards". National Society of Film Critics. 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Patrizio, Andy (March 10, 2004). "Schindler's List: The DVD
DVD
is good, too". IGN
IGN
Entertainment. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Perlman, Itzhak. John Williams, Itzhak Perlman
Itzhak Perlman
– Schindler's List. YouTube. Event occurs at 00:00 to 00:51. Retrieved October 27, 2013. "PGA Award Winners 1990–2010". Producers Guild of America. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Pond, Steve (January 19, 2011). " Steven Zaillian to Receive WGA Laurel Award". The Wrap News. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Rafferty, Terrence (1993). "The Film File: Schindler's List". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Rosner, Orin (April 23, 2014). "לכל איש יש שם – גם לילדה עם המעיל האדום מ"רשימת שינדלר"" [Every person has a name – even the girl with the red coat in 'Schindler's List'] (in Hebrew). Ynet. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Royal, Susan. "An Interview with Steven Spielberg". Inside Film Magazine Online. Retrieved October 11, 2013. Rubin, Susan Goldman (2001). Steven Spielberg: Crazy for Movies. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-4492-3. Schickel, Richard (2012). Steven Spielberg: A Retrospective. New York: Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-9650-0. Schiff, Stephen (March 21, 1994). "Seriously Spielberg". The New Yorker. pp. 96–109. Retrieved July 2, 2018. "Schindler's List". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2018. "Schindler's List: Box Set Laserdisc Edition". Amazon. Retrieved July 2, 2018. " Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(Blu-ray + DVD
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+ Digital Copy + UltraViolet) (1993)". Amazon. Retrieved July 2, 2018. " Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(Widescreen Edition) (1993)". Amazon. Retrieved July 2, 2018. " Schindler's List
Schindler's List
Collector's Gift Set (1993)". Amazon. Retrieved October 27, 2013. Staff (February 26, 1997). "After rebuke, congressman apologizes for 'Schindler's List' remarks". CNN. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Staff (February 28, 1994). "German "Schindler's List" Debut Launches Debate, Soul-Searching". Houston Post. Reuters. Staff (February 26, 1997). "GOP Lawmaker Blasts NBC
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Berliner Zeitung
(in German). Berlin. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved July 2, 2018. Staff (January 21, 1994). "Oskar Winner: Liam Neeson
Liam Neeson
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External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Schindler's List

Schindler's List on IMDb Schindler's List
Schindler's List
at the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
Catalog of Motion Pictures Schindler's List at the TCM Movie Database Schindler's List at Box Office Mojo Schindler's List at AllMovie Schindler's List at Rotten Tomatoes Schindler's List at Metacritic The Shoah Foundation, founded by Steven Spielberg, preserves the testimonies of Holocaust survivors and witnesses Through the Lens of History: Aerial Evidence for Schindler’s List at Yad Vashem Schindler's List
Schindler's List
bibliography at UC Berkeley Voices on Antisemitism Interview with Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Voices on Antisemitism interview with Sir Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "Schindler's List: Myth, movie, and memory" (PDF). The Village Voice: 24–31. March 29, 1994. vteSteven Spielberg Awards and nominations Bibliography Filmography Films directed Firelight (1964) Slipstream (1967) Amblin'
Amblin'
(1968) Night Gallery ("Eyes" segment) (1969) L.A. 2017 (1971) Duel (1971) Something Evil
Something Evil
(1972) Savage (1973) The Sugarland Express
The Sugarland Express
(1974, also wrote) Jaws (1975) Close Encounters of the Third Kind
Close Encounters of the Third Kind
(1977, also wrote) 1941 (1979) Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
(1981) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
(1982) Twilight Zone: The Movie ("Kick the Can" segment, 1983) Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
(1984) The Color Purple (1985) Empire of the Sun (1987) Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
(1989) Always (1989) Hook (1991) Jurassic Park (1993) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) Amistad (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) A.I. Artificial Intelligence
A.I. Artificial Intelligence
(2001, also wrote) Minority Report (2002) Catch Me If You Can
Catch Me If You Can
(2002) The Terminal
The Terminal
(2004) War of the Worlds (2005) Munich (2005) Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
(2008) The Adventures of Tintin (2011) War Horse (2011) Lincoln (2012) Bridge of Spies (2015) The BFG (2016) The Post (2017) Ready Player One (2018) West Side Story (2020) Films written Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies
Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies
(1973) Poltergeist (1982, also produced) The Goonies
The Goonies
(1985) Films produced An American Tail: Fievel Goes West (1991) Memoirs of a Geisha (2005) Flags of Our Fathers (2006) Letters from Iwo Jima
Letters from Iwo Jima
(2006) Super 8 (2011) The Hundred-Foot Journey (2014) Television Amazing Stories (1985–87) High Incident
High Incident
(1996–97) Invasion America
Invasion America
(1998) Spielberg's After Dark (TBA) See also Amblin Partners Amblin Entertainment Amblin Television DreamWorks Television Amblimation DreamWorks Pictures Amy Irving
Amy Irving
(first wife) Kate Capshaw
Kate Capshaw
(second wife) Sasha Spielberg
Sasha Spielberg
(daughter) Arnold Spielberg (father) Anne Spielberg (sister) USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education

vteSteven ZaillianFilms directed Searching for Bobby Fischer
Searching for Bobby Fischer
(1993) A Civil Action (1998) All the King's Men (2006) Films written The Falcon and the Snowman
The Falcon and the Snowman
(1985) Awakenings
Awakenings
(1990) Searching for Bobby Fischer
Searching for Bobby Fischer
(1993) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Jack the Bear
Jack the Bear
(1993) Clear and Present Danger (1994) Mission: Impossible (1996) A Civil Action (1998) Hannibal (2001) Gangs of New York (2002) The Interpreter
The Interpreter
(2005) All the King's Men (2006) American Gangster (2007) Moneyball (2011) The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011) Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014) The Irishman (2019) Television series The Night Of
The Night Of
(2016)

Awards for Schindler's List vteAcademy Award for Best Picture1927/28–1950 Wings (1927/28) The Broadway Melody
The Broadway Melody
(1928/29) All Quiet on the Western Front (1929/30) Cimarron (1930/31) Grand Hotel (1931/32) Cavalcade (1932/33) It Happened One Night
It Happened One Night
(1934) Mutiny on the Bounty (1935) The Great Ziegfeld
The Great Ziegfeld
(1936) The Life of Emile Zola
The Life of Emile Zola
(1937) You Can't Take It with You (1938) Gone with the Wind (1939) Rebecca (1940) How Green Was My Valley (1941) Mrs. Miniver
Mrs. Miniver
(1942) Casablanca (1943) Going My Way
Going My Way
(1944) The Lost Weekend (1945) The Best Years of Our Lives
The Best Years of Our Lives
(1946) Gentleman's Agreement (1947) Hamlet (1948) All the King's Men (1949) All About Eve
All About Eve
(1950) 1951–1975 An American in Paris (1951) The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
(1953) On the Waterfront
On the Waterfront
(1954) Marty (1955) Around the World in 80 Days (1956) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) Gigi (1958) Ben-Hur (1959) The Apartment
The Apartment
(1960) West Side Story (1961) Lawrence of Arabia (1962) Tom Jones (1963) My Fair Lady (1964) The Sound of Music (1965) A Man for All Seasons (1966) In the Heat of the Night (1967) Oliver! (1968) Midnight Cowboy
Midnight Cowboy
(1969) Patton (1970) The French Connection (1971) The Godfather
The Godfather
(1972) The Sting
The Sting
(1973) The Godfather
The Godfather
Part II (1974) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) 1976–2000 Rocky
Rocky
(1976) Annie Hall
Annie Hall
(1977) The Deer Hunter
The Deer Hunter
(1978) Kramer vs. Kramer
Kramer vs. Kramer
(1979) Ordinary People
Ordinary People
(1980) Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
(1981) Gandhi (1982) Terms of Endearment
Terms of Endearment
(1983) Amadeus (1984) Out of Africa (1985) Platoon (1986) The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor
(1987) Rain Man
Rain Man
(1988) Driving Miss Daisy
Driving Miss Daisy
(1989) Dances with Wolves
Dances with Wolves
(1990) The Silence of the Lambs (1991) Unforgiven
Unforgiven
(1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Forrest Gump
Forrest Gump
(1994) Braveheart
Braveheart
(1995) The English Patient (1996) Titanic (1997) Shakespeare in Love
Shakespeare in Love
(1998) American Beauty (1999) Gladiator (2000) 2001–present A Beautiful Mind (2001) Chicago (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) Million Dollar Baby (2004) Crash (2005) The Departed (2006) No Country for Old Men (2007) Slumdog Millionaire
Slumdog Millionaire
(2008) The Hurt Locker
The Hurt Locker
(2009) The King's Speech
The King's Speech
(2010) The Artist (2011) Argo (2012) 12 Years a Slave (2013) Birdman or: (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) (2014) Spotlight (2015) Moonlight (2016) The Shape of Water
The Shape of Water
(2017) Green Book (2018) Other Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans (1927/28) won the Academy Award for Best Unique and Artistic Picture. It was regarded equally as the top award until the award category was discontinued the following year.

vte BAFTA
BAFTA
Award for Best FilmBest Filmfrom Any Source1947–1967 The Best Years of Our Lives
The Best Years of Our Lives
(1947) Hamlet (1948) Bicycle Thieves
Bicycle Thieves
(1949) All About Eve
All About Eve
(1950) La Ronde (1951) The Sound Barrier
The Sound Barrier
(1952) Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1953) The Wages of Fear
The Wages of Fear
(1954) Richard III (1955) Gervaise (1956) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) Room at the Top (1958) Ben-Hur (1959) The Apartment
The Apartment
(1960) Ballad of a Soldier
Ballad of a Soldier
(1961) The Hustler (1961) Lawrence of Arabia (1962) Tom Jones (1963) Dr. Strangelove
Dr. Strangelove
or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964) My Fair Lady (1965) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966) A Man for All Seasons (1967) Best Film1968–present The Graduate (1968) Midnight Cowboy
Midnight Cowboy
(1969) Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
(1970) Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971) Cabaret (1972) Day for Night (1973) Lacombe, Lucien
Lacombe, Lucien
(1974) Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore
Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore
(1975) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1976) Annie Hall
Annie Hall
(1977) Julia (1978) Manhattan (1979) The Elephant Man (1980) Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
(1981) Gandhi (1982) Educating Rita (1983) The Killing Fields (1984) The Purple Rose of Cairo
The Purple Rose of Cairo
(1985) A Room with a View (1986) Jean de Florette
Jean de Florette
(1987) The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor
(1988) Dead Poets Society
Dead Poets Society
(1989) Goodfellas (1990) The Commitments (1991) Howards End (1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Four Weddings and a Funeral
Four Weddings and a Funeral
(1994) Sense and Sensibility (1995) The English Patient (1996) The Full Monty
The Full Monty
(1997) Shakespeare in Love
Shakespeare in Love
(1998) American Beauty (1999) Gladiator (2000) The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001) The Pianist (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) The Aviator (2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) The Queen (2006) Atonement (2007) Slumdog Millionaire
Slumdog Millionaire
(2008) The Hurt Locker
The Hurt Locker
(2009) The King's Speech
The King's Speech
(2010) The Artist (2011) Argo (2012) 12 Years a Slave (2013) Boyhood (2014) The Revenant (2015) La La Land (2016) Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
(2017) Roma (2018)

vte Golden Globe
Golden Globe
Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama The Song of Bernadette (1943) Going My Way
Going My Way
(1944) The Lost Weekend (1945) The Best Years of Our Lives
The Best Years of Our Lives
(1946) Gentleman's Agreement (1947) Johnny Belinda / The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) All the King's Men (1949) Sunset Boulevard (1950) A Place in the Sun (1951) The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) The Robe (1953) On the Waterfront
On the Waterfront
(1954) East of Eden (1955) Around the World in 80 Days (1956) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) The Defiant Ones
The Defiant Ones
(1958) Ben-Hur (1959) Spartacus (1960) The Guns of Navarone (1961) Lawrence of Arabia (1962) The Cardinal
The Cardinal
(1963) Becket (1964) Doctor Zhivago (1965) A Man for All Seasons (1966) In the Heat of the Night (1967) The Lion in Winter (1968) Anne of the Thousand Days (1969) Love Story (1970) The French Connection (1971) The Godfather
The Godfather
(1972) The Exorcist (1973) Chinatown (1974) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) Rocky
Rocky
(1976) The Turning Point (1977) Midnight Express (1978) Kramer vs. Kramer
Kramer vs. Kramer
(1979) Ordinary People
Ordinary People
(1980) On Golden Pond (1981) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
(1982) Terms of Endearment
Terms of Endearment
(1983) Amadeus (1984) Out of Africa (1985) Platoon (1986) The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor
(1987) Rain Man
Rain Man
(1988) Born on the Fourth of July (1989) Dances with Wolves
Dances with Wolves
(1990) Bugsy
Bugsy
(1991) Scent of a Woman (1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Forrest Gump
Forrest Gump
(1994) Sense and Sensibility (1995) The English Patient (1996) Titanic (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) American Beauty (1999) Gladiator (2000) A Beautiful Mind (2001) The Hours (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) The Aviator (2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) Babel (2006) Atonement (2007) Slumdog Millionaire
Slumdog Millionaire
(2008) Avatar (2009) The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) The Descendants
The Descendants
(2011) Argo (2012) 12 Years a Slave (2013) Boyhood (2014) The Revenant (2015) Moonlight (2016) Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
(2017) Bohemian Rhapsody (2018)

vteLondon Film Critics' Circle Award for Film of the Year Apocalypse Now
Apocalypse Now
(1980) Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
(1981) Missing (1982) The King of Comedy (1983) Paris, Texas (1984) The Purple Rose of Cairo
The Purple Rose of Cairo
(1985) A Room with a View (1986) Hope and Glory (1987) House of Games
House of Games
(1988) Distant Voices, Still Lives
Distant Voices, Still Lives
(1989) Crimes and Misdemeanors (1990) Thelma & Louise (1991) Unforgiven
Unforgiven
(1992) The Piano
The Piano
(1993) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1994) Babe (1995) Fargo (1996) L.A. Confidential (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) American Beauty (1999) Being John Malkovich
Being John Malkovich
(2000) Moulin Rouge! (2001) About Schmidt
About Schmidt
(2002) Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (2003) Sideways
Sideways
(2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) United 93 (2006) No Country for Old Men (2007) The Wrestler (2008) A Prophet
A Prophet
(2009) The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) The Artist (2011) Amour (2012) 12 Years a Slave (2013) Boyhood (2014) Mad Max: Fury Road (2015) La La Land (2016) Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
(2017) Roma (2018)

vte Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Film Dog Day Afternoon
Dog Day Afternoon
/ One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) Network / Rocky
Rocky
(1976) Star Wars (1977) Coming Home (1978) Kramer vs. Kramer
Kramer vs. Kramer
(1979) Raging Bull
Raging Bull
(1980) Atlantic City (1981) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
(1982) Terms of Endearment
Terms of Endearment
(1983) Amadeus (1984) Brazil (1985) Hannah and Her Sisters (1986) Hope and Glory (1987) Little Dorrit (1988) Do the Right Thing
Do the Right Thing
(1989) Goodfellas (1990) Bugsy
Bugsy
(1991) Unforgiven
Unforgiven
(1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Pulp Fiction
Pulp Fiction
(1994) Leaving Las Vegas
Leaving Las Vegas
(1995) Secrets & Lies (1996) L.A. Confidential (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) The Insider (1999) Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
(2000) In the Bedroom
In the Bedroom
(2001) About Schmidt
About Schmidt
(2002) American Splendor (2003) Sideways
Sideways
(2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) Letters from Iwo Jima
Letters from Iwo Jima
(2006) There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood
(2007) WALL-E
WALL-E
(2008) The Hurt Locker
The Hurt Locker
(2009) The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) The Descendants
The Descendants
(2011) Amour (2012) Gravity / Her (2013) Boyhood (2014) Spotlight (2015) Moonlight (2016) Call Me by Your Name (2017) Roma (2018)

vte National Board of Review
National Board of Review
Award for Best Film I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang
I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang
(1932) Topaze (1933) It Happened One Night
It Happened One Night
(1934) The Informer (1935) Mr. Deeds Goes to Town
Mr. Deeds Goes to Town
(1936) Night Must Fall (1937) The Citadel (1938) Confessions of a Nazi Spy
Confessions of a Nazi Spy
(1939) The Grapes of Wrath (1940) Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941) In Which We Serve
In Which We Serve
(1942) The Ox-Bow Incident (1943) None But the Lonely Heart (1944) The True Glory (1945) Henry V (1946) Monsieur Verdoux
Monsieur Verdoux
(1947) Paisan
Paisan
(1948) Bicycle Thieves
Bicycle Thieves
(1949) Sunset Boulevard (1950) A Place in the Sun (1951) The Quiet Man
The Quiet Man
(1952) Julius Caesar (1953) On the Waterfront
On the Waterfront
(1954) Marty (1955) Around the World in 80 Days (1956) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) The Old Man and the Sea (1958) The Nun's Story (1959) Sons and Lovers (1960) Question 7
Question 7
(1961) The Longest Day (1962) Tom Jones (1963) Becket (1964) The Eleanor Roosevelt Story (1965) A Man for All Seasons (1966) Far from the Madding Crowd (1967) The Shoes of the Fisherman (1968) They Shoot Horses, Don't They? (1969) Patton (1970) Macbeth (1971) Cabaret (1972) The Sting
The Sting
(1973) The Conversation
The Conversation
(1974) Barry Lyndon
Barry Lyndon
/ Nashville (1975) All the President's Men (1976) The Turning Point (1977) Days of Heaven
Days of Heaven
(1978) Manhattan (1979) Ordinary People
Ordinary People
(1980) Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
/ Reds (1981) Gandhi (1982) Betrayal / Terms of Endearment
Terms of Endearment
(1983) A Passage to India (1984) The Color Purple (1985) A Room with a View (1986) Empire of the Sun (1987) Mississippi Burning
Mississippi Burning
(1988) Driving Miss Daisy
Driving Miss Daisy
(1989) Dances with Wolves
Dances with Wolves
(1990) The Silence of the Lambs (1991) Howards End (1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Forrest Gump
Forrest Gump
/ Pulp Fiction
Pulp Fiction
(1994) Sense and Sensibility (1995) Shine (1996) L.A. Confidential (1997) Gods and Monsters (1998) American Beauty (1999) Quills
Quills
(2000) Moulin Rouge! (2001) The Hours (2002) Mystic River (2003) Finding Neverland (2004) Good Night, and Good Luck
Good Night, and Good Luck
(2005) Letters from Iwo Jima
Letters from Iwo Jima
(2006) No Country for Old Men (2007) Slumdog Millionaire
Slumdog Millionaire
(2008) Up in the Air (2009) The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) Hugo (2011) Zero Dark Thirty (2012) Her (2013) A Most Violent Year (2014) Mad Max: Fury Road (2015) Manchester by the Sea (2016) The Post (2017) Green Book (2018)

vte National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Film Blowup
Blowup
(1966) Persona (1967) Shame (1968) Z (1969) M*A*S*H (1970) Claire's Knee
Claire's Knee
(1971) The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie
The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie
(1972) Day for Night (1973) Scenes from a Marriage
Scenes from a Marriage
(1974) Nashville (1975) All the President's Men (1976) Annie Hall
Annie Hall
(1977) Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
(1978) Breaking Away
Breaking Away
(1979) Melvin and Howard
Melvin and Howard
(1980) Atlantic City (1981) Tootsie
Tootsie
(1982) The Night of the Shooting Stars
The Night of the Shooting Stars
(1983) Stranger Than Paradise
Stranger Than Paradise
(1984) Ran (1985) Blue Velvet (1986) The Dead (1987) The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1988) Drugstore Cowboy
Drugstore Cowboy
(1989) Goodfellas (1990) Life Is Sweet (1991) Unforgiven
Unforgiven
(1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Pulp Fiction
Pulp Fiction
(1994) Babe (1995) Breaking the Waves (1996) L.A. Confidential (1997) Out of Sight
Out of Sight
(1998) Being John Malkovich
Being John Malkovich
/ Topsy-Turvy
Topsy-Turvy
(1999) Yi Yi
Yi Yi
(2000) Mulholland Drive (2001) The Pianist (2002) American Splendor (2003) Million Dollar Baby (2004) Capote (2005) Pan's Labyrinth
Pan's Labyrinth
(2006) There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood
(2007) Waltz with Bashir
Waltz with Bashir
(2008) The Hurt Locker
The Hurt Locker
(2009) The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) Melancholia (2011) Amour (2012) Inside Llewyn Davis (2013) Goodbye to Language
Goodbye to Language
(2014) Spotlight (2015) Moonlight (2016) Lady Bird (2017) The Rider (2018)

vte New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film The Informer (1935) Mr. Deeds Goes to Town
Mr. Deeds Goes to Town
(1936) The Life of Emile Zola
The Life of Emile Zola
(1937) The Citadel (1938) Wuthering Heights (1939) The Grapes of Wrath (1940) Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941) In Which We Serve
In Which We Serve
(1942) Watch on the Rhine
Watch on the Rhine
(1943) Going My Way
Going My Way
(1944) The Lost Weekend (1945) The Best Years of Our Lives
The Best Years of Our Lives
(1946) Gentleman's Agreement (1947) The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) All the King's Men (1949) All About Eve
All About Eve
(1950) A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) High Noon
High Noon
(1952) From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity
(1953) On the Waterfront
On the Waterfront
(1954) Marty (1955) Around the World in 80 Days (1956) The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai
(1957) The Defiant Ones
The Defiant Ones
(1958) Ben-Hur (1959) The Apartment
The Apartment
/ Sons and Lovers (1960) West Side Story (1961) No award (1962) Tom Jones (1963) My Fair Lady (1964) Darling (1965) A Man for All Seasons (1966) In the Heat of the Night (1967) The Lion in Winter (1968) Z (1969) Five Easy Pieces
Five Easy Pieces
(1970) A Clockwork Orange (1971) Cries and Whispers
Cries and Whispers
(1972) Day for Night (1973) Amarcord
Amarcord
(1974) Nashville (1975) All the President's Men (1976) Annie Hall
Annie Hall
(1977) The Deer Hunter
The Deer Hunter
(1978) Kramer vs. Kramer
Kramer vs. Kramer
(1979) Ordinary People
Ordinary People
(1980) Reds (1981) Gandhi (1982) Terms of Endearment
Terms of Endearment
(1983) A Passage to India (1984) Prizzi's Honor
Prizzi's Honor
(1985) Hannah and Her Sisters (1986) Broadcast News (1987) The Accidental Tourist (1988) My Left Foot
My Left Foot
(1989) Goodfellas (1990) The Silence of the Lambs (1991) The Player (1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Quiz Show (1994) Leaving Las Vegas
Leaving Las Vegas
(1995) Fargo (1996) L.A. Confidential (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) Topsy-Turvy
Topsy-Turvy
(1999) Traffic (2000) Mulholland Drive (2001) Far from Heaven
Far from Heaven
(2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) Sideways
Sideways
(2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) United 93 (2006) No Country for Old Men (2007) Milk (2008) The Hurt Locker
The Hurt Locker
(2009) The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010) The Artist (2011) Zero Dark Thirty (2012) American Hustle
American Hustle
(2013) Boyhood (2014) Carol (2015) La La Land (2016) Lady Bird (2017) Roma (2018)

vteProducers Guild of America Award for Best Theatrical Motion Picture Driving Miss Daisy
Driving Miss Daisy
(1989) Dances with Wolves
Dances with Wolves
(1990) The Silence of the Lambs (1991) The Crying Game
The Crying Game
(1992) Schindler's List
Schindler's List
(1993) Forrest Gump
Forrest Gump
(1994) Apollo 13 (1995) The English Patient (1996) Titanic (1997) Saving Private Ryan
Saving Private Ryan
(1998) American Beauty (1999) Gladiator (2000) Moulin Rouge! (2001) Chicago (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) The Aviator (2004) Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
(2005) Little Miss Sunshine
Little Miss Sunshine
(2006) No Country for Old Men (2007) Slumdog Millionaire
Slumdog Millionaire
(2008) The Hurt Locker
The Hurt Locker
(2009) The King's Speech
The King's Speech
(2010) The Artist (2011) Argo (2012) 12 Years a Slave / Gravity (2013) Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) (2014) The Big Short (2015) La La Land (2016) The Shape of Water
The Shape of Water
(2017) Green Book (2018)

Authority control BNE: XX4157802 BNF: cb13320928c (data) GND: 4361605-7 LCCN: n95031476 NKC: unn2013758235 NSK: 000397560 SUDOC: 035364904 VIAF: 177903653 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
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