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Samuel
Samuel
is a figure in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
who plays a key role in the narrative, in the transition from the period of the biblical judges to the institution of a kingdom under Saul, and again in the transition from Saul
Saul
to David. He is venerated as a prophet by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In addition to his role in the Hebrew Scriptures, Samuel is mentioned in the New Testament, in rabbinical literature, and in the second chapter of the Qur'an, although here not by name.[7] He is also treated in the fifth through seventh books of Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, written in the first century CE (AD). The name is pronounced (/ˈsæmjuːəl/;[8] Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל‬, Modern Šmu’el, Tiberian Šemuʼēl; Arabic: صموئيل Ṣamuil; Greek: Σαμουήλ Samouḗl; Latin: Samūēl), and he is called Samuel the Seer in 1 Chronicles.

Contents

1 Biblical account

1.1 Family 1.2 Name 1.3 Calling 1.4 Leader 1.5 King-maker 1.6 Critic of Saul 1.7 Death

2 Documentary hypothesis

2.1 National prophet, local seer 2.2 Deuteronomistic Samuel

3 Perspectives on Samuel

3.1 Judaism 3.2 Christianity 3.3 Islam

4 Portrayals 5 See also 6 References

Biblical account[edit]

Gerbrand van den Eeckhout
Gerbrand van den Eeckhout
- Hannah presenting her son Samuel
Samuel
to the priest Eli ca.1665

Family[edit] Samuel's mother was Hannah and his father was Elkanah. Elkanah
Elkanah
lived at Ramathaim in the district of Zuph.[9][10] His genealogy is also found in a pedigree of the Kohathites (1 Chronicles 6:3-15) and in that of Heman, apparently his grandson (1 Chronicles 6:18–33). According to the genealogical tables in Chronicles, Elkanah
Elkanah
was a Levite - a fact not mentioned in the books of Samuel. The fact that Elkanah, a Levite, was denominated an Ephraimite[11] is analogous to the designation of a Levite belonging to Judah (Judges 17:7, for example).[12] According to 1 Samuel
Samuel
1:1-28, Elkanah
Elkanah
had two wives, Peninnah and Hannah. Peninnah had children; Hannah did not. Nonetheless, Elkanah favored Hannah. Jealous, Penninah reproached Hannah for her lack of children, causing Hannah much heartache. The relationship of Penninah and Hannah recalls that between Hagar
Hagar
and Sarah.[13] Elkanah
Elkanah
was a devout man and would periodically take his family on pilgrimage to the holy site of Shiloh. The motif of Elkanah
Elkanah
and Hannah as devout, childless parents will reoccur with Zachariah and Elizabeth and the birth of John the Baptist, and with Joachim
Joachim
and Anna and the birth of Mary.[13] On one occasion Hannah went to the sanctuary and prayed for a child. In tears, she vowed that were she granted a child, she would dedicate him to God as a Nazirite.[13] Eli, who was sitting at the foot of the doorpost in the sanctuary at Shiloh, saw her apparently mumbling to herself and thought she was drunk, but was soon assured of her motivation and sobriety. Eli was the priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. He had assumed the leadership after Samson's death.[14] Eli blessed her and she returned home. Subsequently Hannah became pregnant and gave birth to Samuel. Hannah's exultant hymn of thanksgiving resembles in several points Mary's later Magnificat.[15] After the child was weaned, she left him in Eli's care,[9] and from time to time she would come to visit her son.[14] Name[edit] According to 1 Samuel
Samuel
1:20, Hannah named Samuel
Samuel
to commemorate her prayer to God for a child. "... [She] called his name Samuel, saying, Because I have asked him of the Lord" (KJV). The Hebrew root rendered as "asked" in the KJV is "sha’al", a word mentioned seven times in 1 Samuel
Samuel
1. Once it is even mentioned in the form "sha’ul", Saul’s name in Hebrew (1 Samuel
Samuel
1:28). Biblical historian Michael Coogan suggests that Saul’s birth narrative was transferred to Samuel
Samuel
by the Deuteronomist historians.[16] According to Robert P. Gordon, because of the similarity between the verb used in this passage to the Hebrew name Saul, "A succession of writers on 1 Samuel
Samuel
have conjectured that the fourfold association of the Hebrew verb . . . with the name of Samuel
Samuel
in 1:17, 20, 27, and 28 (cf. 2:20) is not original but has come about because a tradition about the birth and dedication of Saul
Saul
was expropriated and put to Samuel's account . . .".[17] However, Gordon himself did not see this hypothesis as justified by the available evidence.[18] According to the Holman Bible Dictionary, Samuel
Samuel
was a "[p]ersonal name in the Ancient Near East meaning, 'Sumu is God' but understood in Israel
Israel
as 'The name is God,' 'God is exalted,' or 'son of God.'"[19] Calling[edit] Samuel
Samuel
worked under Eli in the service of the shrine at Shiloh. One night, Samuel
Samuel
heard a voice calling his name. According to the first-century Jewish historian Josephus, Samuel
Samuel
was about 11 years old.[1] Samuel
Samuel
initially assumed it was coming from Eli and went to Eli to ask what he wanted. Eli, however, sent Samuel
Samuel
back to sleep. After this happened three times, Eli realised that the voice was the Lord's, and instructed Samuel
Samuel
on how to answer:

If He calls you, then you must say, "Speak, Lord, for Your servant hears".[20]

Once Samuel
Samuel
responded, the Lord told him that the wickedness of the sons of Eli had resulted in their dynasty being condemned to destruction.[9] In the morning, Samuel
Samuel
was hesitant about reporting the message to Eli, but Eli asked him honestly to recount to him what he had been told by the Lord. Upon receiving the communication, Eli merely said that the Lord should do what seems right unto him. This event established that Samuel
Samuel
was now "established as a prophet of the Lord" and "all Israel
Israel
from Dan to Beersheba" became aware of his prophetic calling.[21] Anglican theologian Donald Spence Jones comments that "the minds of all the people were thus gradually prepared when the right moment came to acknowledge Samuel
Samuel
as a God-sent chieftain"[22] Leader[edit]

Samuel
Samuel
offers God a sacrifice and erects a large stone at the battle site as the Israelites
Israelites
slaughter the Philistines
Philistines
in the background, as depicted in an 18th-century stained-glass window (Pena Palace, Portugal)

During Samuel's youth at Shiloh, the Philistines
Philistines
inflicted a decisive defeat against the Israelites
Israelites
at Eben-Ezer, placed the land under Philistine control, and took the sanctuary's Ark for themselves. Upon hearing the news of the capture of the Ark of the Covenant, and the death of his sons, Eli collapsed and died. When the Philistines
Philistines
had been in possession of the Ark for seven months and had been visited with calamities and misfortunes, they decided to return the Ark to the Israelites.[14] According to Bruce C. Birch, Samuel
Samuel
was a key figure in keeping the Israelites' religious heritage and identity alive during Israel's defeat and occupation by the Philistines. "[I]t may have been possible and necessary for Samuel
Samuel
to exercise authority in roles that would normally not converge in a single individual (priest, prophet, judge)."[23] After 20 years of oppression, Samuel, who had gained national prominence as a prophet (1 Samuel
Samuel
3:20), summoned the people to the hill of Mizpah, and led them against the Philistines. The Philistines, having marched to Mizpah to attack the newly amassed Israelite army, were soundly defeated and fled in terror. The retreating Philistines were slaughtered by the Israelites. The text then states that Samuel erected a large stone at the battle site as a memorial, and there ensued a long period of peace thereafter.

שופטים‬ Judges in the Bible

Italics indicate individuals not explicitly described as judges

Book of Joshua

Joshua

Book of Judges

Othniel Ehud Shamgar Deborah Gideon Abimelech Tola Jair Jephthah Ibzan Elon Abdon Samson

First Book of Samuel

Eli Samuel

v t e

King-maker[edit] Samuel
Samuel
initially appointed his two sons as his successors; however, just like Eli's sons, Samuel's proved unworthy. The Israelites rejected them. Because of the external threat from other tribes, such as the Philistines, the tribal leaders decided that there was a need for a more unified, central government,[24] and demanded Samuel appoint a king so that they could be like other nations. Samuel interpreted this as a personal rejection, and at first was reluctant to oblige, until reassured by a divine revelation.[23] He warned the people of the potential negative consequences of such a decision. When Saul
Saul
and his servant were searching for his father's lost asses, the servant suggested consulting the nearby Samuel. Samuel
Samuel
recognized Saul as the future king. Just before his retirement, Samuel
Samuel
gathered the people to an assembly at Gilgal, and delivered a farewell speech [25] or coronation speech [26] in which he emphasised how prophets and judges were more important than kings, that kings should be held to account, and that the people should not fall into idol worship, or worship of Asherah
Asherah
or of Baal. Samuel
Samuel
promised that God would subject the people to foreign invaders should they disobey. This is seen by some as a deuteronomic redaction;[27] since archaeological finds indicate that Asherah
Asherah
was still worshipped in Israelite households well into the sixth century. However, 1 Kings 11:5,33 and 2 Kings 23:13 note that the Israelites fell into Asherah
Asherah
worship later on.[28] Critic of Saul[edit] When Saul
Saul
was preparing to fight the Philistines, Samuel
Samuel
denounced him for proceeding with the pre-battle sacrifice without waiting for the overdue Samuel
Samuel
to arrive. He prophesied that Saul's rule would see no dynastic succession. Samuel
Samuel
directed Saul
Saul
to "utterly destroy" the Amalekites in fulfilment of the commandment in Deuteronomy 25:17-19:

When the Lord your God has given you rest from your enemies all around, in the land which the Lord your God is giving you to possess as an inheritance, ... you will blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.

During the campaign against the Amalekites, King
King
Saul
Saul
spared Agag, the king of the Amalekites, and the best of their livestock. Saul
Saul
told Samuel
Samuel
that he had spared the choicest of the Amalekites' sheep and oxen, intending to sacrifice the livestock to the Lord. This was in violation of the Lord's command, as pronounced by Samuel, to "... utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass" (1 Samuel
Samuel
15:3, KJV). Samuel
Samuel
confronted Saul
Saul
for his disobedience and told him that God made him king, and God can unmake him king. Samuel then proceeded to execute Agag. Saul
Saul
never saw Samuel
Samuel
alive again after this.[29]

Apparition of the spirit of Samuel
Samuel
to Saul, by Salvator Rosa, 1668.

Samuel
Samuel
then proceeded to Bethelehem and secretly anointed David
David
as king. He would later provide sanctuary for David, when the jealous Saul
Saul
first tried to have him killed. Death[edit] Samuel
Samuel
is described in the biblical narrative as being buried in Ramah.[30] Some time after his death, Saul
Saul
had the Witch of Endor
Witch of Endor
conjure Samuel's ghost in order to predict the result of an up-coming battle. This passage is ascribed by textual scholars to the Republican Source. Classical rabbinical sources say that Samuel
Samuel
was terrified by the ordeal, having expected to be appearing to face God's judgement, and had therefore brought Moses
Moses
with him (to the land of the living) as a witness to his adherence to the mitzvot.[27] Documentary hypothesis[edit] See also: Documentary hypothesis National prophet, local seer[edit] Some authors see the biblical Samuel
Samuel
as combining descriptions of two distinct roles:

A seer, based at Ramah, and seemingly known scarcely beyond the immediate neighbourhood of Ramah (Saul, for example, not having heard of him, with his servant informing him of his existence instead). In this role, Samuel
Samuel
is associated with the bands of musical ecstatic roaming prophets ( Nevi'im
Nevi'im
– neb'im) at Gibeah, Bethel, and Gilgal, and some traditional scholars have argued that Samuel
Samuel
was the founder of these groups. At Ramah, Samuel
Samuel
secretly anointed Saul, after having met him for the first time, while Saul
Saul
was looking for his father's lost donkeys, and treated him to a meal. A prophet, based at Shiloh, who went throughout the land, from place to place, with unwearied zeal, reproving, rebuking, and exhorting the people to repentance. In this role, Samuel
Samuel
acted as a (biblical) judge, publicly advising the nation, and also giving private advice to individuals. Eventually Samuel
Samuel
delegated this role to his sons, based at Beersheba, but they behaved corruptly and so the people, facing invasion from the Ammonites, persuaded Samuel
Samuel
to appoint a king. Samuel
Samuel
reluctantly did so, and anointed Saul
Saul
in front of the entire nation, who had gathered to see him.

Source-critical scholarship suggests that these two roles come from different sources, which later were spliced together to form the Book(s) of Samuel. The oldest is considered to be that marking Samuel as the local seer of Ramah, who willingly anointed Saul
Saul
as king in secret, while the latter presents Samuel
Samuel
as a national figure, begrudgingly anointing Saul
Saul
as king in front of a national assembly. This later source is generally known as the Republican Source, since it denigrates the monarchy (particularly the actions of Saul) and favours religious figures, in contrast to the other main source – the Monarchial Source – which treats it favourably. Theoretically if we had the Monarchial Source we would see Saul
Saul
appointed king by public acclamation, due to his military victories, and not by cleromancy involving Samuel. Another difference between the sources is that the Republican Source treats the ecstatic prophets as somewhat independent from Samuel
Samuel
(1 Samuel
Samuel
9:1ff) rather than having been led by him (1 Samuel
Samuel
19:18ff). The passage in which Samuel
Samuel
is described as having exercised the functions of a (biblical) judge, during an annual circuit from Ramah to Bethel
Bethel
to Gilgal
Gilgal
(the Gilgal
Gilgal
between Ebal
Ebal
and Gerizim) to Mizpah and back to Ramah, is foreshadowed by Deborah, who used to render judgments from a place beneath a palm between Ramah and Bethel.[31] Source-critical scholarship often considers it to be a redaction aimed at harmonizing the two portrayals of Samuel.[27] The Book(s) of Samuel
Samuel
variously describe Samuel
Samuel
as having carried out sacrifices at sanctuaries, and having constructed and sanctified altars. According to the Priestly Code/ Deuteronomic Code only Aaronic priests/ Levites (depending on the underling tradition) were permitted to perform these actions, and simply being a nazarite or prophet was insufficient. The books of Samuel
Samuel
and Kings offer numerous examples where this rule is not followed by kings and prophets, but some critical scholars look elsewhere seeking a harmonization of the issues. In the Book of Chronicles, Samuel
Samuel
is described as a Levite, rectifying this situation; however critical scholarship widely sees the Book of Chronicles
Book of Chronicles
as an attempt to redact the Book(s) of Samuel and of Kings to conform to later religious sensibilities. Since many of the Biblical law codes themselves are thought to postdate the Book(s) of Samuel
Samuel
(according to the Documentary Hypothesis), this would suggest Chronicles is making its claim based on religious motivations. The Levitical genealogy of 1 Chronicles 4 is not historical, according to most modern scholarship.[27] Deuteronomistic Samuel[edit] According to the documentary hypothesis of Biblical source criticism, which postulates that "Deuteronomistic historians" redacted the Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings), the Deuteronomists idealized Samuel
Samuel
as a figure larger than life, like Joshua. For example, Samuel's father Elkanah
Elkanah
is described as having originated from Zuph, specifically Ramathaim-Zophim, which was part of the tribal lands of Ephraim, while 1 Chronicles states that he was a Levite.[32] Samuel
Samuel
is portrayed as a judge who leads the military, as the judges in the Book of Judges, and also who exercises judicial functions. In 1 Sam 12:6–17, a speech of Samuel
Samuel
that portrays him as the judge sent by God to save Israel
Israel
may have been composed by the Deuteronomists.[33] In 1 Samuel
Samuel
9:6–20, Samuel
Samuel
is seen as a local "seer". According to documentary scholarship, the Deuteronomistic historians preserved this view of Samuel
Samuel
while contributing him as "the first of prophets to articulate the failure of Israel
Israel
to live up to its covenant with God."[33] For the Deuteronomistic historians, Samuel
Samuel
would have been an extension of Moses
Moses
and continuing Moses' function as a prophet, judge, and priest, which makes the nature of the historical Samuel
Samuel
uncertain.[33] Perspectives on Samuel[edit]

Grave of the Prophet
Prophet
Samuel.

Judaism[edit] According to the Book of Jeremiah
Book of Jeremiah
[34] and one of the Psalms
Psalms
[35], Samuel
Samuel
had a high devotion to God. Classical Rabbinical literature adds that he was more than an equal to Moses, God speaking directly to Samuel, rather than Samuel
Samuel
having to attend the tabernacle to hear God.[36] Samuel
Samuel
is also described by the Rabbis as having been extremely intelligent; he argued that it was legitimate for laymen to slaughter sacrifices, since the Halakha only insisted that the priests bring the blood (cf Leviticus 1:5, Zebahim 32a).[37] Eli, who was viewed negatively by many Classical Rabbis, is said to have reacted to this logic of Samuel
Samuel
by arguing that it was technically true, but Samuel
Samuel
should be put to death for making legal statements while Eli (his mentor) was present.[37] Samuel
Samuel
is also treated by the Classical Rabbis as a much more sympathetic character than he appears at face value in the Bible; his annual circuit is explained as being due to his wish to spare people the task of having to journey to him; Samuel
Samuel
is said to have been very rich, taking his entire household with him on the circuit so that he didn't need to impose himself on anyone's hospitality; when Saul
Saul
fell out of God's favour, Samuel
Samuel
is described as having grieved copiously and having prematurely aged.[38] His yahrzeit is observed on the 28th day of Iyar.[6] Christianity[edit] For Christians, Samuel
Samuel
is considered to be a prophet, judge, and wise leader of Israel, and treated as an example of fulfilled commitments to God. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, as well as the Lutheran
Lutheran
calendar, his feast day is August 20. He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 30. In the Coptic Orthodox Church, the commemoration of the departure of Samuel
Samuel
the Prophet
Prophet
is celebrated on 9 Paoni. Herbert Lockyer and others have seen in Samuel's combined offices of prophet, priest, and ruler a foreshadowing of Christ.[39] Islam[edit]

Mosque of the Prophet
Prophet
Samuel.

Samuel
Samuel
is seen as a Nabi (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet)[40] and seer in the Islamic faith. The narrative of Samuel
Samuel
in Muslims' literature focuses specifically on his birth and the anointing of Talut. Other elements from his narrative are in accordance with the narratives of other Prophets of Israel, as exegesis recounts Samuel's preaching against idolatry. Although he is mentioned in the Qur’an, his name is not given, but he is instead referred to as "a Prophet."[41] According to Islamic history, the Israelites, after the time of the prophet Moses, wanted a king to rule over their country. Thus, God sent the prophet Samuel
Samuel
to anoint Saul
Saul
as the first king for the Israelites. The Qur'an
Qur'an
states:

Have you thought of the elders of Israel
Israel
after Moses, and how they said to their apostle: "Set up a King
King
for us, then we shall fight in the way of God?" He replied: "This too is possible that when commanded to fight you may not fight at all." They said: "How is it we should not fight in the way of God when we have been driven from our homes and deprived of our Sons?" But when they were ordered to fight they turned away, except for a few; yet God knows the sinners. — Qur’an, sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayah 246[41]

The Qur’an
Qur’an
goes on to state that a Malik (Arabic: مَـلِـك‎, King) was anointed by the prophet, whose name was Talut ( Saul
Saul
or Gideon[42] in the Hebrew Bible). However, it states that the Israelites
Israelites
mocked and reviled the newly appointed king, as he was not wealthy from birth. But, assuming Talut to be Saul, in sharp contrast to the Hebrew Bible, the Qur’an
Qur’an
praises Saul
Saul
greatly, and mentions that he was gifted with great spiritual and physical strength. In the Qur’anic account, Samuel
Samuel
prophesies to the children of Israel, telling them that the sign of Talut's Kingship will be that the Ark of the Covenant will come back to the Israelites:

And when their prophet said to them: "God has raised Talut as a King over you," they said: "How can he be King
King
over us when we have greater right to Kingship than he, for he does not even possess abundant wealth?" "God has chosen him in preference to you," said the prophet "and gifted him abundantly in wisdom and stature; and God gives authority to whomsoever He will: God is infinite and all-wise." Their prophet said to them: "The sign of his Kingship will be that you will come to have a chest (tabu't) full of peace and tranquility (Sakina) from your Lord and remainder of the legacy of the children of Moses
Moses
and the children of Aaron, carried over by the angels. In this certainly shall be a sign for you if you really believe." — Qur’an, sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayahs 247–248[41]

Portrayals[edit] Actors who have portrayed Samuel
Samuel
include Leonard Nimoy
Leonard Nimoy
in the 1997 TV-film David,[43] Eamonn Walker
Eamonn Walker
in the 2009 TV-series Kings[44] and Mohammad Bakri
Mohammad Bakri
in the 2016 TV-series Of Kings and Prophets.[45][46] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Samuel.

Biblical judges Books of Samuel Book of Samuel
Samuel
the Seer List of names referring to El Midrash Samuel Tomb of Samuel

References[edit]

^ a b Josephus. "Book 5 Chapter 10 Section 4". Antiquities of the Jews. Sacred Texts. Retrieved 7 October 2011.  ^ Halley (1927), p. 178. ^ I. Singer, “The Philistines
Philistines
in the Bible: A Reflection of the Late Monarchic Period?”; Zmanim (2006 Heb.), pp74–82; Garsiel, “The Valley of Elah Battle and the Duel of David
David
with Goliath,” pp404–410 ^ Zondervan (1963), p. 201. ^ Holman (1998), p. 102. ^ a b Bikkurim 6b ^ http://www.guidedways.com/search-keyword-Samuel-translator-5.htm Al-Baqara
Al-Baqara
[2:247, 248 & 251] ^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «săm´yū-ĕl» ^ a b c " Prophet
Prophet
Samuel". oca.org. Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ The Bible does not say specifically say that Elkanah
Elkanah
lived in a place known as Zuph. There is, however, a "land of Zuph" mentioned (once only) in 1 Samuel
Samuel
9:5, an area in which Samuel
Samuel
is said to have been found. Furthermore, 1 Samuel
Samuel
1:1, as the text now stands, mentions Zuph as an ancestor of Elkanah. And, according to the theory explained in the Jewish Encyclopedia, "Elkanah" [1] the term "Zophim" in 1:1 is a corruption of the original identification of Elkanah
Elkanah
as a "Zuphite." For confirmation that more contemporary scholarship still considers this theory seriously, see the Holman Bible Dictionary, "Ramathaim-Zophim." [2] ^ Hebrew Ephrathi, which is interpreted as meaning "Ephraimite" by Gesenius [3], and a variety of translations including NIV, NLT, NASB, HCSB, NET, JPS(1917), ASV [4]. See the Jewish Encyclopedia, "Elkanah" for details. [5] ^ "Hence in I Sam. i. 1 his ancestral line is carried back to Zuph (comp. I Sam. ix. 5 et seq.). The word צופים in I Sam. i. 1 should be emended to הצופי ('the Zuphite'), the final mem being a dittogram of that with which the next word, מהר, begins; as the LXX. has it, Σειφὰ. Elkanah
Elkanah
is also represented in I Sam. i. 1 as hailing from the mountains of Ephraim, the word here אפרתי denoting this (comp. Judges xii. 5; I Kings xi. 26)—if indeed אפרתי is not a corruption for 'Ephraimite'—and not, as in Judges i. 2 and I Sam. xvii. 12, an inhabitant of Ephrata (see LXX.)." "Elkanah," in the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. ^ a b c Bergant, Dianne. The Collegeville Bible Commentary: Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 1992 ISBN 9780814622100 ^ a b c " Samuel
Samuel
the Prophet". www.chabad.org. Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ Dunn, James D. G. and Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003 ISBN 9780802837110 ^ Michael D. Coogan, A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in its Context, New York: Oxford, 2009, 194. ^ Gordon, Robert P. Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and Ancient Versions: Selected Essays of Robert P. Gordon. Routledge, 2016. p. 64 [6] ^ Ibid., 64–66 ^ " Samuel
Samuel
- Holman Bible Dictionary - Bible Dictionary - StudyLight.org". Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
3:9 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
3:20 ^ Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers on 1 Samuel
Samuel
3, accessed 21 April 2017 ^ a b Birch, Bruce C., "Samuel", Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, ( David
David
Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck, eds.), Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000 ISBN 9780802824004 ^ Zucker, David
David
J., The Bible's Prophets, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2013 ISBN 9781630871024 ^ Sub-heading in New International Version ^ Sub-heading in New King
King
James Version ^ a b c d Hirsch, Emil G.; Bacher, Wilhelm; Lauterbach, Jacob
Jacob
Zallel (1906). "Samuel". Jewish Encyclopedia.  ^ Israel
Israel
Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed; Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible? ^ Stern, David
David
H. (1998) Complete Jewish Bible: An English Version of the Tanakh and B'rit Hadashah. Clarksville, Maryland: Jewish New Testament Publications pp. 314–15. Sh'mu'el Alef 15. ISBN 978-965-359-018-2 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
25:1 ^ Christensen, Duane L., The Unity of the Bible, Paulist Press, 2003 ISBN 9780809141104 ^ 1 Chronicles 6:33–38 ^ a b c Michael D. Coogan, "A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in its Context" (New York: Oxford, 2009), 196. ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
15:1 ^ Psalm 99 ^ Berakot 31b, Ta'anit
Ta'anit
5b, Exodus Rashi 14:4 ^ a b Berakot 31b ^ Berakot 10b, Nedarim 38a, Ta'anit
Ta'anit
5b ^ Lockyer, Herbert. All the Messianic Prophecies of the Bible, Zondervan, 1988 ISBN 9780310280910 ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note.278 on verse 246: "This was Samuel. In his time Israel
Israel
had suffered from much corruption within and many reverses without. The Philistines
Philistines
had made a great attack and defeated Israel with great slaughter. The Israelites, instead of relying on Faith and their own valor and cohesion, brought out their most sacred possession, the Ark of the Covenant, to help them in the fight. But the enemy captured it, carried it away, and retained it for seven months. The Israelites
Israelites
forgot that wickedness cannot screen itself behind a sacred relic. Nor can a sacred relic help the enemies of faith. The enemy found that the Ark brought nothing but misfortune for themselves, and were glad to abandon it. It apparently remained twenty years in the village (qarya) of Yaarim (Kirjath-jeafim): I. Samuel, 7:2. Meanwhile the people pressed Samuel
Samuel
to appoint them a king. They thought that a king would cure all their ills, whereas what was wanting was a spirit of union and discipline and a readiness on their part to fight in the cause of Allah." ^ a b c Quran %3Averse%3D246 2 :246–252 ^ Judges vii. 5-7 ^ Roberts, Jerry (5 June 2009). "Encyclopedia of Television Film Directors". Scarecrow Press. p. 368. Retrieved 14 February 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ "David, My David". Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ "ABC's 'Of Kings and Prophets': The bloody parts of the Bible - The Boston Globe". Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ " Mohammad Bakri
Mohammad Bakri
as Samuel
Samuel
- Of Kings and Prophets". ABC. Retrieved 2 March 2018. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Samuel". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons. 

Samuel Tribe of Levi

Preceded by Eli Judge of Israel Saul
Saul
was Anointed king

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

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Extra-Quranic Prophets of Islam

In Stories of the Prophets

Enoch Eber Khidr Joshua Samuel Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Ezra Daniel

In Islamic tradition

Seth Shem Eli Ahijah Shemaiah Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Urijah Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah Berechiah Samī Joel Amos Obadiah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Malachi Hanzalah Khaled bin Sinan

In Quranic exegesis

Abel Saduq, Masduq, and Shalum Hosea Zechariah, son of Berechiah

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Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God (Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 23387518 LCCN: n50060384 GND: 118605313 SE

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