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Saul
Saul
(/sɔːl/; Hebrew: שָׁאוּל‬, Modern Ša’ul, Tiberian Šā’ul, meaning "asked for, prayed for"; Latin: Saul; Arabic: طالوت‎, Ṭālūt or شاؤل, Ša'ūl), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and Judah. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE,[1] marked a transition from a tribal society to statehood.[2] Saul's life and reign are described in the Hebrew Bible. He was anointed by the prophet Samuel
Samuel
and reigned from Gibeah. He fell on his sword (committing suicide) to avoid capture in the battle against the Philistines
Philistines
at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and his son-in-law David, who eventually prevailed. A similar yet different account of Saul's life may be given in the Quran. Neither the length of Saul's reign, nor the extent of his territory are given in the Hebrew Bible; the former is traditionally fixed at twenty or twenty-two years, but there is no reliable evidence for these numbers.[1]

Contents

1 Biblical account

1.1 House of King Saul 1.2 Anointed as king 1.3 Saul
Saul
among the prophets 1.4 Military victories 1.5 Rejection 1.6 Saul
Saul
and David 1.7 Battle of Gilboa and the death of King Saul

2 Biblical criticism 3 Classical rabbinical views 4 In Islam

4.1 Name 4.2 Saul
Saul
as the King of Israel

5 Historicity 6 Psychological analyses 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Biblical account[edit] The biblical accounts of Saul's life are found in the Books of Samuel: House of King Saul[edit] According to the Tanakh, Saul
Saul
was the son of Kish, of the family of the Matrites, and a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve Tribes of Israel. It appears that he came from Gibeah.[3]

David
David
and Saul
Saul
(1885) by Julius Kronberg.

Saul
Saul
married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz. They had four sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth. Their daughters were named Merab and Michal.[4] Saul
Saul
also had a concubine named Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, who bore him two sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth. (2 Samuel
Samuel
21:8). Saul
Saul
died at the Battle of Mount Gilboa
Mount Gilboa
(1 Samuel
Samuel
31:3–6; 1 Chronicles 10:3–6), and was buried in Zelah, in the region of Benjamin. (2 Samuel
Samuel
21:14) Three of Saul's sons – Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua – died with him at Mount Gilboa
Mount Gilboa
(1 Samuel 31:2; 1 Chronicles 10:2). Ish-bosheth
Ish-bosheth
became king of Israel, at the age of forty. At David's request Abner had Michal
Michal
returned to David. Ish-bosheth
Ish-bosheth
reigned for two years, but after the death of Abner, was killed by two of his own captains. (2 Samuel
Samuel
4:5). Armoni and Mephibosheth
Armoni and Mephibosheth
(Saul's sons with his concubine, Rizpah) were given by David
David
along with the five sons of Merab (Saul's daughter)[5] to the Gibeonites, who killed them. (2 Samuel
Samuel
21:8–9) Michal
Michal
was childless. (2 Samuel
Samuel
6:23). The only male descendant of Saul
Saul
to survive was Mephibosheth, Jonathan's lame son, (2 Samuel
Samuel
4:4) who had been five when his father and grandfather Saul
Saul
had died in battle. In time, he came under the protection of David. (2 Samuel
Samuel
9:7–13) Mephibosheth
Mephibosheth
had a young son, Micah, (2 Samuel
Samuel
9:12) who had four sons and descendants named until the ninth generation (1 Chronicles 8:35–38). Anointed as king[edit]

"Death of King Saul", 1848 by Elie Marcuse (Germany and France, 1817–1902)

The First Book of Samuel
Samuel
gives three accounts of Saul's rise to the throne in three successive chapters:

Saul
Saul
is sent with a servant to look for his father's strayed donkeys. Leaving his home at Gibeah, they eventually arrive at the district of Zuph, at which point Saul
Saul
suggests abandoning their search. Saul's servant tells him that they happen to be near the town of Ramah, where a famous seer is located, and suggests that they should consult him first. The seer (later identified by the text as Samuel) offers hospitality to Saul
Saul
and later anoints him in private (1 Samuel
Samuel
9).[6] A popular movement having arisen to establish a centralized monarchy like other nations, Samuel
Samuel
assembles the people at Mizpah in Benjamin to appoint a king, fulfilling his previous promise to do so (1 Samuel 8). Samuel
Samuel
organises the people by tribe and by clan. Using the Urim and Thummim,[7] he selects the tribe of Benjamin, from within the tribe selecting the clan of Matri, and from them selecting Saul. After having been chosen as monarch, Saul
Saul
returns to his home in Gibeah, along with a number of followers (1 Samuel
Samuel
10:17-24).[8] However, some of the people are openly unhappy with the selection of Saul. The Ammonites, led by Nahash, lay siege to Jabesh-Gilead. Under the terms of surrender, the occupants of the city are to be forced into slavery and have their right eyes removed. Instead they send word of this to the other tribes of Israel, and the tribes west of the Jordan assemble an army under Saul. Saul
Saul
leads the army to victory over the Ammonites, and the people congregate at Gilgal
Gilgal
where they acclaim Saul as king and he is crowned (1 Samuel
Samuel
11).[6] Saul's first act is to forbid retribution against those who had previously contested his kingship.

André Lemaire finds the third account probably the most reliable tradition.[9] The Pulpit Commentary distinguishes between a private and a public selection process.[10] Saul
Saul
among the prophets[edit] Having been anointed by Samuel, Saul
Saul
is told of signs indicating that he has been divinely appointed. The last of these is that Saul
Saul
will be met by an ecstatic group of prophets leaving a high place and playing the lyre, tambourine, and flutes. Saul
Saul
encounters the ecstatic prophets and joins them.[8] Later, Saul
Saul
sends men to pursue David, but when they meet a group of ecstatic prophets playing music, they become possessed by a prophetic state and join in. Saul
Saul
sends more men, but they too join the prophets. Eventually Saul
Saul
himself goes, and also joins the prophets. (1 Samuel
Samuel
19:24). Military victories[edit] After relieving the siege of Jabesh-Gilead, Saul
Saul
conducts military campaigns against the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Aram Rehob and the kings of Zobah, the Philistines, and the Amalekites
Amalekites
(1 Samuel 14:47).[3] A biblical summary states that "wherever he turned, he was victorious".[11] In his continuing battles with Philistines, Saul
Saul
instructs his armies, by a rash oath, to fast. Methodist commentator Joseph Benson
Joseph Benson
suggests that "Saul’s intention in putting this oath was undoubtedly to save time, lest the Philistines
Philistines
should gain ground of them in their flight. But the event showed it was a false policy; for the people were so faint and weak for want of food, that they were less able to follow and slay the Philistines
Philistines
than if they had stopped to take a moderate refreshment".[12] Jonathan's party were not aware of the oath and ate honey, resulting in Jonathan realising that he had broken an oath of which he was not aware, but was nevertheless liable for its breach, until popular intervention allowed Jonathan to be saved from death on account of his victory over the Philistines.[13] Rejection[edit]

Saul
Saul
and the Witch of Endor
Witch of Endor
by Gustave Dore.

Saul
Saul
planned a military action against the Philistines. Samuel
Samuel
said that he would arrive in seven days to perform the requisite rites. When a week passed with no word of Samuel, and with the Israelites growing restless, Saul
Saul
prepares for battle by offering sacrifices. Samuel
Samuel
arrives just as Saul
Saul
is finishing sacrificing and reprimands Saul
Saul
for not obeying his instructions. Later Samuel
Samuel
instructs Saul
Saul
to make war on the Amalekites
Amalekites
and to "utterly destroy" them,[14] in fulfilment of a mandate set out Deuteronomy 25:19:

When the Lord your God
God
has given you rest from all your enemies on every hand, in the land that the Lord your God
God
is giving you as an inheritance to possess, you shall blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; do not forget.

Having forewarned the Kenites who were living among the Amalekites
Amalekites
to leave, Saul
Saul
goes to war and defeats the Amalekites. Saul
Saul
kills all the men, women, children and poor quality livestock, but leaves alive the king and best livestock. When Samuel
Samuel
learns that Saul
Saul
has not obeyed his instructions in full, he informs Saul
Saul
that God
God
has rejected him as king due to his disobedience. As Samuel
Samuel
turns to go, Saul
Saul
seizes hold of his garments and tears off a piece; Samuel
Samuel
prophecies that the kingdom will likewise be torn from Saul. Samuel
Samuel
then kills the Amalekite
Amalekite
king himself. Samuel
Samuel
and Saul
Saul
each return home and never meet again after these events (1 Samuel
Samuel
15:33-35). Saul
Saul
and David[edit]

David
David
and Saul, by Ernst Josephson

After Samuel
Samuel
tells Saul
Saul
that God
God
has rejected him as king, David, a son of Jesse, from the tribe of Judah, enters the story: from this point on Saul's story is largely the account of his increasingly troubled relationship with David.

Samuel
Samuel
heads to Bethlehem, ostensibly to offer sacrifice and invited Jesse
Jesse
and his sons. Dining together, Jesse's sons are brought one by one to Samuel, each being rejected; at last, Jesse
Jesse
sends for David, the youngest, who is tending sheep. When brought to Samuel, David
David
is anointed by him in front of his other brothers. In 1 Samuel
Samuel
16:14–23, Saul
Saul
is troubled by an evil spirit sent by God.[15] He requests soothing music, and a servant recommends David the son of Jesse, who is renowned for his skills as a harpist and other talents:

a son of Jesse
Jesse
the Bethlehemite, who is skillful in playing, a mighty man of valor, a man of war, prudent in speech, and a handsome person; and the Lord is with him When word of Saul's needs reaches Jesse, he sends David, who had been looking after Jesse's flock, with gifts as a tribute,[16] and David
David
is appointed as Saul's armor bearer. With Jesse's permission he remains at court, playing the harp as needed to calm Saul
Saul
during his troubled spells. (1 Samuel
Samuel
17:15 suggests David
David
only attended court periodically).

(1 Samuel
Samuel
17:1–18:5) The Philistines
Philistines
return with an army to attack Israel, and the Philistine and Israelite forces gather on opposite sides of a valley. The Philistine's champion Goliath
Goliath
issues a challenge for single combat, but none of the Israelite accept. David is described as a young shepherd who happens to be delivering food to his three eldest brothers in the army, and he hears Goliath's challenge. David
David
speaks mockingly of the Philistines
Philistines
to some soldiers; his speech is overheard and reported to Saul, who summons David
David
and appoints David
David
as his champion. David
David
easily defeats Goliath
Goliath
with a single shot from a sling. At the end of the passage, Saul
Saul
asks his general, Abner, who David
David
is.

Saul
Saul
offered his elder daughter Merab as a wife to the now popular David, after his victory over Goliath, but David
David
demurred. David distinguishes himself in the Philistine wars. Upon David's return from battle, the women praise him in song:

Saul
Saul
has slain his thousands and David
David
his tens of thousands [17]

implying that David
David
is the greater warrior. Saul
Saul
fears David's growing popularity and henceforth views him as a rival to the throne. Saul's son Jonathan and David
David
become close friends. Jonathan recognizes David
David
as the rightful king, and "made a covenant with David, because he loved him as his own soul."[18] Jonathan even gives David
David
his military clothes, symbolizing David's position as successor to Saul.

Saul
Saul
threatening David, by José Leonardo.

On two occasions, Saul
Saul
threw a spear at David
David
as he played the harp for Saul. David
David
becomes increasingly successful and Saul
Saul
becomes increasingly resentful. Now Saul
Saul
actively plots against David. Saul offered his other daughter, Michal
Michal
in marriage to David. David initially rejects this offer also, claiming he is too poor. Saul offers to accept a bride price of 100 Philistine foreskins, intending that David
David
die in the attempt. Instead, David
David
obtains 200 foreskins and is consequently married to Michal. Jonathan arranges a short-lived reconciliation between Saul
Saul
and David
David
and for a while David
David
served Saul
Saul
"as in times past" (1 Samuel
Samuel
19:1-7) until "the distressing spirit from the Lord" re-appeared. Saul
Saul
sends assassins in the night, but Michal
Michal
helps him escape, tricking them by placing a household idol in his bed. David
David
flees to Jonathan, who arranges a meeting with his father. While dining with Saul, Jonathan explains David's absence, saying he has been called away to his brothers. But Saul
Saul
sees through the ruse and reprimands Jonathan for protecting David, warning him that his love of David
David
will cost him the kingdom, furiously throwing a spear at him. The next day, Jonathan meets with David
David
and tells him Saul's intent. The two friends say their goodbyes, and David
David
flees into the countryside. Saul
Saul
later marries Michal
Michal
to another man. Saul
Saul
is later informed by his head shepherd, Doeg the Edomite, that high priest Ahimelech
Ahimelech
assisted David, giving him the sword of Goliath, which had been kept at the temple at Nob. Doeg kills Ahimelech
Ahimelech
and eighty-five other priests and Saul
Saul
orders the death of the entire population of Nob. David
David
had left Nob by this point and had amassed some 300 disaffected men including some outlaws. With these men David
David
rescues the town of Keilah from a Philistine attack. Saul
Saul
realises he could trap David
David
and his men by laying the city to siege. David
David
realizes that the citizens of Keilah will betray him to Saul. He flees to Ziph pursued by Saul. Saul
Saul
hunts David
David
in the vicinity of Ziph on two occasions:

Some of the inhabitants of Ziph betray David's location to Saul, but David
David
hears about it and flees with his men to Maon. Saul
Saul
follows David, but is forced to break off pursuit when the Philistines
Philistines
invade. After dealing with that threat Saul
Saul
tracks David
David
to the caves at Engedi. As he searches the cave David
David
manages to cut off a piece of Saul's robe without being discovered, yet David
David
restrains his men from harming the king. David
David
then leaves the cave, revealing himself to Saul, and gives a speech that persuades Saul
Saul
to reconcile. On the second occasion, Saul
Saul
returns to Ziph with his men. When David hears of this, he slips into Saul's camp by night, and again restrains his men from killing the king; instead he steals Saul's spear and water jug, leaving his own spear thrust into the ground by Saul's side. The next day, David
David
reveals himself to Saul, showing the jug and spear as proof that he could have slain him. David
David
then persuades Saul to reconcile with him; the two swear never to harm each other. After this they never see each other again.

Battle of Gilboa and the death of King Saul[edit]

The Battle of Gilboa, by Jean Fouquet, the protagonists depicted anachronistically with 15th Century armour

The Philistines
Philistines
make war again, assembling at Shunem, and Saul
Saul
leads his army to face them at Mount Gilboa. Before the battle he goes to consult a medium or witch at Endor. The medium, unaware of his identity, reminds him that the king has made witchcraft a capital offence, but he assures her that Saul
Saul
will not harm her. She conjures the spirit of the prophet Samuel, who before his death had prophesied that he would lose the kingdom. Samuel
Samuel
tells him that God
God
has fully rejected him, will no longer hear his prayers, has given the kingdom to David
David
and that the next day he will lose both the battle and his life. Saul
Saul
collapses in fear, and the medium restores him with food in anticipation of the next day's battle. 1 Samuel
Samuel
and 2 Samuel
Samuel
give conflicting accounts of Saul's death. In 1 Samuel, and in a parallel account in 1 Chronicles 10, as the defeated Israelites
Israelites
flee, Saul
Saul
asks his armour bearer to kill him, but he refuses, and so Saul
Saul
falls upon his own sword. In 2 Samuel, an Amalekite
Amalekite
tells David
David
he found Saul
Saul
leaning on his spear after the battle and delivered the coup de grâce. David
David
has the Amalekite
Amalekite
put to death for rejoicing in the death of the anointed king. The victorious Philistines
Philistines
recover Saul's body as well as those of his three sons who also died in the battle, decapitated them and displayed them on the wall of Beth-shan. They display Saul's armour in the temple of Ashtaroth (an Ascalonian temple of the Canaanites). But at night the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead retrieve the bodies for cremation and burial.(1 Samuel
Samuel
31:8–13, 1 Chronicles 10:12)). Later on, David
David
takes the bones of Saul
Saul
together and of his son Jonathan and buries them in Zela, in the tomb of his father (2 Samuel 21:12–14).[19] The account in 1 Chronicles summarises by stating that:

Saul
Saul
died for his unfaithfulness which he had committed against the Lord, because he did not keep the word of the Lord, and also because he consulted a medium for guidance.[20]

Biblical criticism[edit] There are several textual or narrative issues in the text, including the aforementioned conflicting accounts of Saul's rise to kingship and his death, as well as plays on words, that biblical scholars have discussed. The birth-narrative of the prophet Samuel
Samuel
is found at 1 Samuel
Samuel
1–28. It describes how Samuel's mother Hannah requests a son from Yahweh, and dedicates the child to God
God
at the shrine of Shiloh. The passage makes extensive play with the root-elements of Saul's name, and ends with the phrase hu sa'ul le-Yahweh, "he is dedicated to Yahweh." Hannah names the resulting son Samuel, giving as her explanation, "because from God
God
I requested him." Samuel's name, however, can mean "name of God," (or "Heard of God" or "Told of God") and the etymology and multiple references to the root of the name seems to fit Saul instead. The majority explanation for the discrepancy is that the narrative originally described the birth of Saul, and was given to Samuel
Samuel
in order to enhance the position of David
David
and Samuel
Samuel
at the former king's expense.[21] The Bible's tone with regard to Saul
Saul
changes over the course of the narrative, especially around the passage where David
David
appears, midway through 1 Samuel. Before, Saul
Saul
is presented in positive terms, but afterward his mode of ecstatic prophecy is suddenly described as fits of madness, his errors and disobedience to Samuel's instructions are stressed and he becomes a paranoiac. This may indicate that the David story is inserted from a source loyal to the House of David; David's lament over Saul
Saul
in 2 Samuel
Samuel
1 then serves an apologetic purpose, clearing David
David
of the blame for Saul's death.[22] God's apparent change of mind in rejecting Saul
Saul
as king has raised questions about God's "repentance", which could be considered as inconsistent with God's immutability. In the King James Version, God's word to Samuel
Samuel
states "It repenteth me that I have set up Saul
Saul
to be king". Samuel's words later clarify that God's repentance is not like human regret or reconsideration:

The Strength of Israel
Israel
will not lie nor relent. For He is not a man, that He should relent.[23]

Methodist biblical commentator Joseph Benson
Joseph Benson
writes that "Repentance, properly speaking, implies grief of heart, and a change of counsels. Understood in which sense, it can have no place in God. But it is often ascribed to him in the Scriptures when he alters his method of dealing with persons, and treats them as if he did indeed repent of the kindness he had shown them."[24] In the Books of Samuel, Saul
Saul
is not referred to as a king (melech), but rather as a "leader" or "commander" (nagid) (1 Samuel
Samuel
9:16; 1 Samuel
Samuel
10:1).[25] However, Saul
Saul
is also said to be made a "king" (melech) at Gilgal
Gilgal
(1 Samuel
Samuel
11:15). Various authors have attempted to harmonize the two narratives regarding Saul's death. Josephus
Josephus
writes that Saul's attempted suicide was stalled because he was not able to run the sword through himself, and that he therefore asked the Amalekite
Amalekite
to finish it.[26] Later biblical criticism has posited that the story of Saul's death was redacted from various sources, although this view in turn has been criticized because it does not explain why the contradiction was left in by the redactors.[26] But since 2 Samuel
Samuel
records only the Amalekite's report, and not the report of any other eye-witness, some scholars theorize that the Amalekite
Amalekite
may have been lying to try to gain favor with David. On this view, 1 Samuel
Samuel
records what actually happened, while 2 Samuel
Samuel
records what the Amalekite
Amalekite
claims happened.[27] Classical rabbinical views[edit] Two opposing views of Saul
Saul
are found in classical rabbinical literature. One is based on the reverse logic that punishment is a proof of guilt, and therefore seeks to rob Saul
Saul
of any halo which might surround him; typically this view is similar to the republican source. The passage referring to Saul
Saul
as a choice young man, and goodly (1 Samuel
Samuel
9:2) is in this view interpreted as meaning that Saul was not good in every respect, but goodly only with respect to his personal appearance (Num. Rashi 9:28). According to this view, Saul
Saul
is only a weak branch (Gen. Rashi 25:3), owing his kingship not to his own merits, but rather to his grandfather, who had been accustomed to light the streets for those who went to the bet ha-midrash, and had received as his reward the promise that one of his grandsons should sit upon the throne (Lev. Rashi 9:2). The second view of Saul
Saul
makes him appear in the most favourable light as man, as hero, and as king. This view is similar to that of the monarchical source. In this view it was on account of his modesty that he did not reveal the fact that he had been anointed king (1 Samuel 10:16; Meg. 13b); and he was extraordinarily upright as well as perfectly just. Nor was there any one more pious than he (M. Q. 16b; Ex. Rashi 30:12); for when he ascended the throne he was as pure as a child, and had never committed sin (Yoma 22b). He was marvelously handsome; and the maidens who told him concerning Samuel
Samuel
(cf 1 Samuel 9:11–13) talked so long with him that they might observe his beauty the more (Ber. 48b). In war he was able to march 120 miles without rest. When he received the command to smite Amalek
Amalek
(1 Samuel
Samuel
15:3), Saul
Saul
said: For one found slain the Torah
Torah
requires a sin offering [Deuteronomy 21:1–9]; and here so many shall be slain. If the old have sinned, why should the young suffer; and if men have been guilty, why should the cattle be destroyed? It was this mildness that cost him his crown. And while Saul
Saul
was merciful to his enemies, he was strict with his own people; when he found out that Ahimelech, a kohen, had assisted David
David
with finding food, Saul, in retaliation, killed the rest of the 85 kohanim of the family of Ahimelech
Ahimelech
and the rest of his hometown, Nov. (Yoma 22b; Num. Rashi 1:10) The fact that he was merciful even to his enemies, being indulgent to rebels themselves, and frequently waiving the homage due to him, was incredible as well as deceiving. But if his mercy toward a foe was a sin, it was his only one; and it was his misfortune that it was reckoned against him, while David, although he had committed much iniquity, was so favored that it was not remembered to his injury (Yoma 22b; M. Q. 16b, and Rashi ad loc.). In some respects Saul
Saul
was superior to David, e.g., in having only one concubine Rizpah
Rizpah
, while David
David
had many. Saul
Saul
expended his own substance for the war, and although he knew that he and his sons would fall in battle, he nevertheless went forward, while David
David
heeded the wish of his soldiers not to go to war in person (2 Samuel
Samuel
21:17; Lev. Rashi 26:7; Yalq., Sam. 138). According to the Rabbis, Saul
Saul
ate his food with due regard for the rules of ceremonial purity prescribed for the sacrifice (Yalq., l.c.), and taught the people how they should slay cattle (cf 1 Samuel
Samuel
14:34). As a reward for this, God
God
himself gave Saul
Saul
a sword on the day of battle, since no other sword suitable for him was found (ibid 13:22). Saul's attitude toward David
David
finds its excuse in the fact that his courtiers were all tale-bearers, and slandered David
David
to him (Deut. Rashi 5:10); and in like manner he was incited by Doeg against the priests of Nob (1 Samuel
Samuel
22:16–19; Yalq., Sam. 131)—this act was forgiven him, however, and a heavenly voice (bat qol) was heard, proclaiming: Saul
Saul
is the chosen one of God
God
(Ber. 12b). His anger at the Gibeonites
Gibeonites
(2 Samuel
Samuel
21:2) was not personal hatred, but was induced by zeal for the welfare of Israel
Israel
(Num. Rashi 8:4). The fact that he made his daughter remarry (1 Samuel
Samuel
25:44), finds its explanation in his (Saul's) view that her betrothal to David
David
had been gained by false pretenses, and was therefore invalid (Sanhedrin 19b). During the lifetime of Saul
Saul
there was no idolatry in Israel. The famine in the reign of David
David
(cf 2 Samuel
Samuel
21:1) was to punish the people, because they had not accorded Saul
Saul
the proper honours at his burial (Num. Rashi 8:4). In Sheol, Samuel
Samuel
reveals to Saul
Saul
that in the next world, Saul
Saul
would dwell with Samuel, which is a proof that all has been forgiven him by God
God
('Er. 53ba). In Islam[edit] Some Muslims refer to Saul
Saul
as Tālūt (Arabic: طالوت‎), and believe that (as in the Bible) he was the commander of Israel. Other scholars, however, have identified Talut as Gideon[28] with the reasoning that the Qur'an
Qur'an
references the same incident of the drinking from the river as that found in Judges 7:5–7 and other factors associated with Gideon. According to the Qur'an, Talut was chosen by the Prophet
Prophet
Samuel
Samuel
(not mentioned by name explicitly, but rather as "a Prophet" of the Israelites) after being asked by the people of Israel for a Malik (Arabic: مَـلِـك‎, King) to lead them into war. The Israelites
Israelites
criticized Samuel
Samuel
for appointing Talut, lacking respect for Talut because he was not wealthy. Samuel
Samuel
rebuked the people for this and told them that Talut was more favored than they were. Talut led the Israelites
Israelites
to victory over the army of Goliath, who was killed by Dawud (David). Talut is not considered a Nabi (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet), but a Divinely appointed King.[29] Name[edit] The name 'Tālūt' has uncertain etymology. Unlike some other Qur'anic figures, the Arabic name is not similar to the Hebrew name (Sha'ul). According to Muslim
Muslim
exegetes, the name 'Tālūt' means 'Tall' (from the Arabic "tūl") and refers to the extraordinary stature of Saul, which would be consistent with the Biblical account.[30] In explanation of the name, exegetes such as Tha'labi hold that at this time, the future King of Israel
Israel
was to be recognised by his height; Samuel
Samuel
set up a measure, but no one in Israel
Israel
reached its height except Tālūt (Saul). Saul
Saul
as the King of Israel[edit] In the Qur'an, Israelites
Israelites
demanded a King after the time of Musa (Moses). God
God
appointed Talut as their King. Saul
Saul
was distinguished by the greatness of his knowledge and of his physique; it was a sign of his role as King that God
God
brought back the Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
for Israel. Talut tested his people at a river; whoever drank from it would not follow him in battle excepting one who takes [from it] in the hollow of his hand. Many drank but only the faithful ventured on. In the battle, however, David
David
slew Goliath
Goliath
and was made the subsequent King of Israel.[29] The Qur'anic account[29] differs from the Biblical account (if Saul
Saul
is assumed to be Talut) in that in the Bible the sacred Ark was returned to Israel
Israel
before Saul's accession, and the test by drinking water is made in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
not by Saul
Saul
but by Gideon.[31] Historicity[edit] The historicity of Saul's kingdom is not universally accepted[1][32] and there is insufficient extrabiblical evidence to verify if the biblical account reflects historical reality.[33]:50ff The notion of a United Monarchy of Israel
United Monarchy of Israel
and Judah is believed by some scholars to be a later ideological construct; statehood in Judah is thought, on the basis of archaeological evidence, to have emerged no earlier than the 8th century BCE.[1] Saul’s kingdom was not very large. It probably included Mt. Ephraim, Benjamin and Gilead. He also exerted some influence in the northern mountains in Judah and beyond the Jezreel Valley. His capital appears to have been basically a military camp near Gibeah. Archeology seems to confirm that until about 1000 BCE, the end of Iron Age I, Israelite society was essentially a society of farmers and stockbreeders without any truly centralized organization and administration.[9] Psychological analyses[edit] Accounts of Saul's behavior have made him a popular subject for speculation among modern psychiatrists. George Stein views the passages depicting Saul's ecstatic episodes as suggesting that Saul may have suffered from mania.[34] Martin Huisman sees the story of Saul
Saul
as illustrative of the role of stress as a factor in depression.[35] Liubov Ben-Noun of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, believes that passages referring to King Saul's disturbed behavior indicate he was afflicted by a mental disorder, and lists a number of possible conditions.[36] However, Christopher C. H. Cook of the Department of Theology and Religion, Durham University, UK recommends caution in offering any diagnoses in relation to people who lived millennia ago.[37] See also[edit]

David
David
in Islam Kings of Israel
Israel
and Judah Midrash Samuel Paul the Apostle

References[edit]

^ a b c d Finkelstein, Israel
Israel
(2006). "The Last Labayu: King Saul
Saul
and the Expansion of the First North Israelite Territorial Entity". In Amit, Yairah; Ben Zvi, Ehud; Finkelstein, Israel; et al. Essays on Ancient Israel
Israel
in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute
Tribute
to Nadav Naʼaman. Eisenbrauns. pp. 171 ff. ISBN 9781575061283. Retrieved 2016-03-02.  ^ Van der Toorn, Karel (1993). " Saul
Saul
and the rise of Israelite state religion". Vetus Testamentum. XLIII (4). JSTOR 1518499.  ^ a b Jacobs, Joseph; Price, Ira Maurice; Singer, Isidore; Lauterbach, Jacob
Jacob
Zallel (1906). "Saul". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
14:51 lists three sons – Jonathan, and Ishvi, and Malchi-shua – and the two daughters. But see also 2 Samuel
Samuel
2:8 and 1 Chronicles 8:33. ^ Some Hebrew versions say that the five sons were Michal's – e.g., 2 Samuel
Samuel
21:8–9 ^ a b Driscoll, James F. (1912). "Saul". The Catholic Encyclopedia. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 1 Samuel
Samuel
10, accessed 1 May 2017 ^ a b "Saul, First King of Israel", Chabad.org ^ a b "King Saul", Ancient Israel: From Abraham
Abraham
to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, (Hershel Shanks, ed.), Biblical Archaeology Society ^ Pulpit Commentary on 1 Samuel
Samuel
10, accessed 1 May 2017 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
14:47: New Living Translation; other translations vary ^ Benson Commentary on 1 Samuel
Samuel
14, accessed 7 May 2017 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
14:24-45 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
15:3 ^ Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 1 Samuel
Samuel
16, accessed 12 May 2017 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
16:20: a donkey loaded with bread, a skin of wine, and a young goat ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
18:7, recurring in 1 Samuel
Samuel
21:11 and 1 Samuel
Samuel
29:5 ^ "1 Samuel
Samuel
18 ; ESV – David
David
and Jonathan's Friendship". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ G. Darshan, "The Reinterment of Saul
Saul
and Jonathan's Bones (II Sam 21, 12–14) in Light of Ancient Greek Hero-Cult Stories", ZAW, 125,4 (2013), 640–645. ^ 1 Chronicles 10:13-14 ^ The idea was originally advanced in the 19th century, and has most recently been elaborated in Kyle McCarter's influential commentary on I Samuel
Samuel
(P. Kyle McCarter, "I Samuel: A New Translation with Introduction, Notes and Commentary", Anchor Bible Series, 1980) ^ Hayes, Christine. "Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible): Lecture 13 – The Deuteronomistic History: Prophets and Kings (1 and 2 Samuel)". Yale Open Courses. Yale University. Retrieved 2016-03-02.  ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
15:29 ^ Benson, J., Benson Commentary on 1 Samuel
Samuel
15, accessed 10 May 2017 ^ Bright, John, A History of Israel, The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1972, p. 185. ^ a b Bill T. Arnold (1989). "The Amalekite
Amalekite
report of Saul's death: political intrigue or incompatible sources?" (PDF). J. Evangelical Theological Society. 32 (3): 289–298.  ^ Life Application Study Bible: Note on 2 Samuel
Samuel
1:13 ^ http://www.alislam.org/quran/tafseer/?page=315&region=E1&CR=EN,E2.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b c Quran %3Averse%3D246 2 :246–252 ^ Leaman, Oliver, The Quran, An Encyclopedia, 2006, p. 638. ^ Judges vii. 5–7 ^ Baruch Halpern (2003). David's Secret Demons: Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King. Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 208–211.  ^ Nelson, Richard D. Historical Roots of the Old Testament (1200–63 BCE). Volume 13 of Biblical Encyclopedia. Society of Biblical Lit, 2014 ISBN 9781628370065 ^ "Stein, George. "The case of King Saul: did he have recurrent unipolar depression or bipolar affective disorder? – psychiatry in the Old Testament", The British Journal of Psychiatry (2011), 198: p.212". Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ Huisman, M (2007). "King Saul, work-related stress and depression". J Epidemiol Community Health. 61 (10): 890. doi:10.1136/jech.2007.066522. PMC 2652967 . PMID 17873225.  ^ "Ben-Noun, Liubov. "What was the Mental Disease that Afflicted King Saul?", Clinical Case Studies, October 2003 vol. 2 no. 4 pp. 270–282". Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ "Cook, Christopher C.H., "Psychiatry in scripture: sacred texts and psychopathology", The Psychiatrist (2012) 36: pp. 225–229". Retrieved 15 September 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Wellhausen, Julius, Der Text der Bücher Samuelis Budde, Die Bücher Richter und Samuel, 1890, pp. 167–276 Driver, S. R., Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel, 1890 Cheyne, T. K., Aids to the Devout Study of Criticism, 1892, pp. 1–126 Smith, H. P., Old Testament History, 1903, ch. vii. Cheyne, T. K., and Black, (eds.) Encyclopedia Biblica SAMUEL AND SAUL: A NEGATIVE SYMBIOSIS by Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe Reiss Hudson, J. Francis, 'Rabshakeh' [ Lion
Lion
Publishing 1992] is a fictionalisation of Saul's tragedy. Green, A., 'King Saul, The True History of the First Messiah' [Lutterworth Press 2007]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:  Joseph
Joseph
Jacobs, Ira Maurice Price, Isidore Singer, and Jacob Zallel Lauterbach
Jacob Zallel Lauterbach
(1901–1906). "Saul". In Singer, Isidore; et al. Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Media related to Saul
Saul
at Wikimedia Commons

Saul
Saul
of the United Kingdom of Israel
Israel
& Judah House of Saul Cadet branch of the Tribe
Tribe
of Benjamin

Regnal titles

New title Anointed king to replace Judge Samuel

King of the United Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and Judah 1047 BC – 1007 BC Succeeded by Ish-bosheth

v t e

Rulers of Israel
Israel
and Judah

Davidic line Kings of Israel
Israel
and Judah

Kings of Judah

Hasmonean and Herodian rulers

Tribes of Israel

The Twelve Spies Abimelech

United monarchy

Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon

Israel (northern kingdom)

Jeroboam
Jeroboam
I Nadab Baasha Elah Zimri Tibni Omri Ahab Ahaziah Jehoram Jehu Jehoahaz Jehoash Jeroboam
Jeroboam
II Zechariah Shallum Menahem Pekahiah Pekah Hoshea

Judah (southern kingdom)

Rehoboam Abijam Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Ahaziah Athaliah Jehoash Amaziah Uzziah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim Jeconiah Zedekiah

Hasmonean dynasty

Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias

Herodian dynasty

Herod the Great Archelaus Antipas Philip the Tetrarch Salome I Agrippa Herod of Chalcis Agrippa II

Bar Kokhba revolt

Simon bar Kokhba

See also

List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel

Italics indicate a disputed reign or non-royal title

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ ( Saul
Saul
or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13100

.