HOME
The Info List - San Diego


--- Advertisement ---



San Diego
San Diego
(/ˌsæn diˈeɪɡoʊ/; Spanish for 'Saint Didacus'; Spanish: [san ˈdjeɣo]) is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego
San Diego
County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles (190 km) south of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,406,630 as of July 1, 2016,[9] San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States
United States
and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people.[12] The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States
United States
Navy, and recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego
San Diego
has been called "the birthplace of California".[13] Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California
California
200 years later. The Presidio and Mission San Diego
Mission San Diego
de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic
First Mexican Republic
two years later. California
California
became part of the United States
United States
in 1848 following the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850. The city is the seat of San Diego County
San Diego County
and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana
San Diego–Tijuana
metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
(UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-colonial period 1.2 Spanish period 1.3 Mexican period 1.4 American period

2 Geography

2.1 Communities and neighborhoods 2.2 Cityscape 2.3 Climate 2.4 Ecology

3 Demographics 4 Economy

4.1 Defense and military 4.2 Tourism 4.3 International trade 4.4 Companies 4.5 Top employers 4.6 Real estate

5 Culture 6 Sports

6.1 Major League teams 6.2 Minor League teams 6.3 College teams

7 Government

7.1 Local government 7.2 State and federal representation 7.3 Major scandals 7.4 Crime

8 Education

8.1 Colleges and universities 8.2 Libraries

9 Media 10 Infrastructure

10.1 Utilities 10.2 Street lights 10.3 Transportation

11 Notable people 12 Sister cities 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 External links

History See also: History of San Diego
History of San Diego
and Timeline of San Diego

Historical affiliations

Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
1769–1821 First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
1821–1823 United Mexican States
United Mexican States
1823–1848 California
California
Republic 1846   United States
United States
1848–present

Pre-colonial period

Kumeyaay people
Kumeyaay people
lived in San Diego
San Diego
before Europeans settled there.

The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito and La Jolla
La Jolla
people.[14][15] The area of San Diego
San Diego
has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people.[16][17] Spanish period

Namesake of the city, Didacus of Alcalá: Saint Didacus in Ecstasy Before the Cross by Murillo (Musée des Augustins)

The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but possibly born in Portugal. Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in 1542, and named the site "San Miguel".[18] In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno
Sebastián Vizcaíno
was sent to map the California
California
coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego
San Diego
de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California
California
was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego.[19]

Mission San Diego
Mission San Diego
de Alcalá

Permanent colonization of California
California
and of San Diego
San Diego
began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain
Spain
and the Baja California
California
peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, and the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez. An initial overland expedition to San Diego
San Diego
from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary, explorer, and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà
Gaspar de Portolà
and including the mission president (and now saint) Junípero Serra.[20] In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego
Presidio of San Diego
on a hill near the San Diego
San Diego
River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
was founded by Franciscan
Franciscan
friars under Serra.[21][22] By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.[23] Mission San Diego
Mission San Diego
was the southern anchor in Alta California
California
of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks.[24][25] Mexican period In 1821, Mexico
Mexico
won its independence from Spain, and San Diego
San Diego
became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began attempting to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego
San Diego
grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, and most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers. The 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde ("municipal magistrate"), defeating Pío Pico
Pío Pico
in the vote. (See, List of pre-statehood mayors of San Diego.) However, San Diego
San Diego
had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents.[26] Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California
California
ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. In 1846, the United States
United States
went to war against Mexico
Mexico
and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At first they had an easy time of it capturing the major ports including San Diego, but the Californios in southern Alta California
California
struck back. Following the successful revolt in Los Angeles, the American garrison at San Diego was driven out without firing a shot in early October 1846. Mexican partisans held San Diego
San Diego
for three weeks until October 24, 1846, when the Americans recaptured it. For the next several months the Americans were blockaded inside the pueblo. Skirmishes occurred daily and snipers shot into the town every night. The Californios drove cattle away from the pueblo hoping to starve the Americans and their Californio supporters out. On December 1 the Americans garrison learned that the dragoons of General Stephen W. Kearney
Stephen W. Kearney
were at Warner's Ranch. Commodore Robert F. Stockton
Robert F. Stockton
sent a mounted force of fifty under Captain Archibald Gillespie to march north to meet him. Their joint command of 150 men, returning to San Diego, encountered about 93 Californios under Andrés Pico. In the ensuing Battle of San Pasqual, fought in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego, the Americans suffered their worst losses in the campaign. Subsequently, a column led by Lieutenant Gray arrived from San Diego, rescuing Kearny's battered and blockaded command.[27] Stockton and Kearny went on to recover Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and force the capitulation of Alta California
California
with the "Treaty of Cahuenga" on January 13, 1847. As a result of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
of 1846–48, the territory of Alta California, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States
United States
by Mexico, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The Mexican negotiators of that treaty tried to retain San Diego
San Diego
as part of Mexico, but the Americans insisted that San Diego
San Diego
was "for every commercial purpose of nearly equal importance to us with that of San Francisco," and the Mexican–American border was eventually established to be one league south of the southernmost point of San Diego
San Diego
Bay, so as to include the entire bay within the United States.[28] American period

Namesake of Horton Plaza, Alonzo Horton
Alonzo Horton
developed "New Town" which became Downtown San Diego.

The state of California
California
was admitted to the United States
United States
in 1850. That same year San Diego
San Diego
was designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County
San Diego County
and was incorporated as a city. Joshua H. Bean, the last alcalde of San Diego, was elected the first mayor. Two years later the city was bankrupt;[29] the California
California
legislature revoked the city's charter and placed it under control of a board of trustees, where it remained until 1889. A city charter was reestablished in 1889, and today's city charter was adopted in 1931.[30] The original town of San Diego
San Diego
was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now Old Town San Diego
San Diego
State Historic Park. The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water at its port at La Playa. In 1850, William Heath Davis
William Heath Davis
promoted a new development by the bay shore called "New San Diego", several miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades the new development consisted only of a pier, a few houses and an Army depot for the support of Fort Yuma. After 1854, the fort became supplied by sea and by steamboats on the Colorado River
Colorado River
and the depot fell into disuse. From 1857 to 1860, San Diego
San Diego
became the western terminus of the San Antonio- San Diego
San Diego
Mail Line, the earliest overland stagecoach and mail operation from the Eastern United States
United States
to California, coming from Texas
Texas
through New Mexico
Mexico
Territory in less than 30 days.[31] In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton
Alonzo Horton
promoted a move to the bayside area, which he called "New Town" and which became Downtown San Diego. Horton promoted the area heavily, and people and businesses began to relocate to New Town because its location on San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
was convenient to shipping. New Town soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Town, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.[32] Still, San Diego
San Diego
remained a relative backwater town until the arrival of a railroad connection in 1878.

Balboa Park on the cover of a guidebook for the World Exposition of 1915

In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego
San Diego
hosted two World's Fairs: the Panama- California
California
Exposition in 1915 and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935. Both expositions were held in Balboa Park, and many of the Spanish/Baroque-style buildings that were built for those expositions remain to this day as central features of the park. The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. Most were eventually rebuilt, using castings of the original façades to retain the architectural style.[33] The menagerie of exotic animals featured at the 1915 exposition provided the basis for the San Diego
San Diego
Zoo.[34] During the 1950s there was a citywide festival called Fiesta del Pacifico highlighting the area's Spanish and Mexican past.[35] In the 2010s there was a proposal for a large-scale celebration of the 100th anniversary of Balboa Park, but the plans were abandoned when the organization tasked with putting on the celebration went out of business.[36] The southern portion of the Point Loma
Point Loma
peninsula was set aside for military purposes as early as 1852. Over the next several decades the Army set up a series of coastal artillery batteries and named the area Fort Rosecrans.[37] Significant U.S. Navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma, and expanded greatly during the 1920s.[38] By 1930, the city was host to Naval Base San Diego, Naval Training Center San Diego, San Diego
San Diego
Naval Hospital, Camp Matthews, and Camp Kearny
Camp Kearny
(now Marine Corps Air Station Miramar). The city was also an early center for aviation: as early as World War I, San Diego
San Diego
was proclaiming itself "The Air Capital of the West".[39] The city was home to important airplane developers and manufacturers like Ryan Airlines (later Ryan Aeronautical), founded in 1925, and Consolidated Aircraft
Consolidated Aircraft
(later Convair), founded in 1923.[40] Charles A. Lindbergh's plane The Spirit of St. Louis
The Spirit of St. Louis
was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines.[39] During World War II, San Diego
San Diego
became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers. The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865).[41] During the final months of the war, the Japanese had a plan to target multiple U.S. cities for biological attack, starting with San Diego. The plan was called "Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night" and called for kamikaze planes filled with fleas infected with plague (Yersinia pestis) to crash into civilian population centers in the city, hoping to spread plague in the city and effectively kill tens of thousands of civilians. The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22, 1945, but was not carried out because Japan
Japan
surrendered five weeks earlier.[42][43][44][45] After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post- Cold War
Cold War
cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.[46] From the start of the 20th century through the 1970s, the American tuna fishing fleet and tuna canning industry were based in San Diego, "the tuna capital of the world".[47] San Diego's first tuna cannery was founded in 1911, and by the mid-1930s the canneries employed more than 1,000 people. A large fishing fleet supported the canneries, mostly staffed by immigrant fishermen from Japan, and later from the Portuguese Azores
Azores
and Italy
Italy
whose influence is still felt in neighborhoods like Little Italy
Italy
and Point Loma.[48][49] Due to rising costs and foreign competition, the last of the canneries closed in the early 1980s.[50] Downtown San Diego
Downtown San Diego
was in decline in the 1960s and 1970s, but experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s, including the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter, and the construction of the San Diego
San Diego
Convention Center; Petco Park
Petco Park
opened in 2004.[51] Geography See also: List of beaches in San Diego, California
California
and Parks in San Diego

Urban aerial of San Diego
San Diego
and Tijuana, Mexico

According to SDSU professor emeritus Monte Marshall, San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
is "the surface expression of a north-south-trending, nested graben". The Rose Canyon and Point Loma
Point Loma
fault zones are part of the San Andreas Fault system. About 40 miles (64 km) east of the bay are the Laguna Mountains
Laguna Mountains
in the Peninsular Ranges, which are part of the backbone of the American continents.[52] The city lies on approximately 200 deep canyons and hills separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural open space scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography.[53] Traditionally, San Diegans have built their homes and businesses on the mesas, while leaving the urban canyons relatively wild.[54] Thus, the canyons give parts of the city a segmented feel, creating gaps between otherwise proximate neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered environment. The San Diego River
San Diego River
runs through the middle of San Diego
San Diego
from east to west, creating a river valley which serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. During the historic period and presumably earlier as well, the river has shifted its flow back and forth between San Diego
San Diego
Bay and Mission Bay, and its fresh water was the focus of the earliest Spanish explorers. Miguel Costansó, a cartographer, wrote in 1769, "When asked by signs where the watering-place was, the Indians pointed to a grove which could be seen at a considerable distance to the northeast, giving to understand that a river or creek flowed through it, and that they would lead our men to it if they would follow."[55][56] That river was the San Diego
San Diego
River.[55] Several reservoirs and Mission Trails Regional Park
Mission Trails Regional Park
also lie between and separate developed areas of the city.

Mission Valley
Mission Valley
facing Northwest, taken from Arista Street. Mission Bay can be seen in the distance.

Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain, the highest point in the city at 1,591 feet (485 m);[8] Black Mountain at 1,558 feet (475 m); and Mount Soledad
Mount Soledad
at 824 feet (251 m). The Cuyamaca Mountains
Cuyamaca Mountains
and Laguna Mountains
Laguna Mountains
rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. The Cleveland National Forest
Cleveland National Forest
is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that San Diego
San Diego
had the 9th-best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities.[57] ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes acreage, access, and service and investment. Communities and neighborhoods Main article: List of communities and neighborhoods of San Diego

Normal Heights, a neighborhood of San Diego

The City of San Diego
San Diego
recognizes 52 individual areas as Community Planning Areas.[58] Within a given planning area there may be several distinct neighborhoods. Altogether the city contains more than 100 identified neighborhoods. Downtown San Diego
Downtown San Diego
is located on San Diego
San Diego
Bay. Balboa Park encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park. To the east and southeast lie City Heights, the College Area, and Southeast San Diego. To the north lies Mission Valley
Mission Valley
and Interstate 8. The communities north of the valley and freeway, and south of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, include Clairemont, Kearny Mesa, Tierrasanta, and Navajo. Stretching north from Miramar are the northern suburbs of Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Rancho Bernardo. The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges
Lake Hodges
and the San Pasqual Valley, which holds an agricultural preserve. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. To their south are Torrey Pines State Reserve
Torrey Pines State Reserve
and the business center of the Golden Triangle. Further south are the beach and coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach, Mission Beach, and Ocean Beach. Point Loma
Point Loma
occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay from downtown. The communities of South San Diego, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the Mexico–United States border, and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. A narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city. For the most part, San Diego
San Diego
neighborhood boundaries tend to be understood by its residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns.[59] The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 General Plan around the concept of a "City of Villages".[60] Cityscape Main article: List of tallest buildings in San Diego

Downtown San Diego
Downtown San Diego
skyline at day and night. View from Coronado in November 2007.

San Diego
San Diego
was originally centered on the Old Town district, but by the late 1860s the focus had shifted to the bayfront, in the belief that this new location would increase trade. As the "New Town" – present-day Downtown – waterfront location quickly developed, it eclipsed Old Town as the center of San Diego.[32] The development of skyscrapers over 300 feet (91 m) in San Diego is attributed to the construction of the El Cortez Hotel in 1927, the tallest building in the city from 1927 to 1963.[61] As time went on, multiple buildings claimed the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, including the Union Bank of California
California
Building and Symphony Towers. Currently the tallest building in San Diego
San Diego
is One America Plaza, standing 500 feet (150 m) tall, which was completed in 1991.[62] The downtown skyline contains no super-talls, as a regulation put in place by the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
in the 1970s set a 500 feet (152 m) limit on the height of buildings within a one-mile (1.6 km) radius of the San Diego
San Diego
International Airport.[63] An iconic description of the skyline includes its skyscrapers being compared to the tools of a toolbox.[64] Climate Main article: Climate of San Diego

Palms at Pacific Beach

San Diego
San Diego
has one of the top-ten best climates according to the Farmers' Almanac[65] and has one of the two best summer climates in America as scored by The Weather Channel.[66] Under the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system, the San Diego
San Diego
area has been variously categorized as having either a semi-arid climate (BSh in the original classification[67] and BSn in modified Köppen classification)[68] or a Mediterranean climate[69] (Csa and Csb).[70] San Diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters, with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has a mild climate year-round,[71] with an average of 201 days above 70 °F (21 °C) and low rainfall (9–13 inches [230–330 mm] annually). The climate in San Diego, like most of Southern California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances, resulting in microclimates. In San Diego, this is mostly because of the city's topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover keeps the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but yields to bright cloudless sunshine approximately 5–10 miles (8.0–16.1 km) inland.[72] Sometimes the June gloom lasts into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day.[73][74] Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego
San Diego
averages January lows of 50 °F (10 °C) and August highs of 78 °F (26 °C). The city of El Cajon, just 10 miles (16 km) inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of 42 °F (6 °C) and August highs of 88 °F (31 °C). A sign of global warming, the average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California
California
Current has increased by almost 3 degrees since 1950, according to scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.[75]

Surfers at Pacific Beach

Annual rainfall along the coast averages 10.65 inches (271 mm) and the median is 9.6 inches (240 mm).[76] The months of December through March supply most of the rain, with February the only month averaging 2 inches (51 mm) or more. The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. Although there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. Rainfall is usually greater in the higher elevations of San Diego; some of the higher areas can receive 11–15 inches (280–380 mm) per year. Variability from year to year can be dramatic: in the wettest years of 1883/1884 and 1940/1941 more than 24 inches (610 mm) fell, whilst in the driest years there was as little as 3.2 inches (80 mm). The wettest month on record is December 1921 with 9.21 inches (234 mm). Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only five times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. In 1949 and 1967, snow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher locations like Point Loma
Point Loma
and La Jolla. The other three occasions, in 1882, 1946, and 1987, involved flurries but no accumulation.[77]

Climate data for San Diego
San Diego
Int'l Airport (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1874–present)[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 88 (31) 90 (32) 99 (37) 98 (37) 98 (37) 101 (38) 100 (38) 98 (37) 111 (44) 107 (42) 100 (38) 88 (31) 111 (44)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 78.4 (25.8) 79.2 (26.2) 79.8 (26.6) 82.8 (28.2) 79.0 (26.1) 81.2 (27.3) 83.2 (28.4) 85.4 (29.7) 89.5 (31.9) 86.8 (30.4) 82.9 (28.3) 76.6 (24.8) 94.1 (34.5)

Average high °F (°C) 65.1 (18.4) 65.0 (18.3) 65.6 (18.7) 67.5 (19.7) 68.5 (20.3) 70.8 (21.6) 74.6 (23.7) 76.4 (24.7) 75.9 (24.4) 72.8 (22.7) 69.0 (20.6) 64.7 (18.2) 69.7 (20.9)

Average low °F (°C) 49.0 (9.4) 50.7 (10.4) 53.2 (11.8) 55.9 (13.3) 59.4 (15.2) 62.0 (16.7) 65.4 (18.6) 66.7 (19.3) 65.2 (18.4) 60.6 (15.9) 53.6 (12) 48.4 (9.1) 57.5 (14.2)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 41.9 (5.5) 44.6 (7) 47.1 (8.4) 50.7 (10.4) 55.0 (12.8) 59.1 (15.1) 62.5 (16.9) 63.3 (17.4) 60.4 (15.8) 54.4 (12.4) 45.8 (7.7) 41.4 (5.2) 40.3 (4.6)

Record low °F (°C) 25 (−4) 34 (1) 36 (2) 39 (4) 45 (7) 50 (10) 54 (12) 54 (12) 50 (10) 43 (6) 36 (2) 32 (0) 25 (−4)

Average rainfall inches (mm) 1.98 (50.3) 2.27 (57.7) 1.81 (46) 0.78 (19.8) 0.12 (3) 0.07 (1.8) 0.03 (0.8) 0.02 (0.5) 0.15 (3.8) 0.57 (14.5) 1.01 (25.7) 1.53 (38.9) 10.34 (262.6)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.7 7.1 6.5 4.0 1.4 0.8 0.7 0.4 1.2 2.8 4.1 5.8 41.5

Average relative humidity (%) 63.1 65.7 67.3 67.0 70.6 74.0 74.6 74.1 72.7 69.4 66.3 63.7 69.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 239.3 227.4 261.0 276.2 250.5 242.4 304.7 295.0 253.3 243.4 230.1 231.3 3,054.6

Percent possible sunshine 75 74 70 71 58 57 70 71 68 69 73 74 69

Source: NOAA (sun and relative humidity 1961–1990)[79][80][81]

Ecology

Coastal canyon in Torrey Pines State Reserve

Like much of southern California, the majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied on the west by coastal sage scrub and on the east by chaparral, plant communities made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs.[82] The steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons. The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire, and the rates of fire increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires starting near the borders of urban and wild areas.[83] San Diego's broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve, Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve, and Mission Trails Regional Park. Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute one of only two locations where the rare species of Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana, is found.[84]

San Diego
San Diego
viewed against the Witch Creek Fire
Witch Creek Fire
smoke

Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Switzer Canyon, Tecolote Canyon Natural Park,[85] and Marian Bear Memorial Park in San Clemente Canyon,[86] as well as a number of small parks and preserves. San Diego County
San Diego County
has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered list of counties in the United States.[87] Because of its diversity of habitat and its position on the Pacific Flyway, San Diego County
San Diego County
has recorded 492 different bird species, more than any other region in the country.[88] San Diego always scores high in the number of bird species observed in the annual Christmas Bird Count, sponsored by the Audubon Society, and it is known as one of the "birdiest" areas in the United States.[89][90] San Diego
San Diego
and its backcountry suffer from periodic wildfires. In October 2003, San Diego
San Diego
was the site of the Cedar Fire, called the largest wildfire in California
California
over the past century.[91] The fire burned 280,000 acres (1,100 km2), killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes.[92] In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; the poor air quality caused San Diego County
San Diego County
schools to close for a week.[93] Wildfires four years later destroyed some areas, particularly within Rancho Bernardo, as well as the nearby communities of Rancho Santa Fe and Ramona.[94] Demographics

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 500

1860 731

46.2%

1870 2,300

214.6%

1880 2,637

14.7%

1890 16,159

512.8%

1900 17,700

9.5%

1910 39,578

123.6%

1920 74,361

87.9%

1930 147,995

99.0%

1940 203,341

37.4%

1950 334,387

64.4%

1960 573,224

71.4%

1970 696,769

21.6%

1980 875,538

25.7%

1990 1,110,549

26.8%

2000 1,223,400

10.2%

2010 1,307,402

6.9%

Est. 2016 1,406,630 [10] 7.6%

Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990[41] U.S. Decennial Census[95]

Racial composition 2010[96] 1990[97] 1970[97] 1940[97]

White 58.9% 67.1% 88.9% 96.9%

—Non-Hispanic 45.1% 58.7% 78.9%[98] n/a

Black or African American 6.7% 9.4% 7.6% 2.0%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 28.8% 20.7% 10.7%[98] n/a

Asian 15.9% 11.8% 2.2% 1.0%

Map of racial distribution in San Diego, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

The city had a population of 1,307,402 according to the 2010 census, distributed over a land area of 372.1 square miles (963.7 km2).[99] The urban area of San Diego
San Diego
extends beyond the administrative city limits and had a total population of 2,956,746, making it the third-largest urban area in the state, after that of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area and San Francisco
San Francisco
metropolitan area. They, along with the Riverside–San Bernardino, form those metropolitan areas in California
California
larger than the San Diego metropolitan area, which had a total population of 3,095,313 at the 2010 census. The 2010 population represents an increase of just under 7% from the 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families reported in 2000.[100] The estimated city population in 2009 was 1,306,300. The population density was 3,771.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,456.3/km2). The racial makeup of San Diego
San Diego
was 58.9% White, 6.7% African American, 0.6% Native American, 15.9% Asian (5.9% Filipino, 2.7% Chinese, 2.5% Vietnamese, 1.3% Indian, 1.0% Korean, 0.7% Japanese, 0.4% Laotian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Thai). 0.5% Pacific Islander (0.2% Guamanian, 0.1% Samoan, 0.1% Native Hawaiian), 12.3% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. The ethnic makeup of the city was 28.8% Hispanic or Latino (of any race);[101][102] 24.9% of the total population were Mexican American, and 0.6% were Puerto Rican. Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older.

A U.S. Navy vice admiral and an intelligence specialist celebrating Hispanic American Heritage Month in San Diego

As of December 2012[update], San Diego
San Diego
has the third-largest homeless population in the United States;[103] the city's homeless population has the largest percentage of homeless veterans in the nation.[103] The population of homeless veterans in San Diego
San Diego
has been reduced to 1,150 people in 2016, from 2,100 in 2009.[104] In 2000 there were 451,126 households, out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. Households made up of individuals account for 28.0%, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61, and the average family size was 3.30. The U.S. Census Bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of San Diego residents were under 18, and 10.5% were 65 and over.[105] As of 2011[update] the median age was 35.6; more than a quarter of residents were under age 20 and 11% were over age 65.[106] Millennials (ages 18 through 34) constitute 27.1% of San Diego's population, the second-highest percentage in a major U.S. city.[107] The San Diego County regional planning agency, SANDAG, provides tables and graphs breaking down the city population into five-year age groups.[108] In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $35,199.[109] According to Forbes
Forbes
in 2005, San Diego was the fifth wealthiest U.S. city[110] but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.[109] San Diego was rated the fifth-best place to live in the United States
United States
in 2006 by Money magazine,[111] although it was no longer rated in the top 100 places by 2017.[112] As of January 1, 2008 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments
San Diego Association of Governments
revealed that the household median income for San Diego
San Diego
rose to $66,715, up from $45,733 in 2000.[113] San Diego
San Diego
was named the ninth-most LGBT-friendly city in the U.S. in 2013.[114] The city also has the seventh-highest percentage of gay residents in the U.S. Additionally in 2013, San Diego
San Diego
State University (SDSU), one of the city's prominent universities, was named one of the top LGBT-friendly campuses in the nation.[115] According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 22% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 32% professing Roman Catholic beliefs.[116][117] while 27% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 5% of the population. Economy Main article: Economy of San Diego The largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense/military, tourism, international trade, and research/manufacturing.[118][119] In 2014, San Diego
San Diego
was designated by a Forbes
Forbes
columnist as the best city in the country to launch a small business or startup company.[120] Defense and military

F/A-18 Hornet flying over San Diego
San Diego
and the USS John C. Stennis

The economy of San Diego
San Diego
is influenced by its deepwater port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast.[121] Several major national defense contractors were started and are headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic, and NASSCO.[122][123] San Diego
San Diego
hosts the largest naval fleet in the world:[124] In 2008 it was home to 53 ships, over 120 tenant commands, and more than 35,000 sailors, soldiers, Department of Defense civilian employees and contractors.[125] About 5 percent of all civilian jobs in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in San Diego County
San Diego County
rely on Department of Defense contracts.[125] Military bases in San Diego
San Diego
include US Navy facilities, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard stations. The city is "home to the majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface combatants, all of the Navy's West Coast amphibious ships and a variety of Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command vessels".[125][126] Tourism

View on the Harbor
Harbor
Drive

Tourism
Tourism
is a major industry owing to the city's climate, beaches, and tourist attractions such as Balboa Park, Belmont amusement park, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo
San Diego Zoo
Safari Park, and SeaWorld San Diego. San Diego's Spanish and Mexican heritage is reflected in many historic sites across the city, such as Mission San Diego de Alcala
Mission San Diego de Alcala
and Old Town San Diego
San Diego
State Historic Park. Also, the local craft brewing industry attracts an increasing number of visitors[127] for "beer tours" and the annual San Diego
San Diego
Beer Week in November;[128] San Diego has been called "America's Craft Beer Capital."[129] San Diego County
San Diego County
hosted more than 32 million visitors in 2012; collectively they spent an estimated $8 billion. The visitor industry provides employment for more than 160,000 people.[130] San Diego's cruise ship industry used to be the second-largest in California. Numerous cruise lines operate out of San Diego. However, cruise ship business has been in decline since 2008, when the Port hosted over 250 ship calls and more than 900,000 passengers. By 2016-2017 the number of ship calls had fallen to 90.[131] Local sight-seeing cruises are offered in San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
and Mission Bay, as well as whale-watching cruises to observe the migration of gray whales, peaking in mid-January.[132] Sport fishing
Sport fishing
is another popular tourist attraction; San Diego
San Diego
is home to southern California's biggest sport fishing fleet.[133] International trade San Diego's commercial port and its location on the United States– Mexico
Mexico
border make international trade an important factor in the city's economy. The city is authorized by the United States government to operate as a Foreign Trade Zone.[134] The city shares a 15-mile (24 km) border with Mexico
Mexico
that includes two border crossings. San Diego
San Diego
hosts the busiest international border crossing in the world, in the San Ysidro neighborhood at the San Ysidro Port of Entry.[135] A second, primarily commercial border crossing operates in the Otay Mesa
Mesa
area; it is the largest commercial crossing on the California-Baja California
California
border and handles the third-highest volume of trucks and dollar value of trade among all United States- Mexico
Mexico
land crossings.[136] One of the Port of San Diego's two cargo facilities is located in Downtown San Diego
Downtown San Diego
at the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. This terminal has facilities for containers, bulk cargo, and refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of many commodities.[137] In 2009 the Port of San Diego
Port of San Diego
handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade; foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tons.[138] Historically tuna fishing and canning was one of San Diego's major industries,[139] and although the American tuna fishing fleet is no longer based in San Diego, seafood companies Bumble Bee Foods
Bumble Bee Foods
and Chicken of the Sea are still headquartered there.[140][141] Companies

Qualcomm
Qualcomm
corporate headquarters

San Diego
San Diego
hosts several major producers of wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm
Qualcomm
was founded and is headquartered in San Diego, and is one of the largest private-sector employers in San Diego.[142] Other wireless industry manufacturers headquartered here include Nokia, LG Electronics,[143] Kyocera International,[144] Cricket Communications and Novatel Wireless.[145] The largest software company in San Diego
San Diego
is security software company Websense
Websense
Inc.[146] San Diego also has the U.S. headquarters for the Slovakian security company ESET.[147] San Diego
San Diego
has been designated as an iHub Innovation Center for potential collaboration between wireless and the life sciences.[148] The University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
and other research institutions have helped to fuel the growth of biotechnology.[149] In 2013, San Diego
San Diego
had the second-largest biotech cluster in the United States, below the Boston area and above the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area.[150] There are more than 400 biotechnology companies in the area.[151] In particular, the La Jolla
La Jolla
and nearby Sorrento Valley areas are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies.[152] Major biotechnology companies like Illumina and Neurocrine Biosciences
Neurocrine Biosciences
are headquartered in San Diego, while many other biotech and pharmaceutical companies have offices or research facilities in San Diego. San Diego
San Diego
is also home to more than 140 contract research organizations (CROs) that provide contract services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.[153] Top employers See also: List of companies headquartered in San Diego According to the City's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[154] the top employers in the city are:

Employer Employees

United States
United States
Navy 38,455

University of California, San Diego 29,986

Sharp HealthCare 17,807

County of San Diego 17,384

San Diego
San Diego
Unified School District 14,120

Qualcomm, Inc. 11,600

City of San Diego 11,387

Scripps Health 10,853

Kaiser Permanente 8,385

San Diego
San Diego
Community College District 5,580

Real estate

Skyline view of the Village of La Jolla
La Jolla
in San Diego

San Diego
San Diego
has high real estate prices. As of May 2015, the median price of a house was $520,000.[155] However, since February 2016, the median home price has dropped to $455,000.[156] The San Diego metropolitan area had one of the worst housing affordability rankings of all metropolitan areas in the United States.[157] Consequently, San Diego
San Diego
has experienced negative net migration since 2004. A significant number of people moved to adjacent Riverside County, commuting daily to jobs in San Diego, while others are leaving the region altogether and moving to more affordable regions.[158] San Diego
San Diego
home prices peaked in 2005, and then declined along with the national trend. As of December 2010, prices were down 36 percent from the peak.[159] The median home price declined by more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010.[160] Culture

The Museum of Man

Main article: Culture of San Diego See also: City of San Diego
San Diego
Commission for Arts and Culture Many popular museums, such as the San Diego
San Diego
Museum of Art, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego
San Diego
Museum of Man, the Museum of Photographic Arts, and the San Diego
San Diego
Air & Space Museum, are located in Balboa Park, which is also the location of the San Diego Zoo. The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego
Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego
(MCASD) is located in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot downtown. The downtown branch consists of two buildings on two opposite streets. The Columbia district downtown is home to historic ship exhibits belonging to the San Diego
San Diego
Maritime Museum, headlined by the Star of India, as well as the unrelated San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum
San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum
featuring the USS Midway aircraft carrier. The San Diego Symphony
San Diego Symphony
at Symphony Towers
Symphony Towers
performs on a regular basis; from 2004 to 2017 its director was Jahja Ling. The San Diego Opera at Civic Center Plaza, now directed by David Bennett, was ranked by Opera America as one of the top 10 opera companies in the United States. Old Globe Theatre at Balboa Park produces about 15 plays and musicals annually. The La Jolla
La Jolla
Playhouse at UCSD is directed by Christopher Ashley. Both the Old Globe Theatre
Old Globe Theatre
and the La Jolla
La Jolla
Playhouse have produced the world premieres of plays and musicals that have gone on to win Tony Awards[161] or nominations[162] on Broadway. The Joan B. Kroc Theatre at Kroc Center's Performing Arts Center is a 600-seat state-of-the-art theatre that hosts music, dance, and theatre performances. The San Diego Repertory Theatre at the Lyceum Theatres in Westfield Horton Plaza
Westfield Horton Plaza
produces a variety of plays and musicals. Hundreds of movies and a dozen TV shows have been filmed in San Diego, a tradition going back as far as 1898.[163] Sports Main article: Sports in San Diego Major League teams

Club Sport Since League Venue (capacity) Attendance

San Diego
San Diego
Padres Baseball 1969 Major League Baseball Petco Park
Petco Park
(41,200) 27,103

Minor League teams

Club Sport Since League Venue (capacity) Attendance

San Diego
San Diego
Gulls Ice hockey 2015 American Hockey League Valley View Casino Center
Valley View Casino Center
(12,920) 8,541

San Diego
San Diego
Seals Box lacrosse 2017 National Lacrosse League

San Diego
San Diego
1904 FC Soccer 2017 under negotiation Torero Stadium
Torero Stadium
(6,000)

San Diego
San Diego
Legion Rugby union 2018 Major League Rugby

College teams

Team Sport League Venue (capacity) Attendance

San Diego
San Diego
State Aztecs Football NCAA D-I (Mtn West) SDCCU Stadium
SDCCU Stadium
(54,000)[164] 49,053

San Diego
San Diego
State Aztecs Basketball NCAA D-I (Mtn West) Viejas Arena
Viejas Arena
(12,414) 12,414

San Diego
San Diego
Toreros Basketball NCAA D-I (West Coast) Jenny Craig Pavilion
Jenny Craig Pavilion
(5,100) 5,100

San Diego
San Diego
State Aztecs Soccer NCAA D-I (Mtn West) SDSU Sports Deck (1,000) 811

Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Stadium hosts a Chargers game against the St. Louis Rams.

San Diego
San Diego
is home to one major professional team—Major League Baseball's San Diego
San Diego
Padres, who play at Petco Park. From 1961 to the 2016 season, the team hosted a National Football League franchise, the San Diego
San Diego
Chargers. In 2017, they moved back to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and became the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Chargers.[165] In two separate stints, the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
had a franchise in San Diego, the San Diego Rockets
San Diego Rockets
from 1967 to 1971 and the San Diego Clippers
San Diego Clippers
from 1978 to 1984. The franchises moved to Houston and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
respectively. From 1972 to 1975, San Diego
San Diego
was home to an American Basketball Association team. First named the Conquistadors (a.k.a. "The Q's") the name was changed to the San Diego Sails
San Diego Sails
for the 1975–76 season, but the team folded before completing that campaign. In 2017 the San Diego 1904 FC
San Diego 1904 FC
club was organized as a proposed American professional Division II soccer team.[166] The club's founders include several major-league soccer players. They intend to build a soccer stadium in Oceanside, approximately 40 miles north of downtown San Diego, and will play at the University of San Diego's Torero Stadium
Torero Stadium
in the meantime.[167] The team was originally announced to make its debut in the North American Soccer
Soccer
League in 2018.[168] However, due to the cancellation of the 2018 NASL season, the expansion team is negotiating an agreement to join the United Soccer League in 2019.[169] San Diego
San Diego
hosts three NCAA universities: San Diego
San Diego
State University; University of California, San Diego; and University of San Diego. NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs
San Diego State Aztecs
men's and women's basketball games are played at Viejas Arena. Other prominent Aztec sports include college football, as well as soccer, basketball and volleyball. The San Diego State Aztecs
San Diego State Aztecs
(MWC) and the San Diego Toreros
San Diego Toreros
(WCC) are NCAA Division I teams. The UCSD Tritons are members of NCAA Division II. San Diego
San Diego
has hosted several sports events. Three NFL Super Bowl championships have been held at San Diego County
San Diego County
Credit Union (SDCCU) Stadium. Two of college football's annual bowl games are also held at SDCCU Stadium: the Holiday Bowl
Holiday Bowl
and the Poinsettia Bowl. Parts of the World Baseball
Baseball
Classic were played at Petco Park
Petco Park
in 2006 and 2009.

Petco Park
Petco Park
in 2006

SDCCU Stadium
SDCCU Stadium
also hosts international soccer games and supercross events. Soccer, American football, and track and field are also played in Balboa Stadium, the city's first stadium, constructed in 1914.[170] Rugby union
Rugby union
is a developing sport in the city. The San Diego
San Diego
Breakers played at Torero Stadium
Torero Stadium
in the only PRO Rugby season before the league folded. The USA Sevens, a major international rugby event, was held there from 2007 through 2009. San Diego
San Diego
is represented by Old Mission Beach Athletic Club RFC,[171] the former home club of USA Rugby's former Captain Todd Clever.[172] San Diego
San Diego
participated in the Western American National Rugby League
Western American National Rugby League
between 2011 and 2013.[173] The San Diego Surf
San Diego Surf
of the American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association
is located in the city. The annual Farmers Insurance Open
Farmers Insurance Open
golf tournament (formerly the Buick Invitational) on the PGA Tour
PGA Tour
occurs at Torrey Pines Golf Course. This course was also the site of the 2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship. The San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club
hosted the America's Cup yacht races three times during the period 1988 to 1995. The amateur beach sport Over-the-line
Over-the-line
was invented in San Diego,[174] and the annual world Over-the-line
Over-the-line
championships are held at Mission Bay every year.[175] Government Local government See also: Mayor of San Diego, San Diego
San Diego
City Council, and Government of San Diego
San Diego
County

Mayor Kevin Faulconer

The city is governed by a mayor and a nine-member city council. In 2006, its government changed from a council–manager government to a strong mayor government, as decided by a citywide vote in 2004. The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body.[176] The City of San Diego
San Diego
is responsible for police, public safety, streets, water and sewer service, planning and zoning, and similar services within its borders. San Diego
San Diego
is a sanctuary city,[177] however, San Diego County
San Diego County
is a participant of the Secure Communities program.[178][179] As of 2011[update], the city had one employee for every 137 residents, with a payroll greater than $733 million.[180]

San Diego City Council
San Diego City Council
chambers

The members of the city council are each elected from single-member districts within the city. The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit.[181] Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans. In 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city,[182] and Democrats currently (as of 2017[update]) hold a 5–4 majority in the city council. The current mayor, Kevin Faulconer, is a Republican. San Diego
San Diego
is part of San Diego
San Diego
County, and includes all or part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts of the San Diego
San Diego
County Board of Supervisors,[183] Other county officers elected in part by city residents include the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor/Recorder/County Clerk, and Treasurer/Tax Collector. Areas of the city immediately adjacent to San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
("tidelands") are administered by the Port of San Diego, a quasi-governmental agency which owns all the property in the tidelands and is responsible for its land use planning, policing, and similar functions. San Diego
San Diego
is a member of the regional planning agency San Diego
San Diego
Association of Governments (SANDAG). Public schools within the city are managed and funded by independent school districts (see below). State and federal representation In the California
California
State Senate, San Diego County
San Diego County
encompasses the 38th, 39th and 40th districts,[184] represented by Joel Anderson
Joel Anderson
(R), Toni Atkins (D), and Ben Hueso
Ben Hueso
(D), respectively. In the California
California
State Assembly, lying partially within the city of San Diego
San Diego
are the 77th, 78th, 79th, and 80th districts,[185] represented by Brian Maienschein (R), Todd Gloria
Todd Gloria
(D), Shirley Weber (D), and Lorena Gonzalez Fletcher
Lorena Gonzalez Fletcher
(D), respectively. In the United States
United States
House of Representatives, San Diego
San Diego
County includes parts or all of California's 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, and 53rd congressional districts,[186] represented by Darrell Issa
Darrell Issa
(R), Duncan D. Hunter (R), Juan Vargas
Juan Vargas
(D), Scott Peters (D), and Susan Davis (D), respectively. Major scandals San Diego
San Diego
was the site of the 1912 San Diego
San Diego
free speech fight, in which the city restricted speech, vigilantes brutalized and tortured anarchists, and the San Diego Police Department
San Diego Police Department
killed a member of the Industrial Workers of the World
Industrial Workers of the World
(IWW). In 1916, rainmaker Charles Hatfield was blamed for $4 million in damages and accused of causing San Diego's worst flood, during which about 20 Japanese American
Japanese American
farmers died.[187] Then-mayor Roger Hedgecock
Roger Hedgecock
was forced to resign his post in 1985, after he was found guilty of one count of conspiracy and 12 counts of perjury, related to the alleged failure to report all campaign contributions.[188][189] After a series of appeals, the 12 perjury counts were dismissed in 1990 based on claims of juror misconduct; the remaining conspiracy count was reduced to a misdemeanor and then dismissed.[190] A 2002 scheme to underfund pensions for city employees led to the San Diego pension scandal. This resulted in the resignation of newly re-elected Mayor Dick Murphy[191] and the criminal indictment of six pension board members.[192] Those charges were finally dismissed by a federal judge in 2010.[193] On November 28, 2005, U.S. Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham resigned after being convicted on federal bribery charges. He had represented California's 50th congressional district, which includes much of the northern portion of the city of San Diego. In 2006, Cunningham was sentenced to a 100-month prison sentence.[194] He was released in 2013. In 2005 two city council members, Ralph Inzunza and Deputy Mayor Michael Zucchet – who briefly took over as acting mayor when Murphy resigned – were convicted of extortion, wire fraud, and conspiracy to commit wire fraud for taking campaign contributions from a strip club owner and his associates, allegedly in exchange for trying to repeal the city's "no touch" laws at strip clubs.[195] Both subsequently resigned. Inzunza was sentenced to 21 months in prison.[196] In 2009, a judge acquitted Zucchet on seven out of the nine counts against him, and granted his petition for a new trial on the other two charges;[197] the remaining charges were eventually dropped.[198] In July 2013, three former supporters of mayor Bob Filner
Bob Filner
asked him to resign because of allegations of repeated sexual harassment.[199] Over the ensuing six weeks, 18 women came forward to publicly claim that Filner had sexually harassed them,[200] and multiple individuals and groups called for him to resign. Filner agreed to resign effective August 30, 2013, subsequently pleaded guilty to one felony count of false imprisonment and two misdemeanor battery charges, and was sentenced to house arrest and probation.[201][202] Crime

San Diego Police Department
San Diego Police Department
car in the city center

San Diego
San Diego
was ranked as the 20th-safest city in America in 2013 by Business Insider.[203] According to Forbes
Forbes
magazine, San Diego
San Diego
was the ninth-safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the U.S. in 2010.[204] Like most major cities, San Diego
San Diego
had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000. Crime in San Diego
San Diego
increased in the early 2000s.[205][206][207] In 2004, San Diego
San Diego
had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents.[207] From 2002 to 2006, the crime rate overall dropped 0.8%, though not evenly by category. While violent crime decreased 12.4% during this period, property crime increased 1.1%. Total property crimes per 100,000 people were lower than the national average in 2008.[208] According to Uniform Crime Report
Uniform Crime Report
statistics compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 2010, there were 5,616 violent crimes and 30,753 property crimes. Of these, the violent crimes consisted of forcible rapes, 73 robberies and 170 aggravated assaults, while 6,387 burglaries, 17,977 larceny-thefts, 6,389 motor vehicle thefts and 155 acts of arson defined the property offenses.[209] In 2013, San Diego
San Diego
had the lowest murder rate of the ten largest cities in the United States.[210] Education Main article: Primary and secondary schools in San Diego Public schools in San Diego
San Diego
are operated by independent school districts. The majority of the public schools in the city are served by the San Diego
San Diego
Unified School District, the second-largest school district in California, which includes 11 K-8 schools, 107 elementary schools, 24 middle schools, 13 atypical and alternative schools, 28 high schools, and 45 charter schools.[211]

San Diego
San Diego
State University's Hepner Hall

Several adjacent school districts which are headquartered outside the city limits serve some schools within the city; these include the Poway
Poway
Unified School District, Del Mar Union School District, San Dieguito Union High School District and Sweetwater Union High School District. In addition, there are a number of private schools in the city. Colleges and universities According to education rankings released by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2006, 40.4 percent of San Diegans ages 25 and older hold bachelor's degrees. The census ranks the city as the ninth-most educated city in the United States
United States
based on these figures.[212] Public colleges and universities in the city include San Diego
San Diego
State University (SDSU), University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
(UCSD), and the San Diego
San Diego
Community College District, which includes San Diego
San Diego
City College, San Diego
San Diego
Mesa
Mesa
College, and San Diego
San Diego
Miramar College. Private colleges and universities in the city include University of San Diego
San Diego
(USD), Point Loma
Point Loma
Nazarene University (PLNU), Alliant International University (AIU), National University, California International Business University (CIBU), San Diego
San Diego
Christian College, John Paul the Great Catholic University, California
California
College San Diego, Coleman University, University of Redlands
University of Redlands
School of Business, Design Institute of San Diego
San Diego
(DISD), Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's San Diego
San Diego
campus, NewSchool of Architecture and Design, Pacific Oaks College
Pacific Oaks College
San Diego
San Diego
Campus, Chapman University's San Diego
San Diego
Campus, The Art Institute of California
California
– San Diego, Platt College, Southern States University (SSU), UEI College, and Woodbury University School of Architecture's satellite campus. There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. There are three ABA accredited law schools in the city, which include California
California
Western School of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, and University of San Diego
University of San Diego
School of Law. There is also one law school, Western Sierra Law School, not accredited by the ABA.

Libraries

University of California, San Diego's Geisel Library, named for Theodor Seuss Geisel ("Dr. Seuss")

The city-run San Diego Public Library
San Diego Public Library
system is headquartered downtown and has 36 branches throughout the city.[213] The newest location is in Skyline Hills, which broke ground in 2015.[214] The libraries have had reduced operating hours since 2003 due to the city's financial problems. In 2006 the city increased spending on libraries by $2.1 million.[215] A new nine-story Central Library on Park Boulevard at J Street opened on September 30, 2013.[216] In addition to the municipal public library system, there are nearly two dozen libraries open to the public run by other governmental agencies, and by schools, colleges, and universities.[217] Noteworthy are the Malcolm A. Love Library
Malcolm A. Love Library
at San Diego
San Diego
State University, and the Geisel Library
Geisel Library
at the University of California, San Diego. Media See also: Media in San Diego Published within the city are the daily newspaper, The San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune and its online portal of the same name,[218] and the alternative newsweeklies, the San Diego CityBeat
San Diego CityBeat
and San Diego
San Diego
Reader. Times of San Diego is a free online newspaper covering news in the metropolitan area. Voice of San Diego is a non-profit online news outlet covering government, politics, education, neighborhoods, and the arts. The San Diego
San Diego
Daily Transcript is a business-oriented online newspaper. San Diego
San Diego
led U.S. local markets with 69.6 percent broadband penetration in 2004 according to Nielsen//NetRatings.[219] San Diego's first television station was KFMB, which began broadcasting on May 16, 1949.[220] Since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensed seven television stations in Los Angeles, two VHF
VHF
channels were available for San Diego
San Diego
because of its relative proximity to the larger city. In 1952, however, the FCC began licensing UHF
UHF
channels, making it possible for cities such as San Diego to acquire more stations. Stations based in Mexico
Mexico
(with ITU prefixes of XE and XH) also serve the San Diego
San Diego
market. Television stations today include XHTJB 3 (Once TV), XETV 6 (Canal 5), KFMB 8 (CBS, with CW on DT2), KGTV
KGTV
10 (ABC), XEWT 12 ( Televisa
Televisa
Regional), KPBS 15 (PBS), KBNT-CD
KBNT-CD
17 (Univision), XHTIT-TDT 21 (Azteca 7), XHJK-TDT 27 (Azteca 13), XHAS 33 (Telemundo), K35DG-D
K35DG-D
35 (UCSD-TV), KDTF-LD 51 (Telefutura), KNSD
KNSD
39 (NBC), KZSD-LP
KZSD-LP
41 (Azteca America), KSEX-CD 42 (Infomercials), XHBJ-TDT 45 (Gala TV), XHDTV 49 (MNTV), KUSI 51 (Independent), XHUAA-TDT
XHUAA-TDT
57 (Canal de las Estrellas), and KSWB-TV
KSWB-TV
69 (Fox). San Diego
San Diego
has an 80.6 percent cable penetration rate.[221] Due to the ratio of U.S. and Mexican-licensed stations, San Diego
San Diego
is the largest media market in the United States
United States
that is legally unable to support a television station duopoly between two full-power stations under FCC regulations, which disallow duopolies in metropolitan areas with fewer than nine full-power television stations and require that there must be eight unique station owners that remain once a duopoly is formed (there are only seven full-power stations on the California
California
side of the San Diego- Tijuana
Tijuana
market).[222] Though the E. W. Scripps Company
E. W. Scripps Company
owns KGTV
KGTV
and KZSD-LP, they are not considered a duopoly under the FCC's legal definition as common ownership between full-power and low-power television stations in the same market is permitted regardless to the number of stations licensed to the area. As a whole, the Mexico
Mexico
side of the San Diego- Tijuana
Tijuana
market has two duopolies and one triopoly ( Entravision Communications
Entravision Communications
owns both XHAS-TV
XHAS-TV
and XHDTV-TV, Azteca owns XHJK-TV and XHTIT-TV, and Grupo Televisa
Televisa
owns XHUAA-TV
XHUAA-TV
and XHWT-TV
XHWT-TV
along with being the license holder for XETV-TV, which was formerly managed by California-based subsidiary Bay City Television). San Diego's television market is limited to only San Diego
San Diego
county. The Imperial Valley
Imperial Valley
has its own market (which also extends into western Arizona), while neighboring Orange and Riverside counties are part of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
market. (Sometimes in the past, a missing network affiliate in the Imperial Valley
Imperial Valley
would be available on cable TV from San Diego.) The radio stations in San Diego
San Diego
include nationwide broadcaster, iHeartMedia; CBS
CBS
Radio, Midwest Television, Entercom Communications, Finest City Broadcasting, and many other smaller stations and networks. Stations include: KOGO AM 600, KFMB AM 760, KCEO AM 1000, KCBQ
KCBQ
AM 1170, K-Praise, KLSD AM 1360 Air America, KFSD 1450 AM, KPBS-FM
KPBS-FM
89.5, Channel 933, Star 94.1, FM 94/9, FM News and Talk
Talk
95.7, Q96 96.1, KyXy 96.5, Free Radio San Diego (AKA Pirate Radio San Diego) 96.9FM FRSD, KEGY 97.3, KXSN
KXSN
98.1, Jack-FM 100.7, 101.5 KGB-FM, KLVJ 102.1, KSON 103.7, Rock 105.3, and another Pirate Radio station at 106.9FM, as well as a number of local Spanish-language radio stations. Infrastructure Utilities Water is supplied to residents by the Water Department of the City of San Diego. The city receives most of its water from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. Gas and electric utilities are provided by San Diego
San Diego
Gas & Electric, a division of Sempra Energy. Street lights In the mid-20th century the city had mercury vapor street lamps. In 1978, the city decided to replace them with more efficient sodium vapor lamps. This triggered an outcry from astronomers at Palomar Observatory 60 miles (97 km) north of the city, concerned that the new lamps would increase light pollution and hinder astronomical observation.[223] The city altered its lighting regulations to limit light pollution within 30 miles (48 km) of Palomar.[224] In 2011, the city announced plans to upgrade 80% of its street lighting to new energy-efficient lights that use induction technology, a modified form of fluorescent lamp producing a broader spectrum than sodium vapor lamps. The new system is predicted to save $2.2 million per year in energy and maintenance.[225] The city stated the changes would "make our neighborhoods safer."[225] They also increase light pollution.[226] In 2014, San Diego
San Diego
announced plans to become the first U.S. city to install cyber-controlled street lighting, using an "intelligent" lighting system to control 3,000 LED street lights.[227] Transportation Main articles: Transportation in San Diego
Transportation in San Diego
and Streets and highways of San Diego

I-5 looking south toward downtown San Diego

With the automobile being the primary means of transportation for over 80 percent of residents, San Diego
San Diego
is served by a network of freeways and highways. This includes Interstate 5, which runs south to Tijuana and north to Los Angeles; Interstate 8, which runs east to Imperial County and the Arizona
Arizona
Sun Corridor; Interstate 15, which runs northeast through the Inland Empire
Inland Empire
to Las Vegas
Las Vegas
and Salt Lake City; and Interstate 805, which splits from I-5 near the Mexican border and rejoins I-5 at Sorrento Valley. Major state highways include SR 94, which connects downtown with I-805, I-15 and East County; SR 163, which connects downtown with the northeast part of the city, intersects I-805 and merges with I-15 at Miramar; SR 52, which connects La Jolla
La Jolla
with East County
East County
through Santee and SR 125; SR 56, which connects I-5 with I-15 through Carmel Valley and Rancho Peñasquitos; SR 75, which spans San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay
as the San Diego-Coronado Bridge, and also passes through South San Diego as Palm Avenue; and SR 905, which connects I-5 and I-805 to the Otay Mesa
Mesa
Port of Entry. The stretch of SR 163 that passes through Balboa Park is San Diego's oldest freeway, and has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways.[228] San Diego's roadway system provides an extensive network of cycle routes. Its dry and mild climate makes cycling a convenient year-round option; however, the city's hilly terrain and long average trip distances make cycling less practicable. Older and denser neighborhoods around the downtown tend to be oriented to utility cycling. This is partly because of the grid street patterns now absent in newer developments farther from the urban core, where suburban style arterial roads are much more common. As a result, a majority of cycling is recreational. In 2006, San Diego
San Diego
was rated the best city (with a population over 1 million) for cycling in the U.S.[229]

View of Coronado and San Diego
San Diego
from the air

San Diego
San Diego
is served by the San Diego Trolley
San Diego Trolley
light rail system,[230] by the SDMTS bus system,[231] and by Coaster[232] and Amtrak Pacific Surfliner[233] commuter rail; northern San Diego county
San Diego county
is also served by the Sprinter light rail line.[234] The trolley primarily serves downtown and surrounding urban communities, Mission Valley, east county, and coastal south bay. A planned mid-coast extension of the Trolley will operate from Old Town to University City and the University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Diego
along the I-5 Freeway, with planned operation by 2018. The Amtrak and Coaster trains currently run along the coastline and connect San Diego
San Diego
with Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura via Metrolink and the Pacific Surfliner. There are two Amtrak stations in San Diego, in Old Town and the Santa Fe Depot downtown. San Diego
San Diego
transit information about public transportation and commuting is available on the Web and by dialing "511" from any phone in the area.[235] The city has two major commercial airports within or near its city limits. Downtown San Diego
Downtown San Diego
International Airport (SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field, is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States.[236] It served over 17 million passengers in 2005, and is dealing with larger numbers every year.[236] It is located on San Diego Bay, three miles (4.8 km) from downtown, and maintains scheduled flights to the rest of the United States
United States
(including Hawaii), as well as to Canada, Mexico, Japan, and the United Kingdom. It is operated by an independent agency, the San Diego
San Diego
Regional Airport Authority. Tijuana
Tijuana
International Airport has a terminal within the city limits in the Otay Mesa
Mesa
district connected to the rest of the airport in Tijuana, Mexico
Mexico
via the Cross Border Xpress
Cross Border Xpress
cross-border footbridge. It is the primary airport for flights to the rest of Mexico, and offers connections via Mexico
Mexico
City to the rest of Latin America. In addition, the city has two general-aviation airports, Montgomery Field
Montgomery Field
(MYF) and Brown Field (SDM).[237]

Cross Border Xpress
Cross Border Xpress
bridge from the terminal in San Diego
San Diego
on the right to the main terminal of Tijuana
Tijuana
Airport on the left

Recent regional transportation projects have sought to mitigate congestion, including improvements to local freeways, expansion of San Diego Airport, and doubling the capacity of the cruise ship terminal. Freeway projects included expansion of Interstates 5 and 805 around "The Merge" where these two freeways meet, as well as expansion of Interstate 15 through North County, which includes new high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) "managed lanes". A tollway (the southern portion of SR 125, known as the South Bay Expressway) connects SR 54 and Otay Mesa, near the Mexican border. According to an assessment in 2007, 37 percent of city streets were in acceptable condition. However, the proposed budget fell $84.6 million short of bringing streets up to an acceptable level.[238] Expansion at the port has included a second cruise terminal on Broadway Pier, opened in 2010. Airport projects include expansion of Terminal Two.[239] Notable people Main article: List of people from San Diego Sister cities San Diego
San Diego
has 17 sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[240]

Alcalá de Henares, Spain Campinas, Brazil Cúcuta, Colombia Cavite City, Philippines Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom[241][242] Jalalabad, Afghanistan Jeonju, South Korea León, Mexico Perth, Australia Quanzhou, China[243] Taichung City, Taiwan Tema, Ghana Tijuana, Mexico Vladivostok, Russia Warsaw, Poland[244] Yantai, China Yokohama, Japan[245]

See also

1858 San Diego
San Diego
hurricane

California
California
portal New Spain
Spain
portal San Diego County
San Diego County
portal San Diego–Tijuana
San Diego–Tijuana
portal

Notes

^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official precipitation records for San Diego
San Diego
were kept at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown from October 1850 to December 1859 at the Mission San Diego
Mission San Diego
and from November 1871 to June 1939 and a variety of buildings at downtown, and at San Diego
San Diego
Int'l (Lindbergh Field) since July 1939.[78] Temperature records, however, only date from October 1874. For more information on data coverage, see ThreadEx

References

^ " California
California
Cities by Incorporation Date". California
California
Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.  ^ "City of San Diego
San Diego
City Charter, Article XV" (PDF). City of San Diego. Retrieved November 5, 2014.  ^ "Mayor Kevin L. Faulconer". The City of San Diego. Retrieved October 16, 2014.  ^ "Office of the City Attorney". The City of San Diego. Retrieved December 14, 2016.  ^ "City Council Offices". City of San Diego. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2017.  ^ "City of San Diego". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 16, 2014.  ^ a b "San Diego: Geography and Climate". city-data.com. Retrieved October 16, 2014.  ^ a b "American FactFinder – Results ( San Diego
San Diego
city, California)". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2017.  ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ "ZIP code(tm) Lookup". United States
United States
Postal Service. Retrieved November 19, 2014.  ^ America: metropolitan areas. World Gazetteer. 2011. Archived from the original on November 19, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2012.  ^ McGrew, Clarence Alan (1922). City of San Diego
San Diego
and San Diego County: the birthplace of California. American Historical Society. Retrieved July 23, 2011.  ^ Gallegos, Dennis R. (editor). 1987. San Dieguito-La Jolla: Chronology and Controversy. San Diego County
San Diego County
Archaeological Society, Research Paper No. 1. ^ Gallegos, Dennis R. 2017. First People: A Revised Chronology for San Diego County. StorySeekers, San Diego. ^ "Kumeyaay indians". kumeyaay.info. Retrieved July 1, 2010. [unreliable source?] ^ "Lesson Plan: For the Last 10,000 Years..." (PDF). National Estuarine Research Reserves via NOAA. Retrieved July 27, 2012.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Historical Society". Sandiegohistory.org. Retrieved March 12, 2011.  ^ Mills, James (October 1967). "San Diego...Where California
California
Began". Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History. Sandiegohistory.org. 13 (4). Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2017.  ^ Pourade, Richard F. 1960. The History of San Diego: The Explorers. Union-Tribune Publishing Company, San Diego. ^ Ide, Arthur Frederick (Fall 1976). "San Diego: The Saint and the City". Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History. 22 (4).  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Historical Society: Timeline of San Diego
Timeline of San Diego
history". Sandiegohistory.org. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ "Keyfacts". missionscalifornia.com. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "Mission San Diego". Mission San Diego. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "National Park Service, National Historical Landmarks Program: San Diego Presidio". Tps.cr.nps.gov. October 10, 1960. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ " Timeline of San Diego
Timeline of San Diego
History". sandiegohistory.org.  ^ Griswold del Castillo, Richard (Winter 2003). "The U.S.-Mexican War in San Diego, 1846–1847". SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY. The Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History.  ^ Griswold de Castillo 1990, p. 39 ^ "A History of San Diego
History of San Diego
Government". Office of the City Clerk. City of San Diego. Retrieved May 27, 2014.  ^ "City of San Diego
San Diego
website". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Basil C. Pearce, The Jackass Mail—San Antonio and San Diego
San Diego
Mail Line, The Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History, San Diego
San Diego
Historical Society Quarterly, Spring 1969, Volume 15, Number 2 ^ a b Engstrand 2005, p. 80 ^ Steele, Jeanette (May 1, 2005). "Balboa Park future is full of repair jobs". The San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Marjorie Betts Shaw. "The San Diego
San Diego
Zoological Garden: A Foundation to Build on". Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History. Sandiegohistory.org. 24 (3, Summer 1978). Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ Pourade, Richard F. (1977). "5: A Fiesta - Reliving the days of the dons". City of the Dream 1940–1970. Copley Press.  ^ Perry, Tony (March 5, 2014). "Balboa Park centennial event organizers end efforts". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved April 8, 2014.  ^ "Historic California
California
Posts: Fort Rosecrans". California
California
State Military Museum. Archived from the original on July 14, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2012.  ^ University of San Diego: Military Bases in San Diego
San Diego
Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Gerald A. Shepherd. "When the Lone Eagle returned to San Diego". Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History. Sandiegohistory.org. 40 (s. 1 and 2, Winter 1992). Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ "Consolidated Aircraft/ Convair
Convair
Online Exhibition". San Diego
San Diego
Air & Space Museum. Retrieved September 22, 2014.  ^ a b Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 54. ^ Naomi Baumslag, Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus, 2005, p.207 ^ "Weapons of Mass Destruction: Plague as Biological Weapons Agent". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved December 21, 2014.  ^ Amy Stewart (April 25, 2011). "Where To Find The World's Most 'Wicked Bugs': Fleas". National Public Radio.  ^ Russell Working (June 5, 2001). "The trial of Unit 731". The Japan Times.  ^ "Milken Institute". Milken Institute. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
History Center Honors San Diego's Tuna
Tuna
Fishing Industry at Annual Gala". San Diego
San Diego
History Center. Retrieved September 1, 2012.  ^ Felando, August & Medina, Harold (Winter–Spring 2012). "The Origins of California's High-Seas Tuna
Tuna
Fleet". The Journal of San Diego History. San Diego
San Diego
History Center. 58 (1 & 2): 5–8, 18. ISSN 0022-4383.  ^ Lechowitzky, Irene (November 19, 2006). "It's the old country, with new condos". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved September 1, 2012.  ^ Crawford, Richard (June 20, 2009). " San Diego
San Diego
once was ' Tuna
Tuna
Capital of World'". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved September 1, 2012.  ^ Erie, Steven P.; Kogan, Vladimir; MacKenzi, Scott A. (January 27, 2010). "Redevelopment, San Diego
San Diego
Style: The Limits of Public–Private Partnerships". Urban Affairs Review. 45 (5): 644–678. doi:10.1177/1078087409359760. Retrieved November 4, 2010. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Marshall, Monte. "The Geology and Tectonic Setting of San Diego
San Diego
Bay, and That of the Peninsular Ranges
Peninsular Ranges
and Salton Trough, Southern California". Phil Farquharson. Retrieved July 13, 2012.  ^ "Canyon Enhancement Planning Guide" (PDF). San Diego
San Diego
Canyonlands. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2012.  ^ Schad, Jerry. Afoot and Afield in San Diego. Wilderness Press, Berkeley, Calif. p. 111. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ a b "EXPEDITIONS BY SEA." THE EXPLORERS. Trans. Richard F. Pourade. La Jolla: Copley, 1960. 64-72. Print. ^ Janet R. Fireman and Manuel P. Servín, "Miguel Costansó: California's Forgotten Founder." California
California
Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 1, March 1970, pp. 3–19. ^ "Report: San Diego
San Diego
has 9th best parks among survey of 50 U.S. cities" Archived November 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. June 6, 2013. ABC 10 News. Retrieved on July 18, 2013. ^ "City of San Diego
San Diego
Community Planning Areas". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ Aitken, Stuart, and Prosser, Rudy (September 3, 2010). "Residents' Spatial Knowledge of Neighborhood Continuity and Form', Geographical Analysis". Geographical Analysis. 22: 301–325. doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1990.tb00213.x. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Roger Showley (April 18, 2010). "City, SANDAG win planning awards". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Timeline Diagram". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved May 31, 2011.  ^ "One America Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved May 16, 2009.  ^ "Airport Land Use Compatibility Plan for San Diego
San Diego
International Airport" (PDF). San Diego County
San Diego County
Regional Airport Authority. October 4, 2004. pp. 51–52. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 30, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2009.  ^ Bergman, Heather (June 27, 2005). "San Diego's skyline grows up: residential towers filling some of the missing 'tools' as office projects are nearing completion". San Diego
San Diego
Business Journal. The Heritage Group. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2012.  ^ Geiger, Peter (October 5, 2006). "The 10 Best Weather Cities". Farmer's Almanac. Almanac Publishing. Retrieved April 19, 2011.  ^ Kellogg, Becky & Erdman, Jonathan (September 2010). "America's Best Climates". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2011.  ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved July 9, 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Atlas of the Biodiversity of California. California
California
Department of Fish and Game Archived November 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. p.15. ^ Francisco Pugnaire and Fernando Valladares eds. Functional Plant Ecology. 2d ed. 2007. p.287. ^ Michael Allaby, Martyn Bramwell, Jamie Stokes, eds. Weather and Climate: An Illustrated Guide to Science. 2006. p.182. ^ Michalski, Greg et al. First Measurements and Modeling of ∆17O in atmospheric nitrate Archived July 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 16. p.3. 2003. ^ "UCSD". Meteora.ucsd.edu. May 14, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "Monthly Averages for San Diego, CA". The Weather Channel. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "Monthly Averages for El Cajon, CA". The Weather Channel. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Lee, Mike (June 18, 2011). "Is global warming changing California Current?". U-T ( San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune). Retrieved June 20, 2011.  ^ "San Diego's average rainfall set to lower level". San Diego Union-Tribune. March 16, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2011.  ^ Rowe, Peter (December 13, 2007). "The day it snowed in San Diego". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ Conner, Glen. History of weather observations San Diego, California 1849–1948. Climate Database Modernization Program, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. pp. 7–8. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 11 April 2016.  ^ "Station Name: CA San Diego
San Diego
Lindbergh FLD". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ "San Diego/Lindbergh Field CA Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ Pryde, Philip R. 2014. "The Nature of the County: San Diego's Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife". In: San Diego: An Introduction to the Region, by Philip R. Pryde, pp. 29-45. 5th ed. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego. ^ Wells, Michael L.; John F. O'Leary, Janet Franklin, Joel Michaelsen, and David E. McKinsey (November 2, 2004). "Variations in a regional fire regime related to vegetation type in San Diego
San Diego
County, California (USA)". Landscape Ecology. San Diego, CA 92182-4493, USA: Springer Netherlands. 19 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1023/B:LAND.0000021713.81489.a7. 1572-9761. Retrieved April 22, 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Strömberg, Nicklas; Michael Hogan (November 29, 2008). "Torrey Pine: Pinus torreyana". GlobalTwitcher. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "Tecolote Canyon Natural Park & Nature Center". The City of San Diego. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "Marian Bear Memorial Park". The City of San Diego. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Lee, Mike (March 28, 2007). "White House seeks limits to species act". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ " San Diego County
San Diego County
Bird Atlas Project". San Diego
San Diego
Natural History Museum. Retrieved June 20, 2014.  ^ "Corpus Christi Recognized as Birdiest City". Corpus Christi Daily. December 2004. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2011.  ^ "Corpus Christi remains 'birdiest city in America'". Corpus Christi Convention and Visitors Bureau. June 25, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2011.  ^ Goldstein, Bruce Evan (September 2007). "The Futility of Reason: Incommensurable Differences Between Sustainability Narratives in the Aftermath of the 2003 San Diego
San Diego
Cedar Fire". Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning. Blacksburg, USA: School of Public and International Affairs, Virginia Tech. 9 (3 & 4): 227–244. doi:10.1080/15239080701622766. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "CalFire website". Fire.ca.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Viswanathan, S.; L. Eria, N. Diunugala, J. Johnson, C. McClean (January 2006). "An Analysis of Effects of San Diego
San Diego
Wildfire
Wildfire
on Ambient Air Quality". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 56 (1). Archived from the original on December 27, 2008. Retrieved December 15, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Manolatos, Tony (October 22, 2007). "Wildfires seen as eclipsing the Cedar fire of 2003". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Signonsandiego.com. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ United States
United States
Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved April 27, 2015.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
(city), California". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012.  ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference census was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b From 15% sample ^ Census: 1,307,402 Live in San Diego
San Diego
(March 8, 2011). "Voice of San Diego, March 8, 2011". Voiceofsandiego.org. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ " San Diego
San Diego
(city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2010.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
(city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". census.gov. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012.  ^ "San Diego, CA Census Profile". USA Today. March 8, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011.  ^ a b Patricia A. Cruise (December 26, 2012). "City's homeless problem still needs attention". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2012.  ^ Steele, Jeanette (July 22, 2016). "Progress on housing homeless veterans?". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved December 3, 2016.  ^ "Census Quick Facts, City of San Diego". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "Population". City of San Diego. March 1, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2016.  ^ Lipkin, Michael (March 3, 2016). " San Diego
San Diego
Has Nation's Second-Largest Millennial Population". San Diego
San Diego
Business Journal. Retrieved March 4, 2016.  ^ "SANDAG document". Google. Retrieved July 1, 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ a b " San Diego
San Diego
city, California". United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Clemence, Sara (October 28, 2005). "Richest Cities in the U.S." Forbes. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "Best Places to Live 2006". Money. 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2009.  ^ "Best Places to Live 2017". Money. 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.  ^ "Population and Housing Estimates" (PDF). SANDAG: Profile Warehouse. 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Divya - NerdWallet.com (May 30, 2013). "NerdWallet names America's most gay-friendly cities San Diego
San Diego
Gay and Lesbian News". Sdgln.com. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ " San Diego State University
San Diego State University
Campus Pride The leading national organization for LGBT student leaders and campus groups". Campus Pride. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.  ^ "City of San Diego
San Diego
website: Economic Development". Sandiego.gov. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.  ^ Powell, Ronald W. (October 17, 2007). " Tourism
Tourism
district OK'd by council". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Post, Tom (March 13, 2014). "The Best Places To Launch A Startup In 2014". Forbes. Retrieved June 15, 2015.  ^ Ronald D. White (July 3, 2011). "Full steam ahead for Nassco shipyard in San Diego". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved September 1, 2012.  ^ "S.D. companies dominate defense industry rankings". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. August 11, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2012.  ^ "San Diego" (PDF). San Diego Convention Center
San Diego Convention Center
Corporation. City of San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012. Several major defense contractors are also headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic and NASSCO.  ^ Eric Terrill; Julia Thomas, Anne Footer. "Submitted in response to Federal Funding Opportunity: FY 2011 Implementation of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS)" (PDF). Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved April 21, 2011.  ^ a b c " Naval Base San Diego
Naval Base San Diego
Thanks Navy League for Support". U.S. Department of the Navy. Retrieved April 7, 2011.  ^ Tierney Plumb (August 24, 2012). " San Diego
San Diego
companies lead state in '11 defense contracts". San Diego
San Diego
Daily Transcript. Retrieved September 1, 2012. San Diego
San Diego
houses the largest concentration of military in the world; it is the homeport to more than 60 percent of the ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet and more than one-third of the combat power of the U.S. Marine Corps.  ^ Dickerman, Sara (May 25, 2012). "Beyond San Diego's Surf and Sun: Suds". New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2012.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Kicks Off First-Ever Beer Week". The Full Pint. August 17, 2009. Retrieved May 30, 2012.  ^ Glassman, Bruce. San Diego's Top Brewers: Inside America's Craft Beer Capital. Chef's Press. ISBN 978-0981622231.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Tourism
Tourism
Industry Research". San Diego
San Diego
Tourism
Tourism
Authority. 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2013.  ^ Lori Weisberg (August 10, 2017). "Is San Diego
San Diego
cruise business making a comeback?". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved December 21, 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ "Whale Watching in San Diego". InTheCity-SanDiego Tourism. 2011–2012. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2012.  ^ Sisson, Paul (September 3, 2015). "The big hook-up: Sportfishing's superb season". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved September 8, 2015.  ^ "City of San Diego:Foreign Trade Zone". Retrieved April 28, 2011.  ^ "Number of border crossings stabilizes". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. July 11, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2011.  ^ "SANDAG: Otay Mesa
Mesa
Port of Entry Southbound Truck Route Improvements" (PDF). sandiegohealth.org. Retrieved April 28, 2011.  ^ "Port of San Diego:10th Avenue Marine Terminal". Retrieved April 28, 2011.  ^ "National ranking of California
California
ports by cargo volume". San Diego Daily Transcript. March 21, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011.  ^ "Tuna! Celebrating San Diego's Famous Fishing Industry". San Diego History Center. Retrieved September 1, 2012.  ^ Roger Showley (January 29, 2013). "Bumble Bee may buzz downtown: The tuna company considers high-profile move from Kearny Mesa". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved February 3, 2013.  ^ " Chicken of the Sea leases in Sorrento South". The Daily Transcript. August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2013.  ^ "City Of San Diego
San Diego
Largest Employers". San Diego
San Diego
Daily Transcript. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Glazer, Joyce (October 6, 2008). "San Diego-based LG Mobile Phones donated $250,000 to the VH1 Save the Music Foundation". Entrepreneur Media. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2011. [dead link] ^ Desjardins, Doug (January 11, 2010). " Kyocera International
Kyocera International
to Get New Leader". San Diego
San Diego
Business Journal. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2011. [dead link] ^ "Novatel website: Corporate headquarters". Retrieved April 11, 2011.  ^ " Websense
Websense
Named Top Software Company in San Diego
San Diego
County". MSNBC. November 6, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Allen, Mike (September 20, 2010). " ESET
ESET
Polishes the Apple, Now Protects Macs". San Diego
San Diego
Business Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2011.  ^ "iHub San Diego" (PDF). California
California
Governor's Office of Economic Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.  ^ Doyle, Monica (February 5, 2004). "UCSD Extension Awarded A $150,000 Grant For Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Collaboration With Israel". UCSD News. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Bradley J. Fikes (February 12, 2013). "Report: San Diego
San Diego
2nd in life sciences". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved February 15, 2013.  ^ "SDBN.org". SDBN.org. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Walcott, Susan M. (May 2002). "Analyzing an Innovative Environment: San Diego
San Diego
as a Bioscience Beachhead". Economic Development Quarterly. 16 (2): 99–114. doi:10.1177/0891242402016002001. Retrieved November 4, 2010.  ^ Bigelow, Bruce V. "San Diego's Life Sciences CROs—The Map of Clinical Research Organizations", "Xconomy", San Diego, January 27, 2010. ^ City of San Diego, California
California
Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, Year ended June 30, 2016, page 325 ^ "Median price of home hits $520K in San Diego". FOX5 San Diego. May 8, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2016.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Real Estate Price Drops". San Diego
San Diego
Real Estate Hub. March 4, 2016. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.  ^ Cox, Wendell (January 28, 2009). "New Survey: Improving Housing Affordability – But Still a Way to Go". NewGeography. Retrieved June 20, 2013.  ^ Weisberg, Lori (March 22, 2007). "Greener pastures outside of county?". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ Freeman, Mike (December 29, 2010). "Housing Prices Fall Again, Index Says". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ Showley, Roger (May 9, 2010). "Realty Revival". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ " La Jolla
La Jolla
Playhouse". La Jolla
La Jolla
Playhouse. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "Old Globe Theater". Oldglobe.org. December 2, 1937. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History, vol. 48, no. 2". Sandiegohistory.org. Retrieved March 12, 2011.  ^ The full seating capacity is 71,294, but San Diego
San Diego
State normally restricts capacity to 54,000. ^ Schrotenboer, Brent (January 12, 2017). "What we know about Chargers' move to Los Angeles". USA Today. Retrieved January 13, 2017.  ^ Zeigler, Mark (October 18, 2017). "San Diego's NASL soccer team unveils name". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved October 18, 2017.  ^ Ziegler, Mark (October 25, 2017). "New pro soccer team to build stadium in ..." San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved February 6, 2018.  ^ "NASL Announces Expansion Club In San Diego
San Diego
For 2018 Season". North American Soccer
Soccer
League. Retrieved June 26, 2017.  ^ "1904 FC Ownership Group Issues Official Statement on Tuesday". 1904 FC. February 27, 2018.  ^ "Balboa Stadium". Stadiums of Pro Football. Retrieved September 21, 2014.  ^ "OMBAC Rugby Home". Ombac.org. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "About". Todd Clever. January 16, 1983. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "RL Hopes to Move West". Americanrugbynews.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2011.  ^ Granberry, Mike (July 10, 1981). "Over-the-Line". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ "Over-the-Line official website". Ombac.org. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
City website". Sandiego.gov. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Grant Martin (April 10, 2011). "A close look at 'sanctuary cities'". The Arizona
Arizona
Republic. Gannett Co., Inc. Retrieved January 13, 2013. These communities – called "sanctuary cities" by both critics and defenders – are home to many of the estimated 10.8 million illegal immigrants in the U.S. and include Austin, New York City, San Diego and Minneapolis.  ^ John Coté (May 18, 2010). "Sheriff asks to opt out of federal immigration program". San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle. Retrieved January 13, 2013. The program is already in place for numerous counties in California
California
that have sanctuary cities, including Los Angeles, San Diego and Alameda.  ^ Ruxandra Guidi. "'Secure Communities' Program Comes Under Fire". KPBS. Retrieved January 13, 2013.  ^ Rosiak, Luke (July 22, 2013). "EXography: 19 U.S. cities have proportionately bigger workforces than bankrupted Detroit". Washington Examiner. District of Columbia. Retrieved May 16, 2015.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
City website". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "Voter Registration in the City of San Diego" (PDF). San Diego Office of the City Clerk. August 1, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "Registrar of voters: Maps of individual supervisorial districts". County of San Diego. Retrieved May 31, 2011.  ^ "Communities of Interest - City". California
California
Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 27, 2014.  ^ "Communities of Interest — City". California
California
Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 28, 2014.  ^ "Communities of Interest - City". California
California
Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 27, 2014.  ^ Jenkins, Garry (2005). The Wizard of Sun City: The Strange True Story of Charles Hatfield, the Rainmaker Who Drowned a City's Dreams. Thunder's Mouth Press via Amazon Look Inside. p. Front flap. ISBN 978-1-56025-675-5.  ^ Horstman, Barry (December 6, 1987). "Man About Town : San Diego's Ex-Mayor Roger Hedgecock
Roger Hedgecock
Hasn't Let His Felony Conviction Get Him Down. But This Week, the Past May Catch Up With Him". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 2, 2011.  ^ Abrahamson, Alan (February 2, 1992). "Bailiff's Bias in Hedgecock Trial Disclosed". The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved April 3, 2011.  ^ "Hedgecock has clean slate; judge erases felony record". San Diego Union-Tribune. January 1, 1991. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ "San Diego's Widening Pension Woes". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. June 13, 2005. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Strumpf, Daniel (June 15, 2005) San Diego's Pension Scandal for Dummies, San Diego
San Diego
City Beat via Internet Archive. Retrieved April 3, 2011. ^ Hall, Matthew T. (April 8, 2010). "Five cleared in San Diego
San Diego
pension case". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ "Cunningham Moving to Arizona
Arizona
Prison". Washington Post. January 5, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010.  ^ Greg Moran & Kelly Thornton (July 19, 2005). "Councilmen Guilty". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ " Ralph Inzunza Goes to Prison (Soon)". NBC
NBC
San Diego. January 20, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.  ^ "Appeals Court opinion, Sept. 1, 2009" (PDF). Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Greg Moran (October 14, 2010). "Seven Years Later, Zucchet Cleared". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ Filner apologizes, gets professional help, San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune, July 11, 2013 ^ Lah, Kyung (August 21, 2013). "Another sex harassment accusation for San Diego
San Diego
Mayor Bob Filner". CNN. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Mayor Resigns in Sexual Harassment Scandal". NY Times. August 23, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.  ^ "Ex- San Diego
San Diego
mayor Bob Filner
Bob Filner
pleads guilty to 3 charges". USA Today. October 15, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013.  ^ Safe Cities In America. Business Insider
Business Insider
(July 25, 2013). Retrieved on September 6, 2013. ^ Levy, Francesca (September 11, 2010). "America's Safest Cities". Forbes. Retrieved February 20, 2011.  ^ "SDPD Historical Crime Actuals 1950–2006" (PDF). San Diego
San Diego
Police Department. April 14, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "SDPD Historical Crime Rates Per 1,000 Population 1950–2006" (PDF). San Diego
San Diego
Police Department. April 14, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ a b Manolatos, Tony; Kristina Davis (April 14, 2006). "County crows at glowing crime report". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "Crime Report for San Diego, California". Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2011.  ^ " California
California
– Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by State by City, 2010". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2010. Retrieved March 7, 2013.  ^ Davis, Kristina (February 22, 2014). "Murder hits near-record low in county". San Diego
San Diego
Union Tribune. Retrieved April 3, 2015.  ^ " San Diego Unified School District
San Diego Unified School District
– Our District". San Diego Unified School District. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2011.  ^ Christie, Les (August 31, 2006). "America's smartest cities". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "Branch Listing City of San Diego
San Diego
Official Website". www.sandiego.gov. Archived from the original on September 3, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016.  ^ "Construction begins on Skyline Hills Library". fox5sandiego.com. October 8, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2016.  ^ Hall, Matthew T. (April 12, 2006). "Budget spares libraries, parks". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "New main library is a creation in concrete", San Diego Union-Tribune, November 16, 2011 ^ " San Diego
San Diego
Area Libraries". San Diego
San Diego
State University. Archived from the original on November 3, 2005. Retrieved April 24, 2012.  ^ Hello, Guest (January 3, 2012). "To our readers". UTSanDiego.com. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "San Diego, Phoenix and Detroit Lead Broadband Wired Cities, According to Nielsen//NetRatings" (PDF). Nielsen//NetRatings. September 15, 2004. Retrieved April 25, 2011.  ^ Stigall, Gary (May 3, 1999). " KFMB-TV
KFMB-TV
Turns 50". Society of Broadcast Engineers Chapter 36 San Diego. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ San Diego
San Diego
market in "Market Profiles". Television Bureau of Advertising. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.  ^ "FCC revives local television ownership rules". Federal Communications Commission. August 5, 1999. ^ Blakeslee, Sandra (August 14, 1983). "Astronomers say street lights will blind Palomar". New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2014.  ^ "Outdoor lighting regulations" (PDF). City of San Diego. Retrieved February 20, 2014.  ^ a b " San Diego
San Diego
to install brighter, more efficient streetlights". San Diego
San Diego
Gay & Lesbian News. September 19, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2014.  ^ City of San Diego
San Diego
official website, "Street Division: Electrical Street Lights" Retrieved February 15, 2014 ^ " San Diego
San Diego
to Link Street Lights to Industrial Internet". Daily Fusion. Retrieved January 30, 2014.  ^ Marshall, David. San Diego's Balboa Park. Arcadia Publishing. 2007. ^ "San Diego, Madison (WI) and Boulder (CO) Are Best among Cities of Their Size, While Atlanta, Boston and Houston Are Worst". Bicycling. January 26, 2006. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "SDMTS – Trolley Information". San Diego
San Diego
Metropolitan Transit System. 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ "SDMTS – Bus Routes". San Diego
San Diego
Metropolitan Transit System. 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ "COASTER – NCTD". North County Transit District. Retrieved September 21, 2013.  ^ " Pacific Surfliner
Pacific Surfliner
Train – from Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to San Diego
San Diego
& More – Amtrak". National Railroad Passenger Corporation. 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ "SPRINTER – NCTD". North County Transit District. Retrieved September 21, 2013.  ^ "511 Overview". SANDAG. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ a b Downey, Dave (April 24, 2006). "FAA chief says region right to consider bases". North County Times. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ "City of San Diego:Airports". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ Hall, Matthew (May 2, 2007). "City: 37 percent of streets in acceptable driving condition". San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ " San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport
– Airport Development Plan". San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. 2011. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ "Online Directory: California, USA". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^ " Edinburgh
Edinburgh
– Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2008.  ^ "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Council. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012. Retrieved January 16, 2009.  ^ 福建省与国外友城关系一览表 [List of foreign sister city relationships of Fujian Province] (in Chinese). 福建省人民政府外事办公室 [Foreign Affairs Office of the Fujian Provincial People's Government]. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2016.  ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. May 4, 2005. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2008. [dead link] ^ "Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports". Yokohama
Yokohama
Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2009. 

Bibliography

Engstrand, Iris Wilson (May 30, 2005). San Diego: California's Cornerstone. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-0-932653-72-7. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  Griswold de Castillo, Richard (1990). The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2478-4. 

External links

Find more aboutSan Diegoat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website Civic San Diego
San Diego
(replaced redevelopment corporations) SANDAG, San Diego's Regional Planning Agency Demographic Fact Sheet from Census Bureau San Diego
San Diego
Historical Society San Diego
San Diego
Unified School District San Diego
San Diego
Public Library San Diego
San Diego
Tourism
Tourism
Authority (formerly the San Diego
San Diego
Convention and Visitors Bureau)

v t e

City of San Diego

General

History Beaches Parks Climate Companies San Diego
San Diego
Unified School District Culture People Library Sports

Sites

Balboa Park San Diego
San Diego
Zoo

San Diego
San Diego
County San Diego- Tijuana
Tijuana
metropolitan area

Articles relating to San Diego
San Diego
and San Diego
San Diego
County

v t e

Current members of the San Diego
San Diego
City Council

President: Myrtle Cole, President Pro Tempore: Mark Kersey

   

District 1 Barbara Bry

District 6 Chris Cate

District 2 Lorie Zapf

District 7 Scott Sherman

District 3 Chris Ward

District 8 David Alvarez

District 4 Myrtle Cole

District 9 Georgette Gomez

District 5 Mark Kersey

v t e

Municipalities and communities of San Diego
San Diego
County, California, United States

County seat: San Diego

Cities

Carlsbad Chula Vista Coronado Del Mar El Cajon Encinitas Escondido Imperial Beach La Mesa Lemon Grove National City Oceanside Poway San Diego San Marcos Santee Solana Beach Vista

CDPs

Alpine Bonita Bonsall Borrego Springs Bostonia Boulevard Campo Camp Pendleton North Camp Pendleton South Casa de Oro-Mount Helix Crest Descanso Eucalyptus Hills Fairbanks Ranch Fallbrook Granite Hills Harbison Canyon Hidden Meadows Jacumba Hot Springs Jamul Julian La Presa Lake San Marcos Lakeside Mount Laguna Pine Valley Potrero Rainbow Ramona Rancho San Diego Rancho Santa Fe San Diego
San Diego
Country Estates Spring Valley Valley Center Winter Gardens

Unincorporated communities

4S Ranch Ballena Banner Cockatoo Grove Cuyamaca De Luz De Luz Heights Dulzura East Otay Mesa Elfin Forest Four Corners Guatay Hellhole Palms Jesmond Dene Kentwood-In-The-Pines Lincoln Acres Ocotillo Wells Pala Pauma Valley Pine Hills Ranchita Rincon Rincon Del Diablo San Luis Rey Santa Ysabel Shelter Valley Tecate Warner Springs Witch Creek Wynola

Indian reservations

Barona Reservation Campo Indian Reservation Capitan Grande Reservation Ewiiaapaayp Indian Reservation Inaja and Cosmit Reservation Jamul Indian Village La Posta Reservation Manzanita Reservation Mesa
Mesa
Grande Reservation Pala Indian Reservation San Pasqual Reservation Rincon Indian Reservation Santa Ysabel Reservation Sycuan Band Reservation Viejas Reservation

Ghost towns

Banner City Branson City Coleman City Cuyamaca City Eastwood Palm Spring Station Panhe San Felipe Station Stonewall Stratton Vallecito

v t e

San Diego
San Diego
metropolitan area

Counties

San Diego

Major city

San Diego

Cities 100k - 250k

Chula Vista Oceanside Escondido Carlsbad

Cities and towns 20k - 99k

El Cajon Vista San Marcos Encinitas La Mesa Santee National City Poway Imperial Beach Lemon Grove Coronado

CDPs 20k+

La Presa Fallbrook Spring Valley Rancho San Diego Lakeside Winter Gardens Ramona

Bodies of water

Chollas Creek Mission Bay Otay River San Diego
San Diego
Bay San Diego
San Diego
River San Luis Rey River Santa Margarita River San Mateo Creek (Southern California) Sweetwater River Tijuana
Tijuana
River

Regions

East County North County City of San Diego South Bay

Parks and Monuments

Agua Caliente Anza-Borrego Balboa Park Border Field Cabrillo Monument Cleveland Forest Cuyamaca Old Town Palomar Mountain Torrey Pines

History Culture Transportation (MTS NCTD Roads) Economy Education Government

v t e

San Diego–Tijuana

History Geography Geology Populace Economy Transportation Education Communication Border Other Infrastructure Culture

Counties and Municipalities

Rosarito Beach San Diego Tecate Tijuana

Major cities

San Diego Tijuana

Cities 100k - 250k

Carlsbad Chula Vista Escondido Oceanside

Cities and towns 20k - 99k

Coronado El Cajon El Refugio Encinitas Fallbrook Imperial Beach La Joya La Mesa La Presa Lemon Grove National City Pórticos de San Antonio Poway Rancho San Diego Rosarito Beach San Marcos Santee Spring Valley Tecate Terrazas del Valle Vista

Cities and towns 10k-19k

Alpine Bonita Bostonia Casa de Oro-Mount Helix Las Delicias Ramona Rancho San Diego San Diego
San Diego
Country Esates Solana Beach Villa del Campo Villa del Prado Winter Gardens

Bodies of water

Agua Hedionda Lagoon Batiquitos Lagoon El Capitan Lake Abelardo L. Rodriguez Lake Hodges Lake Sutherland Lower Otay Reservoir Loveland Reservoir Mission Bay Pacific Ocean San Elijo Lagoon San Diego
San Diego
Bay San Vicente Reservoir Sweetwater Reservoir Tijuana
Tijuana
River Estuary

Sub-regions

Anza Borrego Coronado Peninsula Cuyamaca East County Mountain Empire North County Palm Valley Rosarito San Diego South Bay Tecate Tijuana

Category Images Portal

v t e

Southern Border Region

Counties

San Diego Imperial

Global city 1.3 million

San Diego

Major cities 100k-250k

Chula Vista Oceanside Escondido Carlsbad

Cities and towns 25k-100k

El Cajon El Centro Encinitas Calexico Fallbrook Imperial Beach La Mesa La Presa National City Poway San Marcos Santee Spring Valley Vista

Cities and towns under 25k

Alpine Bombay Beach Bonita Bonsall Borrego Springs Bostonia Boulevard Brawley Casa de Oro-Mount Helix Calipatria Campo Camp Pendleton North Camp Pendleton South Coronado Crest Del Mar Descanso Desert Shores Fairbanks Ranch Harbison Canyon Heber Hidden Meadows Holtville Imperial Jacumba Hot Springs Jamul Julian Lakeside Lake San Marcos Lemon Grove Mount Laguna Niland Ocotillo Palo Verde Pine Valley Potrero Rainbow Ramona Rancho San Diego Rancho Santa Fe Salton City Salton Sea
Salton Sea
Beach San Diego
San Diego
Country Estates Seeley Solana Beach Valley Center Westmorland Winter Gardens Winterhaven

Bodies of water

Alamo River Agua Hedionda Lagoon Batiquitos Lagoon Buena Vista Lagoon Colorado River Mission Bay New River Salton Sea San Diego
San Diego
Bay San Diego
San Diego
River San Elijo Lagoon San Luis Rey River Santa Margarita River Sweetwater River Otay River Tijuana
Tijuana
River ( Tijuana
Tijuana
River Estuary)

Landforms

Algodones Dunes Black Hills Black Mountain Blue Angels Peak Buena Vista Hills Cargo
Cargo
Muchacho Mountains (Pilot Knob) Chocolate Mountains Colorado Desert Cowles Mountain Coyote Mountain Coyote Mountains Cuyamaca Peak Double Peak Fish Creek Mountains Fletcher Hills Grapevine Hills Hot Springs Mountain In-Ko-Pah Mountains Jacumba Mountains Jamul Mountains Laguna Mountains Lake Cahuilla Little Mule Mountains Margarita Peak Merriam Mountains Mount Soledad Mud Caves North Pinyon Mountains Oakzanita Peak Oat Hills Palo Verde Mountains Palomar Mountain Palomar Mountain
Palomar Mountain
Range Pine Hills Pinyon Mountains Salton Buttes San Felipe Hills San Marcos Mountains San Ysidro Mountains Santa Ana Mountains Santa Margarita Mountains Santa Rosa Mountains Sawtooth Mountains Sawtooth Range Superstition Hills Tierra Blanca Mountains Vallecito Mountains Viejas Mountain Volcanic Hills Yuha Buttes Yuha Desert

Regions

North County Borrego South Bay East County San Diego Imperial Valley Southern Border Region

v t e

California
California
county seats

Consolidated city-county

San Francisco

Municipalities

Alturas Auburn Bakersfield Colusa Crescent City El Centro Eureka Fairfield Fresno Hanford Hollister Jackson Lakeport Los Angeles Madera Martinez Marysville Merced Modesto Napa Nevada City Oakland Oroville Placerville Red Bluff Redding Redwood City Riverside Sacramento Salinas San Bernardino San Diego San Jose San Luis Obispo San Rafael Santa Ana Santa Barbara Santa Cruz Santa Rosa Sonora Stockton Susanville Ukiah Ventura Visalia Willows Woodland Yreka Yuba City

CDPs

Bridgeport Downieville Independence Mariposa Markleeville Quincy San Andreas Weaverville

v t e

 State of California

Sacramento (capital)

Topics

Culture

Food Music Myth Sports

Demographics Earthquakes Economy Education Environment Geography

Climate Ecology Flora Fauna

Government

Capitol Districts Governor Legislature Supreme Court

Healthcare History Law National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks NRHP listings Politics

Congressional delegations Elections

People Protected areas

State Parks State Historic Landmarks

Symbols Transportation Water Index of articles

Regions

Antelope Valley Big Sur California
California
Coast Ranges Cascade Range Central California Central Coast Central Valley Channel Islands Coachella Valley Coastal California Conejo Valley Cucamonga Valley Death Valley East Bay (SF Bay Area) East County
East County
(SD) Eastern California Emerald Triangle Gold Country Great Basin Greater San Bernardino Inland Empire Klamath Basin Lake Tahoe Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Basin Lost Coast Mojave Desert Mountain Empire North Bay (SF) North Coast North Coast (SD) Northern California Owens Valley Oxnard Plain Peninsular Ranges Pomona Valley Sacramento Valley Salinas Valley San Fernando Valley San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area San Francisco
San Francisco
Peninsula San Gabriel Valley San Joaquin Valley Santa Clara Valley Santa Clara River Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Ynez Valley Shasta Cascade Sierra Nevada Silicon Valley South Bay (LA) South Bay (SD) South Bay (SF) South Coast Southern Border Region Southern California Transverse Ranges Tri-Valley Victor Valley Wine Country

Metro regions

Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco
San Francisco
metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana

Counties

Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba

Most populous cities

Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in California

Eric Garcetti (Los Angeles) Kevin Faulconer (San Diego) Sam Liccardo (San Jose) Mark Farrell (San Francisco) Lee Brand (Fresno) Darrell Steinberg (Sacramento) Robert Garcia (Long Beach) Libby Schaaf (Oakland) Karen Goh (Bakersfield) Tom Tait (Anaheim) Miguel A. Pulido (Santa Ana) Rusty Bailey (Riverside) Anthony Silva (Stockton) Mary Salas (Chula Vista) Don Wagner (Irvine) Lily Mei (Fremont) R. Carey Davis (San Bernardino) Garrad Marsh (Modesto) Acquanetta Warren (Fontana) Tim Flynn (Oxnard) Jesse Molina (Moreno Valley)* Mike Posey (Huntington Beach)* Paula Devine (Glendale)* Marsha McLean (Santa Clarita)* Jim Wood (Oceanside) Steven R. Jones (Garden Grove) L. Dennis Michael (Rancho Cucamonga) John Sawyer (Santa Rosa)* Paul S. Leon (Ontario) Gary Davis (Elk Grove) Eugene Montanez (Corona)* R. Rex Parris (Lancaster) James C. Ledford Jr. (Palmdale) Barbara Halliday (Hayward) Joe Gunter (Salinas) Elliot Rothman (Pomona) Jim Griffith (Sunnyvale) Sam Abed (Escondido) Patrick J. Furey (Torrance) Terry Tornek (Pasadena) Teresa Smith (Orange) Greg Sebourn (Fullerton)* Carol Garcia (Roseville) Steve Nelsen (Visalia) Al Adam (Thousand Oaks)* Edi E. Birsan (Concord)* Bob Huber (Simi Valley) Jamie L. Matthews (Santa Clara) Gloria Garcia (Victorville) Bob Sampayan (Vallejo) Jesse Arreguín (Berkeley) Andre Quintero (El Monte) Luis H. Marquez (Downey)* Matt Hall (Carlsbad) Stephen Mensinger (Costa Mesa)* Harry T. Price (Fairfield) Jeff Comerchero (Temecula) James T. Butts Jr. (Inglewood) Wade Harper (Antioch) Harry Ramos (Murrieta) Cheryl Heitmann (Ventura)* Tom Butt (Richmond) Fredrick Sykes (West Covina)* Luigi Vernola (Norwalk)* Raymond A. Buenaventura (Daly City) Bob Frutos (Burbank)* Alice Patino (Santa Maria) Nathan Magsig (Clovis)* Bill Wells (El Cajon) Maureen Freschet (San Mateo)* Judy Ritter (Vista) Brad Hancock (Jurupa Valley)

^* Mayor selected from city council

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126656723 LCCN: n79056560 GND: 4269521-1 BNF:

.