Samuel de Champlain (French: [samɥɛl də ʃɑ̃plɛ̃] born
Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574[Note 2][Note 1] –
December 25, 1635), "The Father of New France", was a French
navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer,
ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He made from 21-29 trips across
the Atlantic, and founded
New France and
Quebec City on July 3,
1608. He is important to
Canadian history because he made the first
accurate map of the coast and he helped found the settlements.
Born into a family of mariners, Champlain, while still a young boy,
North America in 1603 under the guidance of François
Gravé Du Pont, his uncle. From 1604 to 1607 Champlain
participated in the exploration and settlement of the first permanent
European settlement north of Florida, Port Royal,
Acadia (1605) as
well as the first European settlement that would become Saint John,
New Brunswick (1604). Then, in 1608, he established the French
settlement that is now
Quebec City.[Note 3] Champlain was the first
European to explore and describe the Great Lakes, and published maps
of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and
the French living among the Natives. He formed relationships with
local Montagnais and
Innu and later with others farther west (Ottawa
River, Lake Nipissing, or Georgian Bay), with Algonquin and with Huron
Wendat, and agreed to provide assistance in the
Beaver Wars against
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII of France ordered Champlain to cease exploration,
return to Quebec, and devote himself to the administration of the
country.[Note 4] In every way but formal title,
Samuel de Champlain
served as Governor of New France, a title that may have been formally
unavailable to him owing to his non-noble status.[Note 5] He
established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to
France, and oversaw the growth of
New France in the St. Lawrence River
valley until his death in 1635.
Champlain is memorialized as the "Father of New France" and "Father of
Acadia", and many places, streets, and structures in northeastern
North America bear his name, or have monuments established in his
memory. The most notable of these is Lake Champlain, which straddles
the border between northern New York and Vermont, extending slightly
across the border into Canada. In 1609 he led an expedition up the
Richelieu River and explored a long, narrow lake situated between the
Green Mountains of present-day
Vermont and the
Adirondack Mountains of
present-day New York; he named the lake after himself as the first
European to map and describe it.
1 Birth year, location and family
2 Early travels
3 Finding of
4 Murder of the King
6 Relations and war with natives
7 Exploration of New France
8 Military expedition
9 Improving administration in New France
10 Last return, and last years working in Quebec
Death and burial
14 Notes and references
15 Further reading
16 External links
Birth year, location and family
Inauthentic depiction of Champlain,
Théophile Hamel (1870),
after the one by Ducornet (d. 1856),
based on a portrait of
Michel Particelli d'Emery
Michel Particelli d'Emery (d. 1650)
by Balthasar Moncornet (d. 1668).
— No authentic portrait of Champlain is known to exist.
Champlain was born to Antoine Champlain (also written Anthoine
Chappelain in some records) and Marguerite Le Roy, in either
Hiers-Brouage, or the port city of La Rochelle, in the French province
of Aunis. He was born on or before August 13, 1574, according to a
recent baptism record found by Jean-Marie Germe, French
genealogist.[Note 1] Although in 1870, the Canadian Catholic
priest Laverdière, in the first chapter of his Œuvres de Champlain,
accepted Pierre-Damien Rainguet's estimate and tried to justify it,
his calculations were based on assumptions now believed, or proven, to
be incorrect. Although Léopold Delayant (member, secretary, then
president of l'Académie des belles-lettres, sciences et arts de La
Rochelle) wrote as early as 1867 that Rainguet's estimate was wrong,
the books of Rainguet and Laverdière have had a significant
influence. The 1567 date was carved on numerous monuments dedicated to
Champlain and is widely regarded as accurate. In the first half of the
20th century, some authors disagreed, choosing 1570 or 1575 instead of
1567. In 1978 Jean Liebel published groundbreaking research about
these estimates of Champlain's birth year and concluded, "Samuel
Champlain was born about 1580 in Brouage, France." Liebel asserts
that some authors, including the Catholic priests Rainguet and
Laverdière, preferred years when
Brouage was under Catholic control
(which include 1567, 1570, and 1575). Champlain claimed to be from
Brouage in the title of his 1603 book and to be Saintongeois in the
title of his second book (1613). He belonged to either a Protestant
family, or a tolerant
Roman Catholic one, since
Brouage was most of
the time a Catholic city in a
Protestant region, and his Old Testament
first name (Samuel) was not usually given to Catholic children.[Note
6][Note 7] The exact location of his birth is thus also not known with
certainty, but at the time of his birth his parents were living in
Sir Sandford Fleming Park,
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, Nova Scotia – Stone from Samuel
de Champlain's birthplace in Brouage,
Born into a family of mariners (both his father and uncle-in-law were
sailors, or navigators),
Samuel Champlain learned to navigate, draw,
make nautical charts, and write practical reports. His education did
Ancient Greek or Latin, so he did not read or learn from
any ancient literature. As each French fleet had to assure its own
defense at sea, Champlain sought to learn fighting with the firearms
of his time: he acquired this practical knowledge when serving with
the army of King Henry IV during the later stages of France's
religious wars in
Brittany from 1594 or 1595 to 1598, beginning as a
quartermaster responsible for the feeding and care of horses. During
this time he claimed to go on a "certain secret voyage" for the
king, and saw combat (including maybe the Siege of Fort Crozon, at
the end of 1594). By 1597 he was a "capitaine d'une compagnie"
serving in a garrison near Quimper.
Champlain and guide in Isle La Motte, Vermont, at the site
Champlain is said to have first set foot in
Vermont (and encamped) in
Lake Champlain is in the background. (Sculptor E.L.Weber, 1967;
Photo by Matt Wills, 2009)
In 1598, his uncle-in-law, a navigator whose ship Saint-Julien was
chartered to transport Spanish troops to
Cádiz pursuant to the Treaty
of Vervins, gave Champlain the opportunity to accompany him. After a
difficult passage, he spent some time in Cadiz before his uncle, whose
ship was then chartered to accompany a large Spanish fleet to the West
Indies, again offered him a place on the ship. His uncle, who gave
command of the ship to Jeronimo de Valaebrera, instructed the young
Champlain to watch over the ship. This journey lasted two years,
and gave Champlain the opportunity to see or hear about Spanish
holdings from the Caribbean to Mexico City. Along the way he took
detailed notes, and wrote an illustrated report on what he learned on
this trip, and gave this secret report to King Henry,[Note 9] who
rewarded Champlain with an annual pension. This report was published
for the first time in 1870, by Laverdière, as Brief Discours des
Choses plus remarquables que Sammuel Champlain de
Brouage a reconneues
aux Indes Occidentalles au voiage qu'il en a faict en icettes en
l'année 1599 et en l'année 1601, comme ensuite (and in English as
Narrative of a Voyage to the
West Indies and Mexico 1599–1602). The
authenticity of this account as a work written by Champlain has
frequently been questioned, due to inaccuracies and discrepancies with
other sources on a number of points; however, recent scholarship
indicates that the work probably was authored by Champlain.[Note 10]
On Champlain's return to Cadiz in August 1600, his uncle, who had
fallen ill, asked him to look after his business affairs. This
Champlain did, and when his uncle died in June 1601, Champlain
inherited his substantial estate. It included an estate near La
Rochelle, commercial properties in Spain, and a 150-ton merchant
ship. This inheritance, combined with the king's annual pension,
gave the young explorer a great deal of independence, as he was not
dependent on the financial backing of merchants and other
investors. From 1601 to 1603 Champlain served as a geographer in
the court of King Henry IV. As part of his duties he traveled to
French ports and learned much about
North America from the fishermen
that seasonally traveled to coastal areas from
Newfoundland to capitalize on the rich fishing grounds there. He also
made a study of previous French failures at colonization in the area,
including that of Pierre de Chauvin at Tadoussac. When Chauvin
forfeited his monopoly on fur trade in
North America in 1602,
responsibility for renewing the trade was given to Aymar de Chaste.
Champlain approached de Chaste about a position on the first voyage,
which he received with the king's assent.
Champlain's first trip to
North America was as an observer on a
fur-trading expedition led by François Gravé Du Pont. Du Pont was a
navigator and merchant who had been a ship's captain on Chauvin's
expedition, and with whom Champlain established a firm lifelong
friendship. He educated Champlain about navigation in North America,
including the Saint Lawrence River, and in dealing with the natives
there (and in
Acadia after). The Bonne-Renommée (the Good Fame)
Tadoussac on March 15, 1603. Champlain was anxious to see
for himself all of the places that
Jacques Cartier had seen and
described about sixty years earlier, and wanted to go even further
than Cartier, if possible. Champlain created a map of the Saint
Lawrence on this trip and, after his return to
France on September 20,
published an account as Des Sauvages: ou voyage de
de Brouages, faite en la
France nouvelle l'an 1603 ("Concerning the
Savages: or travels of
Samuel Champlain of Brouages, made in New
France in the year 1603").[Note 11] Included in his account were
meetings with Begourat, a chief of the Montagnais at Tadoussac, in
which positive relationships were established between the French and
the many Montagnais gathered there, with some Algonquin friends.
Promising to King Henry to report on further discoveries, Champlain
joined a second expedition to
New France in the spring of 1604. This
trip, once again an exploratory journey without women and children,
lasted several years, and focused on areas south of the St. Lawrence
River, in what later became known as Acadia. It was led by Pierre
Dugua de Mons, a noble and
Protestant merchant who had been given a
fur trading monopoly in
New France by the king. Dugua asked Champlain
to find a site for winter settlement. After exploring possible sites
in the Bay of Fundy, Champlain selected Saint Croix Island in the St.
Croix River as the site of the expedition's first winter settlement.
After enduring a harsh winter on the island the settlement was
relocated across the bay where they established Port Royal. Until
1607, Champlain used that site as his base, while he explored the
Atlantic coast. Dugua was forced to leave the settlement for
September 1605, because he learned that his monopoly was at risk. His
monopoly was rescinded by the king in July 1607 under pressure from
other merchants and proponents of free trade, leading to the
abandonment of the settlement.
In 1605 and 1606, Champlain explored the North American coast as far
south as Cape Cod, searching for sites for a permanent settlement.
Minor skirmishes with the resident Nausets dissuaded him from the idea
of establishing one near present-day Chatham, Massachusetts. He named
the area Mallebar ("bad bar").
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Honfleur commemorating Champlain's departures
Painting by George Agnew Reid, done for the third centennial (1908),
showing the arrival of
Samuel de Champlain on the site of Quebec
In the spring of 1608, Dugua wanted Champlain to start a new French
colony and fur trading center on the shores of the St. Lawrence. Dugua
equipped, at his own expense, a fleet of three ships with workers,
that left the French port of Honfleur. The main ship, called the
Don-de-Dieu (French for the Gift of God), was commanded by Champlain.
Another ship, the Lévrier (the Hunt Dog), was commanded by his friend
Du Pont. The small group of male settlers arrived at
Tadoussac on the
lower St. Lawrence in June. Because of the dangerous strength of the
Saguenay River ending there, they left the ships and continued up the
"Big River" in small boats bringing the men and the materials.[Note
On July 3, 1608, Champlain landed at the "point of Quebec" and set
about fortifying the area by the erection of three main wooden
buildings, each two stories tall, that he collectively called the
"Habitation", with a wooden stockade and a moat 12 feet (4 m)
wide surrounding them. This was the very beginning of
Gardening, exploring, and fortifying this place became great passions
of Champlain for the rest of his life.
In the 1620s, the Habitation at
Quebec was mainly a store for the
Compagnie des Marchands (Traders Company), and Champlain lived in the
wooden Fort Saint Louis newly built up the hill (south from the
Château Frontenac Hotel), near the only two houses built
by the two settler families (the ones of
Louis Hébert and Guillaume
Couillard, his son-in-law).
Murder of the King
In May 1610, King Henry was assassinated in Paris by a Catholic
fanatic, and rule fell to his wife, Marie de' Medici, as regent for
the nine-year-old Louis XIII. Marie was a staunch Catholic with little
interest in New France, and many of Champlain's
supporters, including Pierre Dugua de Mons, were denied access to
court. Champlain, on hearing the news, returned to
France in September
1610 to establish new political connections in support of efforts at
One route Champlain may have chosen to improve his access to the court
of the regent was his decision to enter into marriage with the
twelve-year-old Hélène Boullé. She was the daughter of Nicolas
Boullé, a man charged with carrying out royal decisions at court. The
marriage contract was signed on December 27, 1610 in presence of
Dugua, who had dealt with the father, and the couple was married three
days later. The terms of the contract called for the marriage to be
consummated two years later. Champlain sought permission from her
parents to consummate the marriage before that: "Many of those who
entered into such relationships, such as
Samuel de Champlain (d.
1635), the first governor of French Canada, agreed that they would not
have sex with a 12-year-old bride until she was 14, as Champlain did
unless he consulted with her family and received their permission to
do so earlier. Apparently, he did."
Champlain's marriage was initially quite troubled, as Hélène
rebelled when she was told to join him in August 1613. Their
relationship, while it apparently lacked any physical connection,
recovered and was apparently good for many years. Hélène lived
Quebec for several years, but returned to Paris and eventually
decided to enter a convent. The couple had no children, although
Champlain did adopt three Montagnais girls named Faith, Hope, and
Charity in the winter of 1627–28.
Relations and war with natives
Engraving based on a drawing by Champlain of his 1609 voyage. It
depicts a battle between
Iroquois and Algonquian tribes near Lake
During the summer of 1609, Champlain attempted to form better
relations with the local native tribes. He made alliances with the
Wendat (called Huron by the French) and with the Algonquin, the
Montagnais and the Etchemin, who lived in the area of the St. Lawrence
River. These tribes demanded that Champlain help them in their war
against the Iroquois, who lived farther south. Champlain set off with
nine French soldiers and 300 natives to explore the Rivière des
Iroquois (now known as the Richelieu River), and became the first
European to map Lake Champlain. Having had no encounters with the
Iroquois at this point many of the men headed back, leaving Champlain
with only 2 Frenchmen and 60 natives.
On July 29, somewhere in the area near Ticonderoga and Crown Point,
New York (historians are not sure which of these two places, but Fort
Ticonderoga historians claim that it occurred near its site),
Champlain and his party encountered a group of Iroquois. In a battle
begun the next day, two hundred
Iroquois advanced on Champlain's
position, and one of his guides pointed out the three
In his account of the battle, Champlain recounts firing his arquebus
and killing two of them with a single shot, after which one of his men
killed the third. The
Iroquois turned and fled. This action set the
tone for poor French-
Iroquois relations for the rest of the
Battle of Sorel
Battle of Sorel occurred on June 19, 1610, with
Champlain supported by the Kingdom of
France and his allies, the
Algonquin people and
Innu people against the Mohawk
New France at present-day Sorel-Tracy, Quebec. The forces of
Champlain armed with the arquebus engaged and killed or captured
nearly all of the Mohawks. The battle ended major hostilities with the
Mohawks for twenty years.
Exploration of New France
Chaleur Bay and
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence — extract of Champlain 1612
On March 29,1613, arriving back in New France, he first ensured that
his new royal commission be proclaimed. Champlain set out on May 27 to
continue his exploration of the Huron country and in hopes of finding
the "northern sea" he had heard about (probably Hudson Bay). He
Ottawa River, later giving the first description of this
area.[Note 14] It was in June that he met with Tessouat, the Algonquin
chief of Allumettes Island, and offered to build the tribe a fort if
they were to move from the area they occupied, with its poor soil, to
the locality of the Lachine Rapids.
By August 26 Champlain was back in Saint-Malo. There he wrote an
account of his life from 1604 to 1612 and his journey up the Ottawa
river, his Voyages and published another map of New France. In
1614 he formed the "Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint-Malo"
and "Compagnie de Champlain", which bound the Rouen and Saint-Malo
merchants for eleven years. He returned to
New France in the spring of
1615 with four
Recollects in order to further religious life in the
new colony. The
Roman Catholic Church was eventually given en
seigneurie large and valuable tracts of land estimated at nearly 30%
of all the lands granted by the French Crown in New France.
Champlain continued to work to improve relations with the natives
promising to help them in their struggles against the Iroquois. With
his native guides he explored further up the
Ottawa River and reached
Lake Nipissing. He then followed the French River until he reached the
fresh-water sea he called Lac Attigouautau (now Lake Huron).[citation
In 1615, Champlain was escorted through the area that is now
Peterborough, Ontario, by a group of Hurons. He used the ancient
portage between Chemong Lake and Little Lake (now Chemong Road), and
stayed for a short period of time near what is now Bridgenorth.
Samuel de Champlain, Nepean Point,
Ottawa by Hamilton MacCarthy
On September 1, 1615, at Cahiagué (A Huron community on what is now
called Lake Simcoe), he and the northern tribes started a military
expedition against the Iroquois. The party passed
Lake Ontario at its
eastern tip where they hid their canoes and continued their journey by
land. They followed the
Oneida River until they arrived at the main
Onondaga fort on October 10. The exact location of this place is still
a matter of debate. Although the traditional location, Nichols Pond,
is regularly disproved by professional and amateur archaeologists,
many still claim that Nichols Pond is the location of the battle. 10
miles (16 km) south of Canastota, New York. Champlain
attacked the stockaded Oneida Indian village. He was accompanied by 10
Frenchmen and 300 Huron Indians. Pressured by the Hurons to attack
prematurely, the assault failed. Champlain was wounded twice in the
leg by arrows, one in his knee. The conflict ended on October 16 when
the French and Huron were forced to flee.
Although he did not want to, the Hurons insisted that Champlain spend
the winter with them. During his stay he set off with them in their
great deer hunt, during which he became lost and was forced to wander
for three days living off game and sleeping under trees until he met
up with a band of aboriginals by chance. He spent the rest of the
winter learning "their country, their manners, customs, modes of
life". On May 22, 1616, he left the Huron country and returned to
Quebec before heading back to
France on July 2.
Improving administration in New France
New France (Champlain, 1612). A more precise map was drawn by
Champlain in 1632.
19th century artist's conception of Champlain by E. Ronjat.
Champlain returned to
New France in 1620 and was to spend the rest of
his life focusing on administration of the territory rather than
exploration. Champlain spent the winter building Fort Saint-Louis on
top of Cape Diamond. By mid-May he learned that the fur trading
monopoly had been handed over to another company led by the Caen
brothers. After some tense negotiations, it was decided to merge the
two companies under the direction of the Caens. Champlain continued to
work on relations with the natives and managed to impose on them a
chief of his choice. He also negotiated a peace treaty with the
Champlain continued to work on the fortifications of what became
Quebec City, laying the first stone on May 6, 1624. On August 15 he
once again returned to
France where he was encouraged to continue his
work as well as to continue looking for a passage to China, something
widely believed to exist at the time. By July 5 he was back at Quebec
and continued expanding the city.
In 1627 the Caen brothers' company lost its monopoly on the fur trade,
Cardinal Richelieu (who had joined the Royal Council in 1624 and
rose rapidly to a position of dominance in French politics that he
would hold until his death in 1642) formed the Compagnie des
Cent-Associés (the Hundred Associates) to manage the fur trade.
Champlain was one of the 100 investors, and its first fleet, loaded
with colonists and supplies, set sail in April 1628.
Champlain had overwintered in Quebec. Supplies were low, and English
Cap Tourmente in early July 1628. A war had
broken out between
France and England, and
Charles I of England
Charles I of England had
issued letters of marque that authorized the capture of French
shipping and its colonies in North America. Champlain received a
summons to surrender on July 10 from some heavily armed, English based
Scottish merchants, the Kirke brothers. Champlain refused to deal with
them, misleading them to believe that Quebec's defenses were better
than they actually were (Champlain had only 50 pounds of gunpowder to
defend the community). Successfully bluffed, they withdrew, but
encountered and captured the French supply fleet, cutting off that
year's supplies to the colony. By the spring of 1629 supplies were
dangerously low and Champlain was forced to send people to Gaspé and
into Indian communities to conserve rations. On July 19, the Kirke
brothers arrived before
Quebec after intercepting Champlain's plea for
help, and Champlain was forced to surrender the colony. Many
colonists were taken first to England and then
France by the Kirkes,
but Champlain remained in London to begin the process of regaining the
colony. A peace treaty had been signed in April 1629, three months
before the surrender, and, under the terms of that treaty,
other prizes taken by the Kirkes after the treaty were supposed to be
returned. It was not until the 1632 Treaty of
Quebec was formally given back to France.
David Kirke was rewarded when Charles I knighted him and gave him a
charter for Newfoundland.) Champlain reclaimed his role as commander
New France on behalf of Richelieu on March 1, 1633, having served
in the intervening years as commander in
New France "in the absence of
my Lord the Cardinal de Richelieu" from 1629 to 1635. In 1632
Champlain published Voyages de la Nouvelle France, which was dedicated
to Cardinal Richelieu, and Traitté de la marine et du devoir d'un bon
marinier, a treatise on leadership, seamanship, and navigation.
(Champlain made more than twenty-five round-trip crossings of the
Atlantic in his lifetime, without losing a single ship.)
Last return, and last years working in Quebec
Champlain returned to
Quebec on May 22, 1633, after an absence of four
years. Richelieu gave him a commission as Lieutenant General of New
France, along with other titles and responsibilities, but not that of
Governor. Despite this lack of formal status, many colonists, French
merchants, and Indians treated him as if he had the title; writings
survive in which he is referred to as "our governor". On August
18, 1634, he sent a report to Richelieu stating that he had rebuilt on
the ruins of Quebec, enlarged its fortifications, and established two
more habitations. One was 15 leagues upstream, and the other was at
Trois-Rivières. He also began an offensive against the Iroquois,
reporting that he wanted them either wiped out or "brought to
Death and burial
Champlain had a severe stroke in October 1635, and died on December
25, leaving no immediate heirs.
Jesuit records state he died in the
care of his friend and confessor Charles Lallemant.
Although his will (drafted in November 17, 1635) gave much of his
French property to his wife Hélène, he made significant bequests to
the Catholic missions and to individuals in the colony of Quebec.
However, Marie Camaret, a cousin on his mother's side, challenged the
will in Paris and had it successfully overturned. It is unclear
exactly what happened to his estate.
He was temporarily buried in the church while a standalone chapel was
built to hold his remains in the upper part of the city.
Unfortunately, this small building, along many others, was destroyed
by a large fire in 1640. Though immediately rebuilt, no traces of it
exist anymore: his exact burial site is still unknown, despite much
research since about 1850, including several archaeological digs in
the city. There is general agreement that the previous Champlain
chapel site, and the remains of Champlain, should be somewhere near
the Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral.
The search for Champlain's remains supplies a key plot-line in the
crime writer Louise Penny's 2010 novel, Bury Your Dead.
Samuel de Champlain at sunrise (looking to the north-west;
with a similar expressive face as traditionally Jacques Cartier's), by
Paul-Romain Chevré (Paris, 1896–1898), as newly repaired for 2008,
Quebec City since 1898, near
Château Frontenac grand hotel, on the
Many sites and landmarks have been named to honour Champlain, who
remains, to this day, a prominent historical figure in many parts of
Acadia, Ontario, Quebec, New York, and Vermont. They include:
Lake Champlain, Champlain Valley, the Champlain Trail Lakes.
Champlain Sea: a past inlet of the Atlantic Ocean in North America,
over the St. Lawrence, the Saguenay, and the Richelieu rivers, to over
Lake Champlain, which inlet disappeared many thousands years before
Champlain was born.
Acadia National Park – which he first observed
A town and village in New York, as well as a township in
Ontario and a
municipality in Quebec.
The provincial electoral district of Champlain, Quebec, and several
defunct electoral districts elsewhere in Canada.
Samuel de Champlain Provincial Park, a provincial park in northern
Ontario near the town of Mattawa.
Champlain Bridge, which connects the island of Montreal to Brossard,
Quebec across the St. Lawrence.
Champlain Bridge, which connects the cities of Ottawa,
Champlain College, one of six colleges at
Trent University in
Peterborough, Ontario, is named in his honour.
Fort Champlain, a dormitory at the Royal Military College of
Kingston, Ontario; named in his honour in 1965, it houses the 10th
A French school in Saint John, New Brunswick; École Champlain, an
elementary school in Moncton, New Brunswick; Champlain College, in
Burlington, Vermont; and Champlain Regional College, a
three campuses in Quebec.
Château Champlain hotel, in Montreal.
Streets named Champlain in numerous cities, including Quebec,
Shawinigan, the city of Dieppe in the province of New Brunswick, in
Plattsburgh, and no less than eleven communities in northwestern
A memorial statue on Cumberland Avenue in Plattsburgh, New York on the
Lake Champlain in a park named for Champlain.
A memorial statue in Saint John, New Brunswick,
Canada in Queen Square
that commemorates his discovery of the Saint John River.
A memorial statue in Isle La Motte, Vermont, on the shore of Lake
The lighthouse at
Crown Point, New York
Crown Point, New York features a statue of Champlain
by Carl Augustus Heber.
A commemorative stamp issue in May 2006 jointly by the United States
Postal Service and
A statue in Ticonderoga, New York, unveiled in 2009 to commemorate the
400th anniversary of Champlain's exploration of Lake Champlain.
A statue in Orillia,
Ontario at Couchiching Beach Park on Lake
HMCS Champlain, (1919) a S class destroyer that served in the Royal
Canadian Navy from 1928 to 1936.
HMCS Champlain, a
Canadian Forces Naval Reserve division based in
Quebec since activation in 1985.
Champlain Place, a shopping centre located in Dieppe, New Brunswick,
The Champlain Society, a Canadian historical and text publication
society, chartered in 1927.
These are works that were written by Champlain:
Brief Discours des Choses plus remarquables que Sammuel Champlain de
Brouage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiage qu'il en a
faict en icettes en l'année 1599 et en l'année 1601, comme ensuite
(first French publication 1870, first English publication 1859 as
Narrative of a Voyage to the
West Indies and Mexico 1599–1602)
Des Sauvages: ou voyage de
Samuel Champlain, de Brouages, faite en la
France nouvelle l'an 1603 (first French publication 1604, first
English publication 1625)
Voyages de la Nouvelle
France (first French publication 1632)
Traitté de la marine et du devoir d'un bon marinier (first French
Notes and references
^ a b c For a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see Ritch
^ The baptism act does not contain information about the age of
Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth.
^ Thanks to Pierre Dugua de Mons, who fully financed—at a loss—the
first years of both French settlements in
North America (first Acadia,
^ According to Trudel (1979), Louis was 18 years old, an inexperienced
minor (age of majority was 25), and Champlain was lieutenant to the
Prince de Condé, the viceroy of
New France since 1612, who, as Trudel
writes, "was liberated [from jail, where he been for 3 years] in
October 1619, and yielded his rights as viceroy to Henri II de
Montmorency, admiral of France. The latter confirmed Champlain in his
office [...]. On 7 May 1620, Louis XIII wrote to Champlain to enjoin
him to maintain the country 'in obedience to me, making the people who
are there live as closely in conformity with the laws of my kingdom as
you can.' From that moment Champlain was to devote himself exclusively
to the administration of the country; he was to undertake no further
great voyages of discovery; his career as an explorer had ended."
^ Some say that the King of
France made him his "royal geographer",
but it is unproven and may only come from
Marc Lescarbot books:
Champlain never used that title. The honorific "de" was only added to
his name from 1610, when he was already well-known, right after his
patron, King Henry IV, was murdered. This usage by a non-noble was
tolerated so that he would continue to gain access to the court during
the long regency of King Louis XIII (who was only eight years old at
the death of his father). Champlain received the official title of
"lieutenant" (adjunct representative) of whichever noble was
designated as Viceroy of New France, the first being Pierre Dugua,
Sieur de Mons. From 1629 Champlain was named "commandant" under the
authority of the King Minister, Richelieu. It was Champlain's
successor, Charles Jacques Huault de Montmagny, who was the first to
be formally named as the governor of New France, when he moved to
Quebec City in 1636, and became the first noble to live there in that
^ According to many modern historians, including Alain Laberge, the
2008 Chair of the History Department at
Quebec City's Laval
University, a specialist in the history of New France, Champlain could
have been born a Protestant. A guest on the February 6, 2008 CBC radio
program, Sounds Like Canada, Professor Laberge said that the fact of
Champlain's Protestantism would have been downplayed or omitted from
educational materials in
Quebec by the
Roman Catholic Church, who
controlled Quebec's education system from 1627 until 1962.
^ However, Champlain was born in or near a time when the city was
taken by Protestants, but
Brouage became a royal fortress and its
governor, from 1627 until his death in 1642, was Cardinal Richelieu, a
^ His family lived in
Brouage at the time of his birth; the exact
place and date of his birth are unknown.Britannica.com
^ Three different handwritten copies of this report still exist. One
of them is at the
John Carter Brown Library
John Carter Brown Library at Brown University.
^ For a detailed treatment of claims against Champlain's authorship,
see the chapter by François-Marc Gagnon in Litalien (2004), pp. 84ff.
Fischer (2008), pp. 586ff, also addresses these claims, and accepts
^ Champlain did not begin using the honorific de in his name until at
least 1610, when he married, the year King Henry was murdered. A
reprint of this book in 1612 was credited to "sieur de Champlain,
^ a b Only at his last arrival (in 1633), Champlain did not leave the
Tadoussac but sailed them directly to
^ In 1701, The Great Peace Treaty was signed in Montreal, involving
the French and every native nation coming or living on the shores of
Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River except maybe in wintertime.
^ In 1953, a rock was found at a location now known as the Champlain
lookout, which bore the inscription "Champlain juin 2, 1613". What
about this finding?
^ Fischer (2008), p. 3
^ a b c Fichier Origine
Samuel de Champlain facts, information, pictures Encyclopedia.com
Samuel de Champlain". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved
^ a b d'Avignon (2008)
^ Vaugeois (2008)
^ Bishop (1948), pp 6–7
^ Germe, p. 2
^ Rainguet (1851)
^ Liebel (1978), p. 236
^ Liebel (1978), pp. 229–237.
^ Fischer (2008), p. 62
^ a b Fischer (2008), p. 65 Note: Fischer cites numerous other
authorities in repeating this.
^ Weber (1967)
^ Litalien (2004), p. 87
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 98–99
^ Fischer (2008), p. 100
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 100–117
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 121–123
^ a b
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 282–285
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 287–288
^ Bullough, V.L. (202). Peer Commentaries on Green (2002) and Schmidt
(2002): Pedophilia and Sexual Harassment: Do They Have Similarities?
(Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31 (6) ed.). p. 481.
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 313–316
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 374–5
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 399–400
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 577–578
^ Champlain (1613)
^ Dalton (1968)
^ Williams, Doug (September 8, 2015). "A small man with a big gun".
Peterborough Examiner. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
^ Weiskotten (1998)
^ Guizot, p. 190
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 404–410
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 410–412
^ Fischer (2008), p. 409
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 412–415
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 418–420
^ Fischer (2008), p. 421
^ Fischer (2008), p. 428
^ Trudel (1979)
^ Fischer (2008), p. 447
^ Fischer (2008), pp. 445–446
^ Fischer (2008), p. 520
^ Le Blant (1964), pp 425–437
^ Champlain: Travels in the Canadian Francophonie
^ La Chappelle
^ Penny (2010)
Acadia National Park
^ Saint John Additional Information Archived September 27, 2011, at
the Wayback Machine.
^ Gicker (2006)
Acadia National Park". Oh Ranger. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
Bishop, Morris (1948).
Samuel de Champlain: The Life of Fortitude. New
Samuel (1613). Les voyages du Sieur de Champlain,
Saintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la Marine (in
French). J. Berjon.
Dalton, Roy C. (1968). The
Jesuit Estates Question, 1760-88.
University of Toronto Press. p. 60.
d'Avignon (Davignon), Mathieu (2008). Champlain et les fondateurs
oubliés, les figures du père et le mythe de la fondation (in
Quebec City: Les Presses de l'Université Laval (PUL).
p. 558. ISBN 978-2-7637-8644-5. Note: Mathieu
d'Avignon (Ph.D in History, Laval University, 2006) is an affiliate
researcher into the University of
Quebec at Chicoutimi Research Group
on History. He is preparing a special new full edition, in modern
French, of Champlain's Voyages in New France.
Germe, Jean-Marie (April 15, 2012). "Journal le Soleil".
p. 2. Missing or empty url= (help)[dead link]
"Champlain (de), Samuel". Fichier Origine (in French). Retrieved
"La chapelle et le tombeau de Champlain : état de la question"
(in French). Retrieved July 21, 2015.
Fischer, David Hackett (2008). Champlain's Dream. Simon and Schuster.
Gicker, William J., ed. (2006). "
Samuel de Champlain 39¢ (USA);
Samuel de Champlain 51¢ (Canada)". USA Philatelic. 11 (3): 7. This
souvenir sheet celebrates the 400th anniversary of the explorations of
Samuel de Champlain in 1606. access-date= requires url= (help)
Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume. "Chapter 53". A Popular History of
France from the Earliest Times. Vol. 6. Black, Robert (trans). Boston:
Dana Estes & Charles E. Lauriat (Imp.).
Heidenreich, Conrad E. (August 8, 2008). Who was Champlain? His Family
and Early Life. Métis sur mer. Archived from the original on May 12,
2013. This lecture is based on parts of a book by Conrad E.
Heidenreich and K. Janet Ritch soon to by published by The Champlain
Society, provisionally entitled: The Works of
Samuel de Champlain: Des
Sauvages and other Documents Related to the Period before 1604.
Le Blant, Robert (1964). "Le triste veuvage d'Hélène Boullé" [The
sad widow of Hélène Boullé] (PDF). Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique
française (in French). 18 (3). doi:10.7202/302392ar.
Liebel, Jean (September 1978). "On a vieilli Champlain" [They made
Champlain older]. la Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française (in
French). 32 (2): 229–237. doi:10.7202/303691ar.
Litalien, Raymonde; Vaugeois, Denis, eds. (2004). Champlain: the Birth
of French America. Roth, Käthe (trans). McGill-Queen's University
Press. ISBN 0-7735-2850-4.
"Malle Barre (Modern
Nauset Harbor, Eastham, MA)". Archeology Program.
National Park Service. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
Penny, Louise (2010). Bury Your Dead. New York: Minotaur.
Rainguet, Pierre-Damien (1851). Biographie Saintongeaise ou
Dictionnaire Historique de Tous les Personnages qui se sont Illustrés
dans les Anciennes Provinces de Saintonge et d'
Aunis jusqu'à Nos
Jours (in French). Saintes, France: M. Niox.
Ritch, Janet. "Discovery of the Baptismal Certificate of
Champlain". The Champlain Society. Archived from the original on
2013-12-05. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
Samuel de Champlain's Voyages". Travel Vermont. Retrieved July 21,
"Time Periods – Life and
Death of Champlain". Champlain :
Travels in the Canadian Francophonie. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
Trudel, Marcel (1979) . "
Samuel de Champlain". In Brown, George
Williams. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online
ed.). University of Toronto Press.
Vaugeois, Denis (June 2, 2008). Champlain et Dupont Gravé en
contexte. 133e congrès du comtié des travaux historiques et
scientifiques (CTHS) (in French). Québec City. Archived from the
original on May 13, 2013.
Weber, E. L. (Sculptor). "
Samuel de Champlain, (sculpture)". Art
Inventories Catalog. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved
Weiskotten, Daniel H. (July 1, 1998). "The Real Battle of Nichols
Pond". Roots Web, Ancestry.com. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
Library resources about
Samuel de Champlain
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Samuel de Champlain
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Samuel de (2005). Voyages of
Samuel de Champlain,
1604–1918: with a map and two plans. Elibron Classics.
Dix, Edwin Asa. (1903). Champlain, the Founder of New France,
IndyPublish ISBN 1-4179-2270-2
Laverdière, Abbé Charles-Honoré Cauchon (1870). Œuvres de
Champlain (in French).
Quebec City: Desbarats.
Morganelli, Adrianna (2006).
Samuel de Champlain: from
New France to
Cape Cod. Crabtree Pub. ISBN 978-0-7787-2414-8
Samuel Eliot, (1972).
Samuel de Champlain: Father of New
France Little Brown, ISBN 0-316-58399-5
Sherman, Josepha (2003).
Samuel de Champlain,
Explorer of the Great
Lakes Region and Founder of Quebec. Group's Rosen Central.
New France portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Samuel de Champlain.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Samuel de Champlain.
Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Samuel de Champlain.
Samuel de Champlain at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Samuel de Champlain at Internet Archive
From Marcel Trudel: Champlain,
Samuel de (at The Canadian
Champlain in Acadia
Biography at the Museum of Civilization
Samuel de Champlain Biography by Appleton and Klos
Description of Champlain's voyage to Chatham,
Cape Cod in 1605 and
They Didn't Name That Lake for Nothing, Sunday Book Review, The New
York Times, October 31, 2008
Dead Reckoning – Champlain in America, PBS documentary 2009
World Digital Library
World Digital Library presentation of Descripsion des costs, pts.,
rades, illes de la Nouuele
France faict selon son vray méridienor
Description of the Coasts, Points, Harbours and Islands of New France.
Library of Congress. Primary source portolan style chart on vellum
with summary description, image with enhanced view and zoom features,
text to speech capability. French. Links to related content. Content
available as TIF. One of the major cartographic resources, this map
offers the first thorough delineation of the New England and Canadian
coasts from Cape Sable to Cape Cod.
A book from 1603 of Champlain's first voyage to
New France from the
World Digital Library
(in French) Champlain's tomb: State of the Art Inquiry
(in French) From
Samuel de Champlain: Les Voyages de la Nouvelle
France... (1632) (at Rare Book Room)
(in French) Baptismal parish register, August 13, 1574, protestant
temple Saint.Yon, La Rochelle
Lieutenant General of New France
Charles de Montmagny
Charles de Montmagny as Governor of New France
Vieux-Québec–Cap-Blanc–colline Parlementaire (Old Quebec,
Parliament Hill, Petit Champlain)
See also: List of articles about
Quebec Urban Community (1970-2001)
Quebec Metropolitan Community
2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec
Regional county municipalities) in Capitale-Nationale:
Independent parishes: Notre-Dame-des-Anges
Native reserves: Wendake
Samuel de Champlain
Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation
Sarah Josepha Hale
Green bean casserole
Sweet potato pie
"Bless This House"
"Bringing In the Sheaves"
"Come, Ye Thankful People, Come"
"For the Beauty of the Earth"
"Let All Things Now Living"
"Now Thank We All Our God"
"Over the River and Through the Wood"
"We Gather Together"
"We Plough the Fields and Scatter"
Christmas and holiday season
Thanksgiving in film
Thanksgiving television specials
Lighting of the Macy's Great Tree
World's Largest Disco
Novant Health (Charlotte)
Hollywood Christmas (Los Angeles)
Macy's (New York City)
6abc-Dunkin' Donuts (Philadelphia)
Celebrate the Season (Pittsburgh)
America's Hometown (Plymouth)
National Day of Mourning
Buy Nothing Day
Missouri Turkey Day Game
Turkey Day Classic
Battle 4 Atlantis
Maui Invitational Tournament
Berwick Run for the Diamonds
Buffalo Turkey Trot
Dallas Turkey Trot
Feaster Five Road Race
Manchester Road Race
National Dog Show
Turkey Night Grand Prix
ISNI: 0000 0001 1477 0565
BNF: cb12166686h (data)